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Ru.Space.News:
Ноябрь 1998
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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 23 ноября 1998


    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Колонизировать Марс будут роботы Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Колонизировать Марс будут роботы NASA и его международные партнеры по исследованию космического пространства обнародовали предварительный план исследования Марса роботами, которые должны будут к 2008 г. доставить на Землю образцы марсианского грунта, а к 2010 г. - создать первые постоянно действующие роботизированные колонии на Марсе. По словам Hормана Хейнеса (Norman Haynes), директора программы по исследованию Марса, план предусматривает доставку на Землю к 2001 г. как минимум четырех образцов марсианских пород из четырех различных точек планеты, а колонии роботов станут базой для создания обитаемых колоний на Марсе. Проектированием космического корабля, способного выполнить такие задачи и разработкой новых технологий для проведения исследований непосредственно на Марсе и для получения образцов марсианских пород для подготовки полета человека на эту планету займется консорциум "космических" стран. План предусматривает создание ряда космических кораблей, орбитальных спутников Марса, спускаемых аппаратов, марсоходов и аппаратов, способных осуществить доставку образцов грунта и скальных пород с Марса на Землю. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Объявлен состав третьей экспедиции на Международную космическую Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Объявлен состав третьей экспедиции на Международную космическую станцию [NASA] Объявлен состав экипажа третьей экспедиции на Space Shuttle, которая в августе 1999 г. доставит груз на Международную космическую станцию. Доставленное оборудование будет установлено на российском управляющем модуле "Заря". Командиром корабля назначен Джеймс Хэлселл (James D. Halsell), штурманом - Скотт Горовиц (Scott J. Horowitz). Остальные члены экипажа - Мэри Эллен Вебер (Mary Ellen Weber), Эдвард Цанг Лу (Edward Tsang Lu) и Джеффри Уильямс (Jeffrey N. Williams). Для Джеймса Хэлселла это будет пятый космический полет, причем третий - в качестве командира экипажа. Он попал в "отряд астронавтов" в 1990 г., первый полет он совершил в 1994 г. (миссия STS-65), в 1997 г. он был командиром корабля в миссиях STS-83 и STS-94. Для Горовица это третий полет, он был штурманом в полетах STS-75 в 1996 г и STS-82 в 1997 г. Мэри Вебер и Эдвард Лу уже один раз были в космосе, причем Лу был на корабле STS-84, который пристыковывался к станции "Мир". Для Джеффри Уильямса это будет первый полет. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Старт первого модуля Международной космической станции Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Старт первого модуля Международной космической станции Сегодня в 9 часов 40 мин. по московскому времени (в 11-40 по местному) с космодрома Байконур стартовала ракета-носитель "Протон", которая должна вывести на орбиту первый элемент Международной космической станции - управляющий модуль "Заря" (на рисунке слева), разработанный в России, но на американские деньги. Он будет обеспечивать энергией все остальные модули станции. Этот старт станет началом новой эры в освоении космоса. Международная космическая станция (на рисунке справа) станет постоянным рабочим местом на орбите для космонавтов из многих стран мира. В течение следующих пяти лет к первому модулю будут присоединяться остальные, и закончится строительство станции в 2004 г. Международная космическая станция станет самым большим искусственным объектом в космосе (если конечно нас не опередили инопланетяне), ее длина составит более 100 м, а все ее оборудование и солнечные батареи раскинутся на площади, равной площади футбольного поля. Через 2 недели 3 декабря будет запущен второй элемент станции, он будет выведен в космос "шаттлом" Endeavour. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Старт первого модуля МКК (картинки) [1/3] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Старт первого модуля МКК (картинки) [3/3] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 3 of 3 of file iss.zip < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > M34G:C7P]Y^#A16RM<KR3GE,!JY^\S5\]=:8%Q)$E%@=IU=`@8.E!@5(LE8.3 MZ\&6$1:!WA`E]\.RK15*H-8=5@=:6NB.$N9AEW/.$X]CKU8VHA`Z'UG%0"UK M;2/GZ)64\N!K8^$VLLE#Z74KFR%6U=,V!%:.,`J"B-PGA=<6KXLA`V;F@",, M("^6&@"-N3V(?0MH%Z1$\1041^N;AY!N04#E'5]^1UF--ND_6]Q3L3+!^DS. M9P5N'BZ-'I:Q&*Z<2HZA:8K1=7#4AO=;XTH2,Z*>-W+"5W[CNHW:V3P7!-4T MP9R=$B.\W0C&``]BOB/?S6TT#=^$R;6>&!6Q=[`VFA,70T=D:E%+Z4H_-R?3 M_)._0HJ'WVAE09"UJM#H00;@X"`]IC[3;ZW0'#+%2=1QMB"=+)[$0)N0-RD9 MUQ(90%//[FEWERDN(SN3SA611XHX_:XPI<*#.'S\0><Y7$6WS24K/3.MA"C. 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    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Landsat-7 Launch Scheduled For April 15 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... David E. Steitz Headquarters, Washington, DC November 19, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1730) Lynn Chandler Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/614-5562) RELEASE: 98-209 LANDSAT-7 LAUNCH SCHEDULED FOR APRIL 15 NASA has selected a new launch date of April 15, 1999, for the Landsat-7 Earth science satellite. The launch, originally scheduled for December 1998, will take place from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA, on a Delta II launch vehicle. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus), the science instrument on Landsat-7, will continue a database of high- resolution Earth imagery begun in 1982 by the Landsat-4 thematic mapper. As changes occur on the Earth's surface due to natural or human-induced events, scientists will be able to use the archive of imagery from the Landsat missions to better understand the behavior of the global environment. Landsat images provide information meeting the significant and diverse needs of business, science, education, government and national security. Applications for Landsat-7 imagery will include agricultural crop planning, timber issues in the Northwest, and information about population change and water quality. Landsat-7 will add to the global archive of sunlit, substantially cloud-free images of the Earth's land surfaces. The spacecraft contains several technological improvements over previous Landsat satellites and their instruments. These improvements include better instrument calibration and a solid- state data recorder capable of storing 100 individual ETM Plus Earth images. This capability will enable Landsat-7 to update a complete global view of the Earth's land surfaces seasonally, or approximately four times per year. The Landsat series has provided the longest record of the Earth's continental surfaces as seen from space. "The launch delay of Landsat-7 was caused by a need for changes in the design of the electrical power-supply hardware for the spacecraft's instrument," said Phil Sabelhaus, Landsat-7 project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. During instrument-level thermal vacuum tests beginning in December 1997, a power supply on the ETM Plus instrument failed twice. These technical challenges have been resolved and Landsat- 7 is on track for launch. "We're satisfied that our design concerns have been met, and we're ready for a springtime launch of the spacecraft." Landsat 7 will continue the legacy of the first U.S. Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), launched in 1972, by building upon the only global data record captured from space The ETM Plus was designed and built by Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, CA. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space built the Landsat-7 spacecraft, with integration of the instrument and spacecraft conducted at the company's facility in Valley Forge, PA. NASA is developing in parallel to the Landsat-7 mission the next generation Landsat instrument and spacecraft technologies through the New Millennium technology demonstration program. This follow-on technology development effort will enable future measurements to be made by a sensor that is one-fourth the mass of the ETM Plus. A new sensor enabled by this development will use only 20 percent of the electrical power currently needed, while reducing the overall mission cost by 60 percent. The next generation Landsat flight demonstration is expected to launch in late 1999. NASA intends to operate Landsat 7 and the flight demonstration spacecraft in the same orbit, but separated from each other by approximately one minute in distance. Such a flying formation will allow for observing the same area of Earth by both satellites, providing validation of the new imaging technologies being demonstrated. The advanced Landsat technology mission is intended to mitigate technological risk, improve future Landsat performance by a factor of four, and reduce overall mission development time by half. Landsat is the central pillar of the national remote sensing capability. The Landsat 7 spacecraft was built to complement the research of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research program designed to study Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the development of Landsat for the Earth Science Enterprise, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Even John Glenn Isn't This Cool!!! (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Research Laboratory Public Affairs CONTACT: John Brownlee PHONE: (505) 853-3515 VS RELEASE NO. 98-40 November 18, 1998 Even John Glenn Isn't This Cool!!! KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, N.M. -- John Glenn's experiments on aging weren't the only success stories to come off the recent Space Shuttle Discovery flight. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) had one of its own on that 9-day-long extraterrestrial excursion, one even "cooler" than the famous astronaut himself -- much cooler. Early results from an experimental refrigeration device known as the Cryogenic Thermal Storage Unit (CRYOTSU), while perhaps not as glamorous as the septuagenarian's orbital encore, now suggest the Air Force may have found a better way to move, store, and control heat inside satellites. AFRL's CRYOTSU technology, which has no moving parts, will aid existing satellite cryocoolers that already lower internal temperature hundreds of degrees by maintaining the extremely low temperatures for longer periods. According to project engineer Charlotte Gerhart of AFRL's Space Vehicles Directorate here, CRYOTSU met all AFRL testing goals and promises a new heat management technology for future spacecraft. Unlike current exotic devices such as "heat pipes" and "dewar bottles" that help satellites keep their cool, CRYOTSU used a smaller, lighter configuration of hardware with lower power requirements. CRYOTSU will be used in conjunction with cryocoolers to extend their capacity for applications where the amount of heat to be rejected is not constant. "Satellite heat build-up from tightly compacted electronics and sunlight degrades the performance of some spacecraft subsystems, especially infrared sensors," explained Gerhart. "We are essentially searching for reliable and affordable supercooling technology that will lower internal satellite temperature around sensors. For sensors to work in space efficiently, they must operate in a frigid environment to properly contrast and accurately identify distant objects through their heat signatures, or 'spectral fingerprints.'" Looking something like a big, white garbage can bolted against the side of Discovery's payload bay, the CRYOTSU experiment canister held four AFRL- NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center experiments with technical-sounding names. The primary payload, the "nitrogen thermal storage unit," acted like a block of ice and cooled sensors to -211 degrees Celsius, or 348 degrees Fahrenheit below zero. Second was a "nitrogen-filled capillary pumped loop," which moved heat away from sensors and into space. Another, a hydrogen "gas-gap" thermal switch, directed the heat flow. And finally, another thermal storage unit filled with a type of paraffin wax that melts at 45 degrees Celsius. All the experiments, except for the thermal switch, were developed under Small Business Innovative Research contracts. Simply, CRYOTSU keeps infrared sensors cold longer so they can continue to function. In the experiment, surplus heat from the cryocoolers was transferred to a radiator-like device, also made of paraffin. Called a "phase-change upper-end plate," the radiator is mounted on the outside of the CRYOTSU canister and dissipated extraneous heat into space. "We hope to see some of this technology used in the next few years on a long-term satellite mission like the planned Space-Based Infrared-Low system," Gerhart added. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Artist/Astronaut To Answer Public's Questions Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE November 19, 1998 CONTACT: Robert Pearlman 202-543-1900 ext. 72 MOONWALKER/ARTIST SET TO ANSWER PUBLIC'S QUESTIONS National Space Society's "Ask An Astronaut" Website Hosts Astronaut/Painter Alan Bean For Online Question/Answer Forum (Washington, DC) -- November 19 -- On the 29th anniversary of his walk on the Moon, the National Space Society (NSS) announces Alan Bean as the featured guest on its educational website, "Ask An Astronaut" <http://www.nss.org/askastro>. Beginning today, the general public can send questions to be answered by the astronaut/artist. Alan Bean was the lunar module pilot for Apollo 12, and on November 19, 1969, the fourth man to walk on the moon. In 1973, Bean again flew in space as commander of the Skylab 3 mission, the United States' first space station. Today an accomplished explorer artist, Bean creates paintings for future generations that help record humankind's first exploration of another world. In addition to sending questions to Bean, visitors to the "Ask An Astronaut" website can access biographical and multimedia files related to his flights and career as an artist. A directory of related websites, as well as archives from previous featured astronauts (including John Glenn, who was featured during his recent shuttle flight) are also available. The National Space Society, which established "Ask An Astronaut" two years ago, is proud to present the public access to those who have pioneered the space frontier. "Captain Bean's paintings have helped many understand the wonder of exploring the Moon in ways that words cannot communicate," said Robert Pearlman, NSS Director of Online Programs. "The Internet allows us to present his artwork alongside multimedia from his missions, as well as have specific questions answered. It is a perfect medium for the combination of science and art." The National Space Society, founded in 1974, is an independent, nonprofit space advocacy organization headquartered in Washington, DC. Its 23,000 members and 75 chapters around the world actively promote a spacefaring civilization. Information on NSS and space exploration is available at <http://www.nss.org>. ### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12977: Zarya (First International Space Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12977 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT ISS-ZARYA 1998-067A 25544 20 NOVEMBER 1998 DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 20 NOVEMBER 1998 13:30 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - November 20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT November 20, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Orbiter launch processing activities are proceeding on schedule in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2) facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with launch vehicle 3rd stage mate 4 days away and launch 20 days away. Final blanket installation and other vehicle closeout activities were accomplished. Final weight and spin balance was completed. The orbiter final weight is 1394.67 lbs. Rework of the flight Pyro Initiation Unit (PIU) to eliminate the potential for latchup was completed successfully and the PIU is scheduled for reinstallation on the orbiter on November 21. Final cleaning of the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Pressure Modulator InfraRed Radiometer (PMIRR) optics was accomplished. Final vehicle cleaning and final vehicle walkdown by all cognizant engineers and independent mechanical experts was completed in preparation for 3rd stage mate. Mars Polar Lander: Lander launch processing activities are proceeding on schedule in the SAEF-2 facility at KSC with launch vehicle 3rd stage mate 25 days away and launch 44 days away. Rework of the flight Pyro Initiation Unit (PIU) to eliminate the potential for latchup was completed successfully and the PIU was reinstalled on the lander on November 19. Flight software build 8.1 (the final planned software build) was loaded on the lander. Mission system testing of the cruise/trajectory correction maneuver and entry, descent, and landing (scripted attitude) phases was completed successfully. A full up launch rehearsal was conducted successfully on November 17 with the vehicle powered and exercised in a flight like manner. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - November 20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Cassini Significant Events for 11/13/98 - 11/19/98 Spacecraft Status: The most recent Spacecraft status is from the DSN tracking pass on Wednesday, 11/18, over the Goldstone tracking station. The Cassini spacecraft is in an excellent state of health and is executing the Cruise 11 sequence normally. The speed of the spacecraft can be viewed on the "Where is Cassini Now?" web page (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/today/). Spacecraft Activity Summary: On Sunday, 11/15, the Solid State Recorder (SSR-B) record and playback pointers were reset as the last activity in the C10 sequence. On Wednesday, 11/18, an update to the Active Spacecraft IVP (Inertial Vector Propagator) Vector was made in preparation for the Deep Space Maneuver (DSM) which occurs on Dec 2 (Dec 3 UTC). Upcoming events: Activities scheduled for the week of 11/20-11/26 include: Solid State Recorder Flight Software Partition Maintenance on 11/20, SSR Pointer Reset on 11/21, Installation of the Science & Engineering Record (S&ER) 3 telemetry mode into the CDS in preparation for the Instrument Checkout in January, Accelerometer Calibration, and AACS High Watermark Clear on 11/22, a window for possible Accelerometer Bias Parameter Update on 11/23, and AACS Parameter Update prior to the DSM on 11/25. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Update - November 19, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Thursday, November 19 (DOY 320/19:00:00 to DOY 323/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 739 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 166 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 8536 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 45490 km Periapsis altitude = 113.5 km Current Orbit Period = 05:42:44 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 39:16:49 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft continues successful phase 2 aerobraking operations with no concerns. The past 13 drag passes have provided about 14 minutes of orbit period reduction. The period reduction rate has been reduced to conform with the original baseline rate rather than accumulate more margin. The current period is about 9 minutes ahead of the original baseline. The 6-orbit running mean is 0.199 N/m2 which is below the 0.23 N/m2 corridor control trigger limit. There were no corridor control maneuvers required during this period. Currently, sequence P736 is controlling the S/C activities. It will be replaced early this evening with P740 which will control activities starting with orbit 740 through orbit 743. The decision to increase the number of primary orbits to 5 and thus the predicted orbits to 6 was made at this week's reset meeting on Wednesday. All sequences are now being build with 5 primary orbits, although the 5th orbit may be superseded by a new sequence if required to keep builds on prime shift. Orbit timing predictions continue to be very good. The Navigation team is incorporating an updated wave model to improve timing predictions. Subsystems continue to report excellent S/C health and performance. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no change in structural performance. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with 11.0 % maximum battery discharge depths each orbit. There is now 11 minutes of primary charger margin. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 12.1°C and is expected to drop a little lower as the shorter, 35 minute, warming maneuver takes effect. The largest temperature increase due to aero-heating was 67°C on the -Y solar array, cell side. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. Preparations for the upcoming mapping mission continue. Weekly planning meetings are being held to discuss progress, changes and product review and testing. The STL has successfully created a 2 PM mapping baseline and has been validating changes to the 2 AM mapping profile. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 740 DOY323/23:36:25 UTC Through Periapsis for Orbit 752 DOY326/18:27:25 UTC (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY323=11/19) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 10 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 2982. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: Nominal drag pass sequences (P728, P732, P736) Nominal corridor control maneuver sequences (none) Command loss timer resets Nominal star catalog and ephemeris file updates Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Update - November 20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Project Status Report Overview Prepared by Mars Surveyor Operations Project Manager NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Friday 20 November 1998 All the Mars Surveyor Operations Project (MSOP) operational readiness tests (ORT) for the launch of the Mars Climate Orbiter have been successfully completed with a final launch and initial acquisition test early this past week. The ORTs for the Mars Polar Lander continue in satisfactory manner with a nine day trajectory correction maneuver ORT underway at the present time. Mars Global Surveyor continues with aerobraking operations that have reduced the orbital period to approximately 5.5 hours. The spacecraft is in excellent health. Earth occultations began once again on November 20th. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Europe joins in celebrations for Space Station launch (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space Agency Press Release No. 51-98 Paris, France 20 November 1998 EUROPE JOINS IN CELEBRATIONS FOR SPACE STATION LAUNCH The first module for the new International Space Station was successfully launched this morning (20 November) aboard a Russian Proton rocket at 07:40 CET from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The rocket blasted off under overcast skies and strong winds, and disappeared behind the clouds within 40 seconds. The 12 metre Zarya module reached orbit less than 10 minutes after blastoff. It will serve as a space propulsion engine and power station in the early stages of the project, providing propulsion, power and communications. When completed in 2004, the complex will be the largest ever structure in space, stretching over 100 metres and sprawling across an area the size of a football field. ESA Director-General Antonio Rodota, who watched the launch from about five km away, said: "This is the largest technological project to be undertaken jointly by the nations of the world in the history of mankind. For Europe it is the start of an exciting new era in space exploration." The Space Station will serve as an orbital home for astronauts and cosmonauts for at least 15 years. As one of five international partners (together with the United States, Russia, Japan and Canada), ESA is contributing two major elements -- the Columbus laboratory and an automatic transport spacecraft. The first is a multi-purpose scientific and technological laboratory, to be added by the year 2003, and the second, known as the Automated Transfer Vehicle, is a transport vessel for launch by Europe's Ariane 5 on supply missions. Europe will take part in 19 of the 45 flights planned during the five-year assembly phase and is also supplying scientific and technical equipment to NASA and the Russian Space Agency. Once in operation European astronauts will be regular visitors. ESA also announced today that it is to begin soliciting microgravity research proposals in physical sciences and biotechnology to be conducted on the International Space Station. "The foundation stone for this unique international research and test centre in space has been laid today. Now it is important that Europe's best scientists and engineers make good use of it" declared ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, Jorg Feustel-Buechl, and explained that, "besides fundamental research, scientists are encouraged to consider projects that have industrial applications perspectives, and researchers from European industry are particularly welcome to apply". The new Announcement of Opportunity for Microgravity Research Programmes and related Applications in Physical Sciences and Biotechnology is available on the Internet at: http://www.estec.esa.int/spaceflight . For further information, please contact: ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33.(0)1.5369.7155 Fax:+33.(0)1.5369.7690 1 ***** ESA Science News http://sci.esa.int Launch of the first element of International Space Station on 20 November 20 Nov 1998, LAUNCHED at 07:40! The first module for the new International Space Station (ISS) program, named Zarya, was successfully launched this morning, 20 November, aboard a Russian Proton launch vehicle at 1:40 a.m. EST (07:40 CET) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The launch of the first component of the International Space Station represents the start of a new style of flight opportunities for the astronomy and space science community. Unlike free-flying satellites, which are generally optimised for a particular scientific objective, the ISS will provide a re-usable platform for observations or experiments which permits servicing or replacement of components, sample return or even construction of larger telescopes which cannot be launched conventionally. ESA has completed the selection of experiments for the first early flight opportunity on external platforms, which will commence before completion of the construction of ISS. This will contain: * A package of 3 solar telescopes to monitor the changes in absolute solar power output from the complete solar disk over a range of wavelengths, of vital importance to the study of the Earth's atmosphere as well as stellar astronomy. * A telescope to map the polarisation of the sky at millimetre wavelengths to help distinguish between background sources and the cosmic microwave background signal from the moment the universe first became transparent shortly after the Big Bang. These experiments complement elements of the ESA Horizon 2000+ programme, which includes SOHO, currently monitoring solar activity with high spatial resolution and the planned Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background with unprecedented sensitivity. In addition, a number of space environment sensors measure the radiation, gas, plasma and cosmic dust influx to the Space Station, will be incorporated on the Technology Exposure Facility. Launch of the European Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) in the new millennium, which will house additional attached payload sites, will provide a further opportunity for astronomy and space science. Plans are already under way to design a 10m X-ray telescope, known as XEUS, for construction at the space station and release as a free-flying observatory. The Space Science community is waiting for further reports on the launch, which heralds the start of a new era in scientific observations from space. USEFUL LINKS FOR THIS STORY ISS status report http://station.nasa.gov/news/status/iss1.html ESA's Space Station website http://www.estec.esa.nl/spaceflight ESA prsss release no 50 http://www.esa.int/Press/98/press50.html XEUS homepage http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Projects/XEUS/ Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Start of a new era in space exploration -- the International Space Sta Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Canadian Space Agency St. Hubert, Quebec START OF A NEW ERA IN SPACE EXPLORATION -- THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IS NOW A REALITY Saint-Hubert, November 20, 1998 -- The Canadian Space Agency today proudly and enthusiastically joined its international partners in celebrating the start of a new era in space exploration. Representatives from all the space station partners were on hand at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for the historic launch of Zarya, the first component of the International Space Station. The station is the fruit of the labours of 16 cooperating nations and will become, over the next few months, not just a huge research laboratory but an international city in space. Canada will be very actively involved. "After more than ten years of planning and preparation, it is exciting to see the project become a reality. Canada is a full-fledged partner in this international venture, and our industry, researchers and students will have privileged access to this research and development facility of unrivalled potential", declared Mac Evans, President of the Canadian Space Agency. "Our investment in this project not only presents numerous business opportunities and creates jobs in the new knowledge-based economy, but it will also sustain Canada's leading position in robotics." The International Space Station is being built by the United States, Canada, the eleven member states of the European Space Agency, Japan, Russia and Brazil. Once completed, in about 2004, the station will occupy the dimensions of a football field and will be visible, from Earth, to the naked eye. At least 45 launches of space shuttles and Russian rockets will be needed to assemble over 100 space station components. The station will eventually be permanently occupied. Assembling the Space Station would be impossible without Canada's contribution, which takes the form of an elaborate robotics system: the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). The MSS, essential to assembling and maintaining the station, is made up of three main parts: the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM). Canada is also providing ground-based operational support for the MSS and its future users. There is a Mobile Servicing System Operations Complex at the Canadian Space Agency in Saint-Hubert, Quebec. The complex consists of a Robotics Training Centre for astronauts, cosmonauts and mission control staff who will have to work with the Space Station's manipulator arm. Prospective users will be trained using computer courseware, virtual reality simulations and other advanced multimedia techniques. There is also a Space Operations Support Centre which will be active during assembly flights in which either the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or the Canadian Vision System is used. This Centre is equipped with consoles identical to those at NASA's mission control centre in Houston, Texas. Lastly, Canada will contribute a Canadian Space Vision System, enabling astronauts to see better in space. The system provides information on the precise location, orientation and motion of objects in space. Several modules of the Space Station, such as Zarya, will be equipped with components using this Canadian technology. In fact, Zarya is marked with small black targets required by the Space Vision System. These points will be used to line up Zarya precisely for attachment to other station components. Key dates for Canada and the International Space Station: May 13, 1999: CSA astronaut Julie Payette flies on mission STS-96. August, 1999: CSA astronaut Marc Garneau flies on mission STS-97. December, 1999: CSA astronaut Chris Hadfield flies on mission STS-100 during which he will install the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, thus becoming the first Canadian astronaut to perform a "space walk". August, 2000: Installation of the base for the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System. 2001: CSA delivers the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator to NASA. 2002: Installation of the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator. The Canadian Space Agency is committed to leading the development and application of space knowledge for the benefit of Canadians and of all humanity. - 30 - For information: Stephane Corbin, Manager, Public and Media Relations Canadian Space Agency Phone: (450) 926-4350 Cell: 514-943-6808 stephane.corbin@espace.gc.ca ***** Backgrounder Canadian Space Vision System On November 20 1998, the momentum is building toward the beginning of construction of the International Space Station. Scientists and engineers around the world are finalizing plans and reviewing schedules. In Canada, the focus is on a small yet critical test, a prelude to an expanding role for Canadian technology in space. Conceived 20 years ago in Canada's National Research Council laboratories, the Space Vision System (SVS) is designed to enhance an astronauts' vision in the difficult viewing conditions of space. It provides information on the exact location, orientation and motion of a specified target, helping astronauts to perform precise tasks in the extreme lighting conditions of space. The Space Vision System was first put to the test during mission STS-52 in 1992 and its performance was evaluated for future uses. Today, a more robust, and versatile vision system -- the new Canadian Space Vision System -- is undergoing extensive testing to prove its enhanced accuracy, reliability and performance. During STS-85, which was launched on August 7, 1997, Mission Specialists performed tests with the Canadian Space Vision System (CSVS). A prior model, the Advanced Space Vision Unit, was used by Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield on the STS-74 Mission. The Canadian Space Vision System is used to provide cues to operators of the Canadarm and its bigger cousin, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), during robotic operations including the construction of the International Space Station. The Space Vision System technology was originally tested in space by Canadian astronaut Steve MacLean in 1992 during Mission STS-52. The Canadian Space Vision System uses Shuttle or Space Station TV cameras as sensors. These cameras monitor a pattern of special target dots placed on the object to be tracked. As the object moves, the Canadian Space Vision System tracks the changing position of the dots, calculates the location and orientation of the object, and presents this infomation to the operator in the form of both graphical and textual cues. This information can be used to position and orient a payload using the Canadarm or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, or to join two objects as in the case of Space Station assembly. The Canadian Space Vision System has many enhanced features which increase the accuracy, versatility and usefulness of the system. The Canadian Space Vision System is now able to operate in a wider range of lighting conditions. Frequent periods of extreme dark or bright light make it difficult for astronauts working in space to gauge the distance and speed of objects such as satellites. With the addition of improved target tracking features, the Canadian Space Vision System is able to switch from one set of targets to another when one moves out of its field of vision. The Canadian Space Vision System is also capable of "losing" targets as they become obscured, allowing the calculations to continue on the remaining targets. For some operations, the Canadian Space Vision System can also overcome conditions such as the Shuttle turning or shaking, and assist in berthing manoeuvres of an object in space. - 30 - For more information, please contact: Stephane Corbin Communications' Manager, Media and Public Relations Canadian Space Agency Phone: (450) 926-4350 Cell.: 514-943-6808 ***** Backgrounder [NOTE: Images supporting this backgrounder are available at http://www.space.gc.ca/ENG/News_Releases/981120-2.html] International Space Station -- First Element Launch Fact Sheet Canadian technology on board the launch of the first element of the International Space Station: Zarya (the Functional Cargo Block -- FGB) On November 20, 1998, the launch of the first International Space Station module will take place. Zarya (sunrise in Russian) will be launched from Baikonur in Kazakhstan. It is a self-sufficient orbital vehicle that will provide propulsion, guidance, communication, electrical power and thermal control systems for the International Space Station. Out of a total of 45 flights planned for the International Space Station assembly, 34 flights will carry some Canadian technology components. Canadian technology will also be part of this first historical launch. The Canadian Space Vision System (CSVS) will be used to aid in the mating of the Russian built Zarya to the United States produced Lab and Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs). In order to accomplish this task, special black Canadian Space Vision System (CSVS) targets will be mounted on Zarya and the Lab/PMAs. The Canadian Space Vision System uses Shuttle or Space Station TV cameras as sensors. These cameras monitor the special target dots placed on the object to be tracked. As the object moves, the Canadian Space Vision System tracks the changing position of the targets, calculates the location and orientation of the object, and presents this information to the operator in the form of both graphical and textual cues. Canada will participate in the positioning of approximately 600 Vision System targets on the International Space Station. These targets are necessary to enhance the operation of Canada's contribution to the International Space Station, the Mobile Servicing System. Developed by Neptec Design Group Ltd, National Research Council and by Canadian Space Agency Astronaut Dr. Steve MacLean, the Canadian Space Vision System is designed to enhance the astronauts' vision in space. The Space Vision System was first used on STS-52 by Canadian Astronaut MacLean, and an improved version was used on STS-74 by Canadian Astronaut Hadfield. Since STS-74, the improved CSVS has flown on docking missions STS-89 and STS-91, STS-85 and most recently, STS-95. Also, a series of circular targets were evaluated during mission STS-80. The first usage of the CSVS for Space Station Assembly will occur during STS-88 currently scheduled for December 3, 1998. Zarya will also be equipped with a Power Data Grapple Fixture (PDGF). This Canadian-built technology will allow the Mobile Servicing System robotic arm (Space Station Remote Manipulator System -- SSRMS) to carry itself and have access to various locations on the International Space Station where other Power Data Grapple Fixtures will be installed. This device permits a robotic manipulator such as the Canadarm to grapple and manoeuver a payload. PDGFs units will be situated throughout the Station and can act as an anchor or a payload grapple fixture for the Canadian supplied Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The PDGFs also provide for the transfer of energy and data needed to help astronauts perform their tasks. Four PDGFs are supplied with Canada's Mobile Base System to provide an operational base for the SSRMS as well as for the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator, the Canadian two-armed robot. - 30 - For more information, please contact: Stephane Corbin, Communications' Manager, Media and Public Relations Canadian Space Agency Phone: (450) 926-4350 Cell.: 514-943-6808 Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Aircraft Sets New World Altitude Record Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Michael Braukus Headquarters, Washington, DC November 20, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1979) Kirsten Williams Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA (Phone: 805/258-2662) Ron Lindeke Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, Palmdale, CA (Phone: 805/572-4153) RELEASE: 98-210 NASA AIRCRAFT SETS NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD A NASA ER-2 aircraft set a new world altitude record for medium weight aircraft on Nov. 19, 1998, reaching 68,700 feet, almost twice the cruising altitude of most airliners. The new world record was made by an ER-2, tail number 806, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, and occurred during an airborne science mission to measure different components in the atmosphere, such as water, ozone and other atmospheric particles. The new record surpassed the old record of 62,500 feet, which was flown by a Canadian P-42 aircraft in 1988. The record was for the aircraft medium weight class of 26,455 to 35,274 pounds at takeoff. This record flight was not the first time the ER-2 has achieved such a high altitude. The aircraft, a close relative of the U.S. Air Force U-2, routinely operates between 65,000 and 70,000 feet. But this is the first time the ER-2's performance has been documented and made public. "This flight had two purposes," said Dryden ER-2 pilot Jim Barrilleaux, who flew this historic mission. "The science goal is the principle reason we flew the aircraft. But achieving the world altitude record verifies all of the outstanding efforts by the people who have worked on the NASA ER-2s and U-2s throughout the years -- designers, builders, operators, maintainers and scientists. This flight provides public acknowledgment of their good work. I personally feel that I am doing this on their behalf and in their honor." An official from the National Aeronautics Association (NAA) observed the record-setting event and will process the formal certification with the Federal Aeronautique Internationale (FAI). The FAI is the international organization responsible for the coordination of competition and certification of all world aviation records. The NAA, as the U.S. representative of the FAI, is responsible for coordination and certification of all aviation records in the United States. NASA owns and operates two ER-2 aircraft for its Airborne Science Program. Built by the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, the aircraft collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration and satellite data validation. A NASA ER-2 recently concluded a six-week hurricane study originating from Patrick Air Force Base, FL, designed to improve scientists' ability to forecast, track and measure the intensity of hurricanes. As part of the mission, the ER-2 flew above Hurricane Bonnie, collecting valuable information that could ultimately save lives and money. Program History In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect science data since 1971. The U-2s, and later the ER-2s, were based at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, until 1997, at which time the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to Dryden. Since the program's inaugural flight on Aug. 31, 1971, NASA U-2s and ER-2s have flown over 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other government agencies, universities and the private sector. ER-2 Capabilities For most missions, the ER-2 operates at altitudes between 65,000 and 70,000 feet. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches a cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within twenty minutes. Typical cruise speed is 470 miles per hour. The range for a normal six-hour mission is approximately 2,500 miles, which yields five hours of data collection at high altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions of more than eight hours and ranges of more than 3,400 miles. The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds, distributed in the equipment bay, nose area and wing pods. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sky & Telscope News Bulletin - November 20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN NOVEMBER 20, 1998 LEONIDS AFTERMATH It seems that this past week's Leonid meteor shower peaked a little ahead of schedule. Initially predicted to reach maximum at 19:43 Universal Time on November 17th -- when the Earth crossed the orbit of parent comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle -- the highest rates apparently came about 15 hours earlier. European observers may have had the best of it as dazzling fireballs came every few seconds -- sometimes several at the same time. Based on dozens of reports from observers throughout the United States, meteor watchers under clear skies were not disappointed on the night of November 16-17, but rates were markedly lower the following night. No damage to Earth-orbiting satellites has been reported. How will the showing of Leonids this year affect astronomers predictions for 1999? As Donald K. Yeomans (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) told *Sky & Telescope*: "My prediction for 1999 won't change but I suspect the dust particle cloud modelers will revise their predictions somewhat. If nothing else, an early arrival of the Leonid 'peak' (if that indeed turns out to be the case) shows how difficult it is to predict a very complex process -- rather like trying to predict the weather a year in advance." The next major meteor shower is the Geminids. See the December issue of *Sky & Telescope* for details. A PIECE OF THE DINOSAUR KILLER A University of California geochemist may have discovered a chunk of the impactor that scientists believe snuffed out 70 percent of the species of life on Earth 65 million years ago. Frank T. Kyte writes in the November 19th *Nature* of a 2.5-millimeter-wide fossil meteorite extracted from the clay at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. Found in the sediments dating back to the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Kyte maintains that the pebble is a piece of an asteroid that struck the Yucatan Peninsula. His analysis revealed that the fragment could very well have originated as a carbonaceous chondrite, not interplanetary dust nor cometary material. COMETARY OUTBURST Although far from being another Hale-Bopp or Hyakutake, Comet C/1998 U5 (LINEAR) has been putting on a surprisingly good show. Discovered in late October by MIT's Lincoln Laboratory Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) Team and later identified as a comet by team member Frank Shelly, it was not expected to brighten beyond magnitude 10.5. To the surprise of all, the comet underwent an outburst in the second week of November that brought this fast moving object within the range of small telescopes and binoculars. *Sky & Telescope* contributing editor and veteran comet observer John Bortle put the comet's magnitude at 8.2 and measured a coma diameter of 9 arcminutes for the night of November 13th. This made LINEAR the brightest comet in the sky, a shade brighter than Comet Giacobini-Zinner. The comet is still about magnitude 8.5. This week it leaves Cassiopeia, runs through Andromeda, and enters Lacerta. Here are positions for the coming week at 0:00 Universal Time in 2000.0 coordinates: R.A. Dec. November 21 0h 03m +55.9 deg. November 23 23h 22m +51.9 deg. November 25 22h 52m +47.7 deg. IN SECOND PLACE, COMET GIACOBINI-ZINNER Losing brightest-comet stature, Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner is crossing northern Capricornus this coming week. It should be about as bright as it will get, at a hair brighter than 9th magnitude. A medium-size telescope will show it. For a finder chart, see page 107 of the November *Sky & Telescope,* or visit http://www.skypub.com/sights/comets/Giacobini/gz_1998.html. Here are positions for Comet Giacobini-Zinner for the coming week: R.A. Dec. November 21 20h 29m -13.9 deg. November 23 20h 40m -14.8 deg. November 25 20h 50m -15.7 deg. THIS WEEK'S "SKY AT A GLANCE" Some daily events in the changing sky, from the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE. NOV. 22 -- SUNDAY * Jupiter is the brightest "star" in the sky this fall; it's high in the south during early to mid-evening. Look far below Jupiter (and perhaps a little to the right) for dimmer Fomalhaut, the Autumn Star. * Jupiter's moon Io crosses the planet's face from 9:02 to 11:16 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, followed by its tiny black shadow from 10:19 p.m. to 12:33 a.m. EST. NOV. 23 -- MONDAY * Seen in a medium-sized telescope, Jupiter's Great Red Spot should cross the planet's central meridian (the imaginary line down the center of Jupiter's disk from pole to pole) around 7:09 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Lately the spot has been very pale tan with a darker reddish mark in its south side. For a list of all predicted Red Spot transit times, see http://www.skypub.com/sights/moonplanets/redspot.html. * Jupiter's moon Io emerges from eclipse out of Jupiter's shadow a little east of the planet around 9:46 p.m. EST. Then around 11:42 p.m. EST, Europa emerges from eclipse; look for it coming into view a little farther east of Jupiter than Io did. A 2.4-inch telescope is all you need. NOV. 24 -- TUESDAY * Comet Giacobini-Zinner is crossing northern Capricornus this week. It should be about as bright as it will get, 9th magnitude. A medium-size telescope will show it. Look immediately after dark using the finder chart in the November Sky & Telescope, page 107, or at http://www.skypub.com/sights/comets/Giacobini/gz_1998.html. NOV. 25 -- WEDNESDAY * Saturn's largest moon, Titan, can be found 3 or 4 ring-lengths to Saturn's east this evening through Sunday evening. A small telescope will show it. * Jupiter's Red Spot transits the planet's central meridian around 8:48 p.m. EST. NOV. 26 -- THURSDAY * First-quarter Moon (exact at 7:23 p.m. EST). Jupiter shines well to the Moon's upper left during evening. NOV. 27 -- FRIDAY * Look for Jupiter very close to the Moon this evening. The Moon will occult (cover) Jupiter as seen from portions of South America. * Jupiter's Red Spot transits around 10:26 p.m. EST. NOV. 28 -- SATURDAY * Ceres, the largest asteroid, is at opposition (opposite the Sun in our sky and about as bright and close as it gets). Ceres can be spotted with binoculars glimmering in the Hyades this week like a 7th-magnitude star. Use the finder chart in the November Sky & Telescope, page 109. THIS WEEK'S PLANET ROUNDUP MERCURY and VENUS are hidden in the glare of the Sun. MARS shines high in the southeast before and during dawn. It's at the Leo-Virgo border. Regulus is far to its upper right, and Spica is far to its lower left. JUPITER is the big, brilliant "star" high in the south during the evening. You can't miss it! Jupiter moves to the southwest in late evening and sets shortly after midnight. SATURN is the yellowish "star" far to Jupiter's left right after dark, and to Jupiter's upper left later in the evening. The two planets appear 40 degrees apart (about 4 fist-widths at arm's length), on opposite ends of Pisces. URANUS and NEPTUNE, magnitudes 5.8 and 7.9 respectively, are in Capricornus getting low in the southwest just after dark. See the finder chart in the September Sky & Telescope, page 110, or at http://www.skypub.com/sights/moonplanets/urnepplu.html. PLUTO is hidden behind the glare of the Sun. (All descriptions that relate to the horizon or zenith are written for the world's midnorthern latitudes. Descriptions that also depend on longitude are for North America. Eastern Standard Time, EST, equals Universal Time minus 5 hours.) More details, sky maps, and news of other celestial events appear each month in SKY & TELESCOPE, the essential magazine of astronomy. See our recently redesigned Web site at http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! SKY & TELESCOPE, P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02478 * 617-864-7360 (voice) Copyright 1998 Sky Publishing Corporation. S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance stargazing calendar are provided as a service to the astronomical community by the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE magazine. Widespread electronic distribution is encouraged as long as these paragraphs are included. But the text of the bulletin and calendar may not be published in any other form without permission from Sky Publishing (contact permissions@skypub.com or phone 617-864-7360). For updates of astronomical news, including active links to related Internet resources, are available via SKY & TELESCOPE's site on the World Wide Web at http://www.skypub.com/. In response to numerous requests, and in cooperation with the Astronomical League (http://www.mcs.net/~bstevens/al/) and the American Association of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.corvus.com/), S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance are available via electronic mailing list too. For a free subscription, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "join" on the first line of the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "unjoin" on the first line of the body of the message. SKY & TELESCOPE, the Essential Magazine of Astronomy, is read by more than 200,000 enthusiasts each month. It is available on newsstands worldwide. For subscription information, or for a free copy of our catalog of fine astronomy books and products, please contact Sky Publishing Corp., 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138-1200, U.S.A. Phone: 800-253-0245 (U.S. and Canada); 617-864-7360 (International). Fax: 617-864-6117. E-mail: custserv@skypub.com. WWW: http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: High School Students Discover Distant Asteroid Using National Science Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Science Foundation Media contact: Lee Herring, (703) 306-1070, kherring@nsf.gov Program contact: Joe Stewart, (703) 306-1613, jstewart@nsf.gov NSF PR 98-79 November 20, 1998 High School Students Discover Distant Asteroid Using NSF Telescope and Education Program High school students have discovered a previously unidentified celestial object in the Kuiper Belt using images from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 4-meter Blanco Telescope in Chile. Heather McCurdy, Miriam Gustafson and George Peterson of Northfield Mount Hermon School in Northfield, Massachusetts, one of six Asteroid Search Teams at the school participating in NSF's innovative Hands-On Universe Program, found and verified the distant object. It was approximately 100 miles in diameter and now is officially called 1998 FS144. Astronomy teacher Hughes Pack directed the students' search of computer images provided by the Berkeley National Lab's Supernova Cosmology Program. A collaborating team, Stacey Hinds and Angel Birchard, students from Pennsylvania's Oil City Area High School, confirmed the location of 1998 FS144 for their peers at Northfield Mount Hermon. The Oil City students were led by teacher Tim Spuck, a 1998 Pennsylvania Christa McAuliffe Fellow. How significant is the find? "Only about 72 such objects had been identified in the Kuiper Belt," says Pack. Kuiper Belt Objects, found beyond Neptune, are generally believed to be remnants dating to the formation of our solar system. "This is a fantastic piece of science, of education, of discovery," said Hands-On Universe founder and astrophysicist Carl Pennypacker of Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and The Lawrence Hall of Science. He added, "The Northfield students' discovery has shown that all students from a broad range of backgrounds can make solid, exciting and inspiring scientific contributions." "These students had the opportunity to operate like real astronomers," said NSF program officer Joseph Stewart. Star images were obtained by the students via computer from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, Stewart said. Students then used visual inspection and special Hands-On Universe software. "One of the historically limiting factors in astronomy has been simply not having enough eyes available to inspect all the useful images that astronomers collect," he said, "but, it's very exciting that these kids are contributing to real science, performing actual science in the classroom!" They are able to measure the distance of stars and track supernova, for example. "This generous sharing of data by the Supernova Cosmology Program scientists," said Pack, "is serving dual purposes, because scientists at the Supernova Cosmology Group are using the data to find supernova while students use the same data to search for very faint asteroids." "The Kuiper Belt has the potential to tell us a great deal about how the solar system originated and evolved and how it compares to others," says Brian Marsden of the Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Marsden received the data from Pack and confirmed the discovery. Begun in 1990, Hands-On Universe is now based at the University of California-Berkeley in the Lawrence Hall of Science. Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory is one of four divisions of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with NSF. -NSF- For pictures of KBO 1998 FS144 see: http://astronomy.geecs.org. For more information on the Hands-On Universe Project see: http://hou.lbl.gov. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Today On Galileo - November 21, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TODAY ON GALILEO Saturday, November 21, 1998 Galileo started the seventh encounter of the Galileo Europa Mission early this morning at 4:00 am PST [See note 1]. The encounter is the second to last that will feature a close flyby of Jupiter's icy moon Europa. The flyby of Europa will occur tomorrow, at 3:38 am PST, at an altitude of 2273 kilometers (1418 miles). The encounter period will last through Monday, with most observations occurring around tomorrow's flyby of Europa. The spacecraft is approximately 683 million kilometers from Earth. At this distance, it takes 38 minutes for radio signals to reach Earth from Galileo, or vice-versa. Galileo passes within 1.70 million kilometers (1.06 million miles) of Ganymede at 10:40 PST. Fifty minutes later, at 11:30 pm PST, the spacecraft is within 7.9 Jupiter radii (565,000 kilometers, 351,000 miles) of Jupiter's cloudtops. Science observations begin at 4:00 am, with the resumption of the survey of the inner portion of the Jovian magnetosphere by the fields and particles instruments. This survey provides information on the spatial and temporal variations of the innermost, and most active, portion of the magnetosphere. Today's remote sensing schedule includes observations of Europa, Jupiter and Io, with participation from the ultraviolet spectrometer, the photopolarimeter radiometer, the near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the spacecraft camera and the radio science team. The ultraviolet spectrometer kicks off the observing campaign by looking for atmospheric emissions from Europa, including possible detection of outgassing events. The photopolarimeter radiometer will collect a low resolution, global scale polarimetry map of Europa. Polarimetric measurements provide information on the texture and composition of Europa. Later in the day, the ultraviolet spectrometer collaborates with the near-infrared spectrometer to perform a global observation of Europa. This observation is the first of two of this type for this encounter and will provide more data on the composition of Europa's surface. The radio science experiment is tied to tomorrow's flyby of Europa, but it starts today at about 5:38 pm PST. For 20 hours surrounding the point of closest approach, the radio science team monitors Galileo's radio signal and measures changes in frequency caused by Europa's gravitational pull on the spacecraft. Using the Doppler effect, the team will be able to refine gravity field maps produced with measurements from previous orbits. The near-infrared mapping spectrometer is today's sole observer of Jupiter. In four observations sprinkled throughout the day, it takes snapshots of Jupiter's atmosphere that will allow scientists to study variations in composition and temperature over time. The spectrometer also takes another look at the newly created white oval. This intense storm was formed this past spring from the merging of other two white ovals. The observation will provide a second view of this new feature, which was first observed by the spectrometer during Galileo's September encounter. Two observations of Io complete today's remote sensing schedule. First, the photopolarimeter gathers data describing Io's surface texture and composition. The data will be used to fill in a gap in the existing polarimetry map of Io. The second observation is performed by the spacecraft camera and is designed to detect any changes in the surface of Io due to volcanic activity. Note 1. All times listed correspond to the Pacific Time zone (currently standard time) and spacecraft event time. Radio signals indicating that an event has occurred on the spacecraft reach the Earth 33 to 50 minutes later, depending on the time of year. Currently, this time is 38 minutes. The current correction between Pacific Standard Time and Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT) is 8 hours. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Deep Space 1 Update - November 21, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov DEEP SPACE 1 MISSION STATUS November 21, 1998 At approximately 4 p.m. Pacific time Wednesday, November 18, the mission team brought the spacecraft out of the safe mode into which it had entered on Tuesday afternoon, November 17. A firm date has not yet been set for the team to work with the ion engine, which shut itself down 4-1/2 minutes after it was turned on for its first test Tuesday, November 10; it will be no sooner than Tuesday, November 24. Upcoming commanding of the engine will be designed to diagnose its condition to aid in finalizing subsequent plans for resuming thrusting. In preparation for attempting to start the system, the team has tested modifications of the system's software on the ground over the last several days. These modifications will give engineers greater resolution in studying currents and voltages when the engine tries to start. Thursday morning, November 20, the team successfully transmitted this diagnostic software to the spacecraft. After the Deep Space 1 mission's rapid development and launch -- immediately followed by active operations, during which important technology validations have been accomplished -- the mission team will observe a four-day break for the Thanksgiving holiday, November 26-29, resuming full operations on November 30. Deep Space 1 is now more than 11 times as far away from Earth as the Moon is. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Today On Galileo - November 22, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TODAY ON GALILEO Sunday, November 22, 1998 The majority of today's activity surrounds the spacecraft's close flyby of Europa. The flyby will occur at 3:38 am PST [See note 1] at an altitude of 2273 kilometers (1418 miles). Observations are also taken of Jupiter, Io and Ganymede. Galileo also passes within 2.35 million kilometers (1.46 million miles) of Callisto at about 6:00 pm PST today. The first of today's Europa observations is performed by the spacecraft camera, and consists of a series of images near the terminator of bright polar plains. Later in the morning, the camera also looks at a dark band formation known as Rhadamanthys Linea, as well as a series of elevated features, regions of pits and plateaus near Europa's north pole, and a region of transition from bright plains to dark plains. These observations are then followed by three performed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer together with the ultraviolet spectrometer. The observations target a region of complex intersecting dark lines, a region of sharply defined dark lines, and Europa's northern polar region. The camera then returns to the observation schedule by taking a series of images, split between two observations, to capture a section of Europa's surface near the terminator from 30 degrees south of the equator to 60 degrees north of the equator. The camera will image Tegid, an impact crater with an unusual domed morphology. Two images will also be taken of a region in which mottled, possibly "chaos," terrain appears to be older than the ubiquitous ridges and bands that dominate the surface of Europa. Elsewhere, chaos type terrains appear to be younger than nearby heavily ridged and grooved plains. The photopolarimeter radiometer continues the observations of Europa with its second low resolution global scale map (the first map was collected yesterday). This is followed by another global observation of Europa performed jointly by the ultraviolet spectrometer and the near-infrared mapping spectrometer. Continuing with the global-scale observations, the camera then takes two more observations of Europa. Three observations of Jupiter are performed today. The first two are by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer and are snapshots of the composition and temperature of Jupiter's atmosphere. The third observation is performed by the ultraviolet spectrometer and provides information on long-term changes in the amount of hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. These ultraviolet measurements will allow scientists to further their understanding of interactions between Jupiter's upper cloud layers, lower layers, and Jupiter's magnetosphere. Three observations of Io are performed late in the day, one each by the camera, near-infrared mapping spectrometer, and ultraviolet spectrometer. The observations are performed to detect changes in the surface of Io, and to use in planning for the scheduled Io flybys late in 1999. The camera will examine the potential source of a new intense volcanic hotspot first observed during Galileo's May encounter. The ultraviolet spectrometer, in conjuction with the extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, also takes a remote look at Io's plasma torus. A single observation of Ganymede is performed during this encounter. In it, the photopolarimeter radiometer gathers polarimetric measurements from a portion of Ganymede's surface that was not completely covered during Galileo's primary mission. Late today, after all recorded observations have been completed, Galileo begins processing and transmitting science information stored on its onboard tape recorder during the encounter period. First on the playback schedule are two observations performed by the photopolarimeter radiometer. Both observations contain polarimetric measurements which provide information on the texture and composition of the target bodies (Io and Europa). The encounter period ends tomorrow and with it comes the return of This Week on Galileo. Come back to this URL for details on this week's exciting plans! Note 1. All times listed correspond to the Pacific Time zone (currently standard time) and spacecraft event time. Radio signals indicating that an event has occurred on the spacecraft reach the Earth 33 to 50 minutes later, depending on the time of year. Currently, this time is 38 minutes. The current correction between Pacific Standard Time and Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT) is 8 hours. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 23 ноября 1998 (1998-11-23) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Nestle Crunch Celebrates Great Moments In Space Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NESTLE CRUNCH CELEBRATES GREAT MOMENTS IN SPACE Nestle has created nine commemorative bars in their Nestle Crunch candy bar line. For each candy bar there is a space scene engraved into chocolate. The nine scenes are: o First American In Space, 1961 o Space Walk, 1965 o First Man On The Moon, 1969 o Lunar Rover, 1971 o Space Shuttle Columbia, 1981 o Hubble Space Telescope, 1994 o Mars Pathfinder, 1997 o International Space Station, 1998 o Stardust Mission, 1999 ___ _____ ___ /_ /| /____/ \ /_ /| Ron Baalke | baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov | | | | __ \ /| | | | Jet Propulsion Lab | ___| | | | |__) |/ | | |__ Pasadena, CA | Two wrongs don't make a right, /___| | | | ___/ | |/__ /| | but two Wrights made an |_____|/ |_|/ |_____|/ | airplane. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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