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    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NEAR Weekly Report for Oct. 23, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NEAR WEEKLY REPORT October 23, 1998 MISSION OPERATIONS: The NEAR spacecraft state/configuration has remained nominal (Flight Computer #1 and Attitude Interface Unit #1 active). NEAR's attitude mode continues to alternate between GS-4 (Earth pointing) during Earth pointing, high gain antenna tracks, and GS-5 (~Sun pointing) at all other times. The GS-5 off-sun pointing limit has remained at 10 deg. The new momentum biasing feature of the Flight Computer is now in regular use between DSN contacts. The Magnetometer and XGRS instruments remained on throughout this reporting period. All science and engineering data for the period was successfully recorded and played back. Due to SSR anomaly, data from 288:05:56:41 through 289:16:02:59 (last week) was unrecoverable. A PFR on the recorder is now open. Science and engineering data from this time period was not retrieved. This SSR problem is now under investigation. Two throughput tests were conducted with the SDC and DSN this week. Data was flowed at 26 Kbps from the DSN to test a new approach being considered for serving telemetry to the SDC and reducing Front End loading. Both tests were successful. SDC access to science data in near real-time was greatly improved and Front End loading peaks were reduced. Plans are now underway to move telemetry serving from the Front Ends to existing MOC workstations (tested configuration). Future Plans: October 27th: NASA Headquarters Peer Review of NEAR readiness. Upcoming Spacecraft Activities: October 28: Fancy Momentum Dump Test #1 November 5: Monochrome Light Curve of Eros (First images of Eros) November 9: NIS/MSI Rotation Sequence Dry Run November 18: Fancy Momentum Dump Test #2 November 19: Monochrome Light Curve of Eros November 19: NIS Cal Target Observation November 20: Eros Optical Navigation A (16 frames) Debra Fletcher 240-228-8274/Washington 443-778-8274/Baltimore Fax: 240-228-3237 Email: debra.fletcher@jhuapl.edu Bldg-Rm: 2-155 The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 11100 Johns Hopkins Road Laurel, MD 20723-6099 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NEAR Weekly Report for Oct. 30, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NEAR WEEKLY REPORT October 30, 1998 MISSION OPERATIONS: The NEAR spacecraft state/configuration has remained nominal (Flight Computer #1 and Attitude Interface Unit #1 active). The Magnetometer and XGRS instruments remained on throughout this reporting period. The first flight test of the new "Fancy Momentum Dump", a propulsive momentum bias maneuver, was successfully conducted on October 28. The SSR anomaly reported last week was resolved. The data from 288:05:56:41 through 289:16:02:59, reported as unrecoverable, has indeed been recovered. A ground software problem, periodically preventing proper frame sync of SSR data has been fixed. All science and engineering data for the period was successfully recovered. A short data span from 98301-16:02:13 to 98301-16:19:07 was not recovered during a SSR #2 playback but it was recovered from SSR #1. Participated in the NEAR Readiness Review conducted on October 27 and 28. NEAR's attitude mode continues to alternate between GS-4 (Earth pointing) during Earth pointing, high gain antenna tracks, and GS-5 (~Sun pointing) at all other times. The GS-5 off-sun pointing limit has remained at 10 deg. As a means to improve data throughput to the SDC, telemetry serving on Front End #2 has been moved to an existing MOC workstation. Telemetry data serving from Front End #1 will continue "as is" until additional disk space is procured. Upcoming Spacecraft Activities: November 5: Monochrome Light Curve of Eros (First images of Eros from NEAR) November 9: NIS/MSI Rotation Sequence Dry Run November 18: Fancy Momentum Dump Test #2 November 19: Monochrome Light Curve of Eros November 19: NIS Cal Target Observation November 20: Eros Optical Navigation A (16 frames) MISSION DESIGN: Mission Design Team personnel computed contingency rendezvous maneuver sequences in case the first or second burns (RND1 and RND2) are underperformed or delayed for any reason. In most cases, it was possible to keep the times of the later maneuvers (RND4 and the orbit insertion maneuver, OIM) fixed at their scheduled dates and times (important since rescheduling DSN tracking is very difficult), while keeping the OIM within the desired range of 6 to 12 meters/second. The results were presented at the Eros Readiness Review on October 27. Debra Fletcher 240-228-8274/Washington 443-778-8274/Baltimore Fax: 240-228-3237 Email: debra.fletcher@jhuapl.edu Bldg.-Rm.: 2-155 The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 11100 Johns Hopkins Road Laurel, MD 20723-6099 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: ESA's first Spanish astronaut rides into orbit alongside space pioneer Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space Agency Press Release No. 45-98 Paris, France 29 October 1998 ESA'S FIRST SPANISH ASTRONAUT RIDES INTO ORBIT ALONGSIDE SPACE PIONEER The Space Shuttle Discovery performed a perfect lift-off today (Thursday 29 October 1998), carrying ESA astronaut Pedro Duque among its international crew, which includes John Glenn, making his return to space 36 years after he became the first American to orbit the Earth. Glenn is not the only member of this crew to go into the record books. Duque does too, as the first Spaniard to travel into space. Born in March 1963, over a year after John Glenn's epic flight, he's also the youngest member of the crew. Discovery lifted off from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 19 minutes after the 2+ hour launch window opened at 20:00 Central European Time (14:00 EST - Florida time) Duque was cheered on his way by thousands of spectators at the launch site, including his wife and three young children. During the launch phase, Duque monitored the overall performance of Discovery and its systems, looking out for any anomalies or malfunctions. On reaching orbit, his responsibilities included working with the team that deployed the communications antennas and opening Discovery's payload bay doors to let surplus heat out of the Shuttle into space. He also switched on systems for the Spacehab science module in the payload bay. Duque's tasks during the nine-day flight will include supervising experiments on the five ESA science facilities being used to study the effects of weightlessness on various materials and substances. "The ESA facilities are advanced and largely automatic, so it is more a question of periodic checks and ensuring that data is routed to the correct place," said Duque. "This kind of operation is typical of what work will be like on the International Space Station, where crew time will be at a premium." Although no spacewalks are scheduled for STS-95, Duque is one of two crew members specially trained to work outside the orbiter should an emergency arise. He may be called upon to close the payload doors manually before re-entry and landing or if there are problems in retrieving the sun-observing Spartan satellite at the end of its two days of free flight in space. Duque is also the mission's laptop troubleshooter. He will look after a record number of 19 laptop computers being carried by Discovery to help run the Shuttle's systems and the experiments. The mission is scheduled to last 8 days, 22 hours and 4 minutes, landing at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility on 7 November at 18:04 Central European Time (1204 EST - Florida time). For further information, see the ESA web page at http://www.estec.esa.int/spaceflight. During the mission, contact: 31 Oct-07 Nov ESA Press Desk at Johnson Space Center, Houston Tel: (281) 218-6836, Fax: (281) 218-6420 02-07 Nov Press Desk at ESA Villafranca, Madrid Tel: (34) 91 813 12.11 Fax: (34) 91 813 12.12 Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Will Study Balance in Two Woods Hole Toadfish, a Senator, and , F Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts Contact: Pamela Clapp Hinkle, 508-289-7276; pclapp@mbl.edu or Dr. Stephen Highstein, pager: 1-888-403-6210 For Immediate Release: October 30, 1998 NASA Will Study Balance in Two Woods Hole Toadfish, a Senator, and Five Astronauts in Upcoming Shuttle Mission Woods Hole, MA -- Some of the ugliest and laziest fish known to inhabit the waters of the northeast are accompanying John Glenn on his historic mission into space this month. Two oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), collected from the waters off Woods Hole, Massachusetts, are participating in an experiment designed to help scientists better understand the effects that microgravity has on our vestibular, or balance, system. These fish will be traveling more than 3 million miles through space on shuttle mission STS-95, which launched yesterday from Kennedy Space Center. This experiment is a follow-up to studies conducted on four toadfish sent into space during the Neurolab mission (STS-90) last April. The scientist responsible for these experiments, Stephen M. Highstein, has been coming to the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for more than 20 years to study the vestibular system of the toadfish. The vestibular system, which consists of fluid-filled canals in the ears of all vertebrates, provides our sense of balance and equilibrium. (The linings of these canals are covered with hair cells that sense the movement of calcium carbonate crystals known as otoliths. Changes in the position of the head cause the otoliths to move, and the hair cells sense the movement and pass that information along to the brain.) Information about balance, movement, and location is so critical to animals that the vestibular system was one of the first sensory systems to evolve, says Highstein, an M.D./Ph.D. professor at Washington University School of Medicine who spends his summers doing research at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Not only were the vestibular organs an early invention, but the system of canals and hair cells and otoliths has not changed much over the eons or between vertebrates ranging from toadfish to Senators. Because the toadfish's vestibular system is very similar to our own, the fish has become a well-known experimental model for learning more about balance disorders such as Meniere's disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The toadfish is also a good model for studying motion sickness, including that experienced by astronauts during space flight. This is why a few toadfish, in their specially designed aquatic habitats, are joining John Glenn and other Shuttle crewmembers on their journey through space. The toadfish are fitted with a monitoring system that will enable Highstein to analyze changes to their vestibular system, specifically their otoliths, before, during, and after space flight. Because Glenn and the other astronauts on the flight will experience the same changes in gravity, the data gathered should reveal important information about how the human vestibular system adjusts to microgravity as well. (More information about the specific experiment can be found at http://shuttlepresskit.com/STS-95/experiment14.htm). Most of us don't think much about our vestibular system, until it malfunctions. When your vestibular system isn't working -- when, for instance, you are suffering from motion sickness -- any number of other systems are thrown out of kilter. "You're lying on your bed," Highstein says, "You're dizzy. Your vision is moving. Your digestion is affected. You certainly have trouble doing any deep thinking ..." Virtually all other systems in your body can be affected when your vestibular system misfires -- and it often misfires during space flight. Highstein tried a number of fish before choosing the toadfish as a model when he came to the MBL in the 1970s. "It was a matter of convenience," he remembers. Toadfish were readily available. They were hardy enough to survive in the lab. And they had an important anatomical advantage over other fish: Their broad, flat head -- an ungainly feature that gives Opsanus its monstrous pollywog look -- provides space enough for easy-to-sort-out neural wiring. It turns out that all of these advantages hold true for the toadfish's usefulness as a model for studies in space as well. The Marine Biological Laboratory, located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is an independent scientific institution, founded in 1888, that undertakes the highest level of creative research and education in biology, including the biomedical and environmental sciences. Visit our Web site at http://www.mbl.edu. For more information about NASA mission STS-95 see: http://shuttlepresskit.com/ Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Update - October 30, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Project Status Report Overview Prepared by Mars Surveyor Operations Project Manager NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Friday 30 October 1998 Mars Global Surveyor continues in excellent health with excellent aerobraking progress. With the orbital period now under 8 hours and close to one-third of the Mars rotation period, better atmospheric density predictions are allowing more aggressive aerobraking. More than half of the timeline deficit caused by the 9 day delay in resuming aerobraking has now been made up, and it is anticipated that orbital period will be on the original baseline guide slope by early December. MSOP has baselined (for work planning purposes) a period of three weeks at the beginning of the mapping period with the high gain antenna in the stowed (not deployed) position. This is a contingency strategy to assure meeting the minimum mission success criteria. This decision will be revisited following the launches of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander for final NASA Headquarters concurrence. The MSOP Readiness Review (Part II) for the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander was successfully conducted on October 30th. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: This Week On Galileo - November 2-8, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... THIS WEEK ON GALILEO November 2-8, 1998 Galileo continues to process and transmit science data stored on its onboard tape recorder. With this week's playback, we start the portion of the cruise phase used to fill gaps in previously returned data, select new data, or to re-process data with different parameters. Data playback is interrupted on Thursday to perform a standard test on the gyroscopes. This week's playback schedule includes data from twelve observations. Six of them contain Europa data, four of them, Jupiter data, and two of them data describing Jupiter's rings. The near-infrared mapping spectrometer returns two observations of Europa. The first will provide data on Europa's surface with a special emphasis on detecting non-ice components. The second, performed in conjunction with the ultraviolet spectrometer, captures data on Europa at a global scale. The photopolarimeter radiometer also returns two observations of Europa. Both of these measure thermal characteristics of Europa's night side, and are designed to allow scientists to increase their knowledge of the formation, composition and age of Europa's surface. The final two Europa observations are returned by the spacecraft camera. The first captures a region near Europa's terminator. The mosaic will show several terrain types that are considered to be the best evidence for the existence of a liquid layer under Europa's surface. The second is a global shape observation. Three observations of Jupiter's newly formed white oval are returned this week. One observation contains measurements made by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer, and the other two, measurements by the spacecraft camera. This particular oval was formed in Spring 1998, when two other white ovals merged. The photopolarimeter radiometer returns the last Jupiter observation, which contains data to be used to characterize atmospheric temperature structure and thermal properties of the southern equatorial, tropical, and temperate belts. Finally, the spacecraft camera returns two out of three images which display Jupiter's rings under varying lighting conditions. The different lighting conditions will allow scientists to get better ideas of the number and sizes of the particles that make up the rings. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - October 31, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT October 31, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch -40 days Pyro Initiation Unit (PIU) ATLO Test Unit (ATU) troubleshooting was successfully completed. The previously observed failure was duplicated on the vehicle and the data captured. Belief is that the ATU contains a defective part. The ATU was removed and returned to Denver for analysis and the reworked flight PIU was reinstalled on the orbiter. The reworked flight PIU functions and interfaces were retested and reverified successfully on the orbiter. Mars Polar Lander: Launch -64 days The Attitude Control System (ACS) phasing test was partially completed with several issues regarding the star camera to be resolved. The launch/init mission system test was conducted successfully. The star camera issues discovered were determined to be caused by incorrect paramaters in the lander database. The star camera portion of the ACS phasing will be repeated next week. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Historic commercial launch agreements signed (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Space Command News Service FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 27, 1998 Historic commercial launch agreements signed PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. -- General Richard B. Myers, Commander, Air Force Space Command signed the first Commercial Space Operations Support [CSOS] Agreements here, today. He was joined by industry executives R. Gale Schluter, Vice President and General Manager, Boeing Expendable Launch Systems, Nathan J. Lindsay, Executive Vice President and General Manager, Advanced Space Launch Systems for Lockheed Martin Astronautics, and J. R. Thompson, Jr., Executive Vice President and General Manager, Launch Systems Group, Orbital Sciences Corporation who represented their respective corporations. "What a great day this is ... for the Air Force and our industry partners," said Gen. Myers. "The documents we've just signed culminate two and one-half years of dedicated efforts." The agreement outlines the conditions for government support, the allocation of risk to include insurance requirements, and financial arrangements for launch. It requires industry to comply with environmental, safety and security requirements. "This agreement may make the difference in our competitiveness in the world market," said Lindsay. -30- PHOTO CAPTION: [http://www.spacecom.af.mil/hqafspc/news/news_asp/nws_tmp.asp?storyid=98133] The CSOS was signed Oct. 17. [NOTE: Text of the agreements are available at http://www.spacecom.af.mil/hqafspc/news/temp_news1028.htm] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: John Glenn To Highlight NASA 40th Anniversary Luncheon Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... November 2, 1998 John Ira Petty Johnson Space Center, TX (281/483-5111) Release: J98-52 JOHN GLENN TO HIGHLIGHT NASA 40th ANNIVERSARY LUNCHEON STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, aboard the shuttle Discovery, will deliver a special message to NASA's 40th Anniversary luncheon at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Houston on Wednesday, November 4. The event, featuring Walter Cronkite as master of ceremonies, will begin at 11 a.m. Featured speakers will include NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin and Mayor Lee P. Brown of Houston. The luncheon, which is a Houston community celebration, will take place in the Imperial Ballroom of the Hyatt Regency. News media representatives should call the Johnson Space Center newsroom at 281/483-5111 for more information. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - November 2, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT November 2, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch -38 days Flight software build 8.2 was delivered as scheduled, however a problem with the memory allocation in EEPROM was discovered and fixed overnight in FSW build 8.2.1. Mars Polar Lander: Launch -62 days The Deep Space Network (DSN) End-to-End compatibility test is proceeding as scheduled. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 WebCams Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MARS SURVEYOR 98 SPACECRAFT WEBCAMS November 3, 1998 New WebCams on the two Mars Surveyor 98 spacecraft have recently been installed at Kennedy Space Center and live images of the spacecraft are now available on the Mars Surveyor 98 website. Both spacecraft are currenty being prepared for launch in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Mars Climate Orbiter http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/orbiter/ksc1.html Mars Polar Lander http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/lander/ksc1.html The images are updated approximately every 1 to 30 seconds, depending on your network connection. The Mars orbiter is currently scheduled for launch on December 10, 1998, and the Mars lander is scheduled for a January 3, 1999 launch. Ron Baalke Mars Surveyor 98 Webmaster Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ariane 503/ARD - A successful complete European space mission (Forward Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space Agency Press Release No. 46-98 Paris, France 30 October 1998 Ariane 503/ARD: A successful complete European space mission Europe has moved a step closer to flying its own complete space missions with the highly successful flight of an automatic capsule, the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator (ARD). ARD was released during the Ariane 503 flight on 21 October, shortly after separation of the launcher's cryogenic main stage (at an altitude of about 216 km) 12 minutes after lift-off from the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Engineers analysing data from its sub-orbital flight reported this week that all the capsule's systems had performed well and according to expectations. ARD reached an altitude of 830 km and splashed down to within 4.9 km of its target point in the Pacific Ocean between the Marquises and Hawaii after one hour and 41 minutes. It was recovered some five hours later and will undergo more detailed technical analysis in Europe. Engineers analysing real-time telemetry from the flight have reported that all electrical equipment and propulsion systems functioned nominally. Telemetry systems and reception stations all performed well, and the onboard GPS receiver worked satisfactorily during the entire flight except, as expected, during black-out in reentry. During reentry the heatshield temperature reached 900 C and the cone and heatshield thermal protection was in a perfect state after retrieval. Throughout the flight ARD remained airtight and perfectly intact. Built by Aerospatiale (France) for ESA, the ARD has a "classical" Apollo capsule design and is packed with the most advanced technologies to test and qualify new technologies and flight control capabilities for atmospheric reentry and landing. During the mission it recorded and transmitted to the ground more than 200 critical parameters for analysis of the flight and behaviour of onboard equipment. Although not strictly a prototype of a possible future European Crew Transport Vehicle (CTV), which could fly to and from the International Space Station, ARD is a major step towards providing greater confidence in Europe's capabilities in reentry technologies for use not only in the frame of crew and equipment transport but also for future re-usable launchers. For the first time ever Europe has flown a complete space mission -- from launching a vehicle into space to recovering it safely. This is a major step forward in Europe's capability for developing and operating spacecraft that can return to Earth carrying people or equipment. For further information, please contact: ESA Public Relations Division Tel : +33(0) Fax : +33(0) Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo Update - November 3, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Galileo Europa Mission Status November 3, 1998 The Galileo spacecraft is operating normally as it continues to transmit to Earth pictures and science information stored on its onboard tape recorder during the September 26 Europa flyby. Playback will be interrupted on Thursday for a standard gyroscope test. A dozen observations will be transmitted this week, half of them containing Europa data, with the other half providing information on Jupiter and its rings. The Europa observations include a mosaic of images taken by the spacecraft camera, showing several terrain types that scientists believe provide the best evidence yet for the existence of a liquid ocean under Europa's surface. The camera and the near infrared mapping spectrometer return three observations of Jupiter's newest white oval, a swirling storm system formed earlier this year when two smaller storms merged. Two images display Jupiter's rings under varying lighting conditions. This will help scientists better determine the size and quantity of the particles contained in the rings. The next Europa flyby is scheduled for November 22. Galileo Europa Mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center chosen to build science ins Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Contact: Buddy Nelson, (510) 797-0349 Pager: (888) 916-1797 Email: buddy1@home.com 98-110 LOCKHEED MARTIN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CENTER CHOSEN TO BUILD SCIENCE INSTRUMENT FOR NASA'S TRIANA MISSION PALO ALTO, California, November 3, 1998 -- The Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has been selected by the University of California San Diego Scripps Institution of Oceanography to design and build the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) for NASA's Triana mission, to be led by Dr. Francisco P.J. Valero from Scripps. "This opportunity to provide the EPIC for Triana allows us to bring a long heritage of space imaging instruments to the service of this important remote sensing mission to planet Earth," says co-investigator Dr. Jack Doolittle, the instrument implementation team leader at the ATC. The Triana satellite concept will place a high definition television camera -- paired with a 12-inch telescope -- into an orbit at a unique vantage point a million miles from Earth where it will provide 24-hour views of the home planet. It will orbit about a point in space where the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Earth on a satellite are essentially balanced, allowing it to be suspended above the Earth to constantly view the fully sunlit hemisphere. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) will acquire in six optical bands, with a resolution of six kilometers per pixel and six infrared bands, with a resolution of 24 kilometers per pixel. Appropriate channels can be chosen to highlight various features on the land and oceans as well as in the atmosphere. A minimum of 500 images each day will allow scientists to closely monitor changing features and rapidly build up a large database of changes over time. "We are very pleased with this contract because Triana offers several unprecedented opportunities for examining aspects of the Earth not presently accessible from low Earth orbit or geostationary satellites," says co-investigator Dr. Keith Hutchison, EPIC instrument scientist at the ATC. "Indeed, we believe that the remote sensing instrumentation we will design and build at the ATC will provide never before available observations of dynamic aspects of atmospheric aerosols and clouds, regional ecological responses on short time scales, and ocean color variability. "Multispectral images and broadband radiometry from Triana offer an exciting opportunity to look, for the first time, at the Earth as a planet," continues Hutchison. "Understanding the Earth's bulk and thermodynamic properties as an open system, exchanging energy with the Sun and space, is a fundamental scientific goal of climatology." The concept for the Triana mission was first conceived in February 1998. The small satellite will be linked to Earth through three simple, low-cost ground stations equally spaced around the globe to provide continuous downlink capability. One new image in each wavelength band would be downlinked every few minutes. The name of the mission comes from Juan Rodriguez Bermejo de Triana, a lookout on Christopher Columbus' flagship the Santa Maria. It was he who, on October 12, 1492, first sighted the New World. The Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Advanced Technology Center (ATC) is a world-class provider of advanced scientific and space technologies, prototypes, and research for physical, electronic, information/computing, materials, engineering, and electro-optical applications. The ATC is involved in the development of numerous sophisticated systems and programs -- ranging from missile seekers to satellite telescopes used to measure solar phenomena. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [1/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... This is the November 1998 "SpaceViews" (tm) newsletter, published by the Boston chapter of the National Space Society. For a description of related e-mail lists maintained by the Boston NSS, or to stop receiving this SpaceViews newsletter, see the instructions at the end of this message. SpaceViews is available on the WWW at http://www.spaceviews.com and by FTP from ftp.seds.org in directory /pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews See the very end for information on membership, reprinting, copyright, etc. Copyright (C) 1999 by Boston Chapter of National Space Society, a non-profit educational 501(c)3 organization. All articles in SpaceViews represent the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor, the National Space Society (NSS), or the Boston chapter of the NSS. S P A C E V I E W S Volume Year 1998, Issue 11 November 1998 http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/11/ *** News *** Glenn Lifts Off on Historic Shuttle Mission Glenn Dropped from Shuttle Experiment Clinton Uses Glenn Launch to Promote Space Policy Deep Space 1 Launches Ariane 5 Lifts Off on Final Qualification Flight Atlas, Pegasus, Ariane Rockets Launch Satellites NASA Selects Triana Proposal Dust Disk Discoveries Indicate Planets May Be Common Callisto May Have Subsurface Ocean SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Articles *** The Start of the Manned Space Race Making Progress on the Frontier: The 1998 Space Frontier Conference *** Book Reviews *** Mars: Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet Worlds Without End: The Exploration of Planets Known and Unknown Star Ware *** NSS News *** Upcoming Boston NSS Events *** Regular Features *** Jonathan's Space Report No. 378 *** News *** Glenn Lifts Off on Historic Shuttle Mission In one of the most widely anticipated launches in the history of the space program, the space shuttle Discovery lifted off Thursday, October 29, carrying a seven person crew on mission STS-95 that includes senator and former astronaut John Glenn. The shuttle lifted off at 2:19pm EST (1719 UT) after two brief delays, one to correct a sensor problem and another when aircraft violated the restricted airspace around the launch site. "Liftoff of the shuttle Discovery with a crew of six astronaut heros and one American legend," Lisa Malone, the voice of launch control, said as the shuttle left the ground. The launch was not completely problem-free. As the main engines on the shuttle started up, a 5-kg (11-lb.) aluminum panel fell from the shuttle and bounced off an engine nozzle. NASA officials said the missing panel was not serious, although has the panel struck a little higher up on the engine nozzle it could have hit and damaged a hydrogen coolant line, with more serious consequences. The panel served as a door to the drag chute, which deploys after the shuttle touches down to help slow down the speeding orbiter. The chute is not necessary to brake the orbiter, though, and wasn't added to the orbiter fleet until the early 1990s. Over 3,000 members of the media and up to 350,000 spectators watched the launch, although some NASA officials pegged the total crowd size as nearly one million. Among those in attendance was President Bill Clinton, who watched the launch with First Lady Hillary Clinton. Clinton was the first President to view a shuttle launch, and the first to attend a manned launch since Richard Nixon watched the launch of Apollo 12 in November 1969. Also in attendance were a number of celebrities, ranging from actor Leonardo DeCaprio and heavyweight boxer Evander Holyfield to baseball legend Ted Williams, who served with Glenn as a Marine Corps fighter pilot. With the shuttle safely in orbit, the crew turned to a busy schedule of experiments and projects. On October 30 the shuttle deployed the Petite Amateur Naval Satellite (PANSAT), an experimental satellite built by students at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. The satellite will capture and transmit radio signals that would normally be lost to interference. It will serve primarily as a teaching tool for the school. On Sunday, November 1, the shuttle deployed the Spartan 201 solar science satellite. The satellite will fly free from the shuttle and study the Sun's corona for two days before being retrieved by the shuttle. Dozens of onboard experiments, including many involving or run by John Glenn, are also underway. In one key experiment astronaut Scott Parazynski takes blood samples from Glenn to study the buildup and breakdown of muscle mass. Glenn has shown no signs of any problems either during the launch or in the adaptation to weightlessness. "Zero-g and I feel fine," Glenn said Thursday night, echoing a phrase he said during his Mercury flight in 1962. "Let the record show that John has a smile on his face and it goes from one ear to the other one, and we haven't been able to remove it yet," shuttle commander Curtis Brown said. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [2/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Glenn Dropped from Shuttle Experiment Senator and shuttle astronaut John Glenn will not take part in an experiment to study the effects of melatonin, the Boston Globe reported Wednesday, October 21. Glenn was dropped from the experiment, which involved taking doses of the brain hormone and monitoring its effects, for unspecified health reasons, according to a doctor involved with the study. "When we examined the data we collected for preflight studies, we realized Senator Glenn didn't meet one of the criteria for our study," Dr. Charles A. Czeisler of Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital told the Globe. Neither he, NASA officials, nor Glenn's spokesman would elaborate on the medical reasons, citing confidentiality. However, they emphasized that the medical criteria used to remove Glenn from the experiment do not jeopardize his overall health or his ability to fly on the mission. The Globe, citing a copy of the study provided by the researches, said there were "dozens" of conditions that could disqualify someone from the study. Those include infections, heart and lung problems, kidney disease, gastrointestinal and immune-system disorders, cancer, blood diseases, hormone and metabolic problems, disorders of the circadian-rhythm system, sleep disorders, depression and other psychiatric disorders, and use of medications affecting the brain. Glenn was to take the melatonin to see if the hormone could help him adjust his circadian rhythm, which would be affected by the rapid day-night cycle the shuttle experiences while in orbit. Another crew member, Japanese astronaut Dr. Chiaki Mukai, will take part in the study. Melatonin has been used by many as a way to fight jet-lag and insomnia, but has not jet been scientifically proven as a way of combating those disorders. Glenn's non-participation in the study should not have a major impact on the mission, Czeisler said. "In the case of Senator Glenn, melatonin was never the primary reason why we were doing the study," he told the Globe. "I'm still interested in finding out the changes of sleep with age, how similar they are to changes in sleep in other crew members, and whether an older crew member will exhibit the same changes or not." Glenn is scheduled to take part in a wide range of experiments during the nine-day STS-95 mission, which launched October 29. However, the melatonin study was part of one of only two "primary payload" experiments, along with a study of protein turnover in muscles. Clinton Uses Glenn Launch to Promote Space Policy President Clinton took time during Thursday's launch of the space shuttle Discovery to comment on the state of the space program and suggest the U.S. should pay Russia additional funds to support their role in the International Space Station. Clinton, the first President to attend a space shuttle launch, spoke with CNN commentators Miles O'Brien and Walter Cronkite an hour before the launch of STS-95, and told them that he would support sending additional money to Russia for ISS "if it were required." "If we were required now to help the Russians during this difficult period -- which will not last forever -- so that they could continue to participate, I would be in favor of that," Clinton said. He added that he "would be happy to talk to the Congressional leaders in both parties" about such funding. When asked if he supported a goal of sending humans to Mars by 2019, as first proposed by then-President Bush in 1989, Clinton was noncommittal. "Well, let me say, what we're doing now will help us once we get to the position of evaluating that," he said. "I don't want to either affirm or renounce it." Clinton said that NASA's first priority should be the completion of ISS. "Let's get the space station up and going and evaluate what our long-term prospects are. I'll tell you this, I am for a continued, aggressive exploration of space in ways that are high quality, cost effective and that will benefit us here on Earth." After the successful launch, Clinton spoke to launch controllers. "It has been immensely impressive and important to me to have the chance to work with NASA over the last six years and see the revolution which has been undertaken, so that now you can -- on virtually the same budget you had six years ago -- do eight launches a year instead of two." The basis for Clinton's claims are uncertain. In 1992 there were eight shuttle launches, and between 1993 and 1996 there were seven launches a year, with eight again in 1997. STS-95 is only the fourth shuttle launch of 1998, with one more scheduled before the end of the year. The last year there were only two shuttle flights was 1988, the year the shuttle returned to service after the Challenger disaster. That apparent error was an opening for sharp criticism by Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA), chair of the House Science Committee's space subcommittee. Calling Clinton's claims "pure nonsense", Rohrabacher said that Clinton "has cut NASA's budget in actual dollars every year he's been President, and slashed the real purchasing power by a third. In fact, this administration has cut $40 billion from NASA's outyear budget since he was first elected." "Personally, I'm glad that John Glenn got to return to space," Rohrabacher said. "But we need to invest our space dollars in making it cheaper so that lots more people and projects can go into space. I hope that next year the President will work with the new Congress to really open the space frontier for everyone." Deep Space 1 Launches A Delta booster carrying an experimental NASA spacecraft and a student-built satellite lifted off Saturday morning, October 24. The Delta 2, carrying the Deep Space 1 (DS1) and SEDSAT-1 spacecraft, lifted off at 8:08 am EDT (1208 UT) from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The launch was delayed by a few minutes to resolve minor technical issues. After some communications problems, mission control officials were able to confirm that Deep Space One had left Earth orbit and had separated from its upper stage. Likewise, the SEDSAT-1 satellite successfully deployed from the Delta 2's second stage. DS1 is the first spacecraft in NASA's New Millennium Program, an effort to develop and test spacecraft tecnologies that may be of use on future science missions. DS1's innovative technologies include an ion engine that is the spacecraft's main propulsion system, solar concentrators that are 15-20 percent more efficient that ordinary solar cells, and autonomous control systems that minimize the interaction needed with human controllers on the ground. "Science mission project managers are reluctant to take the risk of using untested technologies," said Wesley Huntress, NASA's former associate administrator for space science. "The New Millennium Program is devoted to testing out new technologies first so they can be used with greater confidence on upcoming faster, better, cheaper scientific missions of the early 21st century." While primarily a technology development mission, DS1 will perform some science. The spacecraft will fly by the asteroid 1992 KD in late July of 1999, coming as close as 5 km (3 mi.) to the asteroid. If an extended mission is funded, the spacecraft could make flybys of comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly in 2001. The Delta 2 also carried the SEDSAT-1 satellite into orbit. A project run by Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS), the satellite will return images of the Earth that will be distributed on the World Wide Web and also serve the amateur radio communuity. The launch was the cumulation of many years of work by students at the University of Alabama at Huntsville, headquarters for the SEDSAT-1 project. and students and volunteers worldwide. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [3/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ariane 5 Lifts Off on Final Qualification Flight A European Ariane 5 heavy-lift booster made a successful third flight Wednesday, October 21, launching two test payloads. The Ariane 5 lifted off at 12:37 pm EDT (1637 UT) from Kourou, French Guiana. The launch was delayed by over a half hour due to problems with three sensors on the booster. This launch, designated Ariane 503, was the third and final qualification flight for the booster, conducted by Arianespace, the European Space Agency, and the French Space Agency CNES. "The third Ariane-5 flight has been a complete success," said Ariane 503 flight director Fredrik Engström. "It qualifies Europe's new heavy-lift launcher and vindicates the technological options taken by the European Space Agency." The Ariane 5 carried the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator (ARD), a spacecraft designed to test reentry techniques that may be used on future unmanned and manned launch vehicles, such as a space station crew return vehicle or automated transfer vehicle. Resembling a smaller version of an Apollo command module, the 2,800-kg (6,160-lb.) ARD was designed to make one trip around the planet before reentering overt the Pacific Ocean and parachuting to a splashdown in the Pacific about 90 minutes after launch. Arianespace later reported that the ARD successfully splashed down in the Pacific between the Iles Marquises and Hawaii. A recovery boat picked up the ARD late Wednesday. The booster also carried the MaqSat-3, a mockup of a communications satellite. Ariane 503 was to carry Eutelsat's W2 comsat, but that was moved to an Ariane 4 when Eutelsat W1, intended for that Ariane 4 launch, was damaged in a ground test in May. The Ariane 5's first launch, in June of 1996, ended in failure when a problem with the guidance control software caused the rocket to veer out of control less than 40 seconds after launch. The vehicle was destroyed by ground controllers, destroying it and its payload of four small solar science satellites. After the problem was corrected, the Ariane 5 flew again a year ago on Ariane 502, carrying two test satellites. That launch was not entirely successful, as the booster's main Vulcain engine shut down early, placing the satellites into a lower-than-planned orbit. With a successful Ariane 503 flight, Arianespace plans to move forward to market the heavy-lift booster to commercial customers. The company earlier this year ordered 50 Ariane 5's for commercial launches well into the next decade. "We will now be offering our customers a launch service combining performance, power, flexibility and availability in line with today's commercial demands and those of tomorrow," said Arianespace chairman Jean-Marie Luton. Atlas, Pegasus, Ariane Rockets Launch Satellites Several American and European rockets launched a number of commercial and government satellites in late October, ranging from communications satellites to environmental monitoring spacecraft. An Atlas 2A launched a U.S. Navy communications satellite at 3:19 am EDT (0719 UT) Tuesday, October 20, after a short delay caused by a minor problem with the power system on the spacecraft. The satellite was successfuly delievered into orbit, according to launch officials. The launch was scheduled for 3:11 am EDT (0711 UT) October 19, but was called off more than an hour before the scheduled launch when forecasts called for upper-level winds that could blow debris from an explosion towards populated areas. The Atlas 2A carried the Navy's UHF Follow-On F9 communications satellite. Based on the Hughes HS 601 spacecraft design, UHF F/O F9 will join seven other operational UHF satellites in geosynchronous orbit to provide high-speed broadband communications to ships and other fixed and mobile terminals. An Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) Pegasus booster launched a Brazilian environmental satellite and a NASA experimental payload at 8:03 pm EDT (0003 UT) Thursday, October 22 off the coast from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket carried the Satelite de Coleta de Dados-2 (SCD-2) satellite for Brazil's INPE space agency. The satellite will collect information from sensors located in Brazil's Amazon Rover basin and relay them to scientists, who will use the data to better understand the environmental changes taking place in the Amazonian rain forest. The Pegasus also carried NASA's Wing Glove experimental payload on the first stage of the booster. The payload was designed to measure the transition from smooth to turbulent airflow at hypersonics speeds up to Mach 8. The payload collected all of its data in the first 90 seconds of flight and was not designed to go into orbit. An Ariane 4 booster launched two communications satellites into orbit from French Guiana at 5:16 pm EST (2216 UT) Wednesday, October 28, from Kourou, French Guiana. No problems were reported with the launch and its payload, the GE-5 and AfriStar satellites, successfully reached orbit. The GE-5 satellite, built by the French firm Alcatel, will provide direct TV services for the United States for GE American Communications. AfriStar, built by Matra Marconi, is the first of three satellites planned to provide direct radio broadcasts for Africa. It is run by WorldSpace, a company based in Washington, DC. NASA Selects Triana Proposal NASA has selected a proposal for the controversial Triana Earth-observing spacecraft, the space agency announced Tuesday, October 27. A team led by Francisco P.J. Valero of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography will lead development of the $75-million spacecraft, which will observe the Earth from the Earth-Sun L1 point 1.5 million kilometers (900,000 miles) away, scheduled for launch in late 2000. Triana will carry the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC), a camera designed to return high-resolution images of the Earth. It will also carry a radiometer to measure temperatures and an instrument to monitor space weather conditions such as solar storms. The radiometer will provide, according to Valero, "the first direct measurements of the radiant power reflected by the planet, and thereby contribute to our knowledge of how much of the Sun's energy is absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere." "The EPIC instrument will observe the Earth's vegetation canopy structure and evolution by taking advantage of the retro-reflectance, or 'hot spot,' view that will be available by being in-line between the Earth and the Sun," he added. "The EPIC also will observe clouds and aerosols." Triana's distant viewpoint will provide it with unique advantages, claims Ghassem Asrar, NASA's associate administrator for earth science. "The full-disk view of the Earth enables retrieval of global quantities at once, whereas measurements from low Earth orbit or geostationary Earth orbit must be 'stitched' together, requiring concerted efforts to 'process out' differences due to viewing times and revisit intervals." NASA is also planning involvement by the educational community in the mission, Asrar said, and is also looking at the possibility of commercial participation, where private companies would pay for commercial rights to the data collected by Triana. Triana, named after Rodrigo de Triana, the sailor who first spotted the New World on Columbus's first expedition, is the brainchild of Vice President Al Gore. He announced the program in March as a way of educating people about the environment. "With the next millennium just around the corner, developing this high-definition TV quality image of the full disk of the continuously lit Earth and making it available 24 hours a day on the Internet will awaken a new generation to the environment and educate millions of children around the globe," Gore said at the MIT conference where he announced Triana. The proposal was criticized in Congress, where opponents dubbed the mission "Goresat". They thought such a mission had little scientific value and could be done by private industry without NASA intervention. The House included language in its appropriations bill for NASA that prevented the space agency from spending money on the project. However, that restriction was removed in a conference report that reconciled the House and Senate versions of the spending bill earlier this month. At the time NASA believed the mission could be carried out for under $50 million, but the announcement of the proposal selection said the mission would cost $75 million. NASA plans to launch Triana from the space shuttle during a December 2000 flight. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [4/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Dust Disk Discoveries Indicate Planets May Be Common A recent slew of discoveries of dust disks around stars -- long thought to be raw materials from which planets form -- indicates that these disks may be commonplace around young stars and are directly linked to the formation of planets. Three independent teams of astronomers announced seperate discoveries this month, including the discovery of a dust disk around a star where extrasolar planets have already been detected, a dust disk that resembles the early solar system, and an estimate of the number of young stars with such disks. Two University of Arizona astronomers reported October 21 that they had discovered a dust disk around the star 55 Cancri. An extrasolar planet had already been indirectly detected around the star two years ago by San Frnacisco State University astronomers. Using an instrument called a coronagraph that blocks out light from the star, David Trilling and Robert Brown were able to detect the dust disk around the star using NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. The disk lies at least 27-44 astronomical units (4.05-6.6 billion km, 2.5-4.1 billion miles) from the star and may be larger. "The disk we have found is similar in extent to our solar system's Kuiper Belt, and has a spectral signature similar to some Kuiper Belt objects, suggesting similar compositions," Trilling said. "And, for all we know, there could be other similarities in this system yet to be discovered." Trilling and Brown were also able to constrain the mass of the extrasolar planet to 1.9 times the mass of Jupiter. The planet, which they were not able to observe, orbits the star at a distance of only 0.1 AU (15 million km, 9.3 million mi.). Meanwhile, radio astronomers using the Very Large Array in New Mexico were able to discover the smallest known protoplanetary dust disk, around a star 1300 light years from Earth. The disk is thought to be about the same size as the disk that created our solar system, making the discovery of special interest. "We're pretty sure that systems like this, with disks of gas and dust surrounding a young star, turn into solar systems," said co-discoverer Luis Rodriguez of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. "But we don't know exactly how they do it." Astronomers plan further studies of this system to determine the structure of the disk and help understand the process of planet formation. Such dust disks may be common around young stars, astronomers using a European space observatory reported October 23. Two teams using data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) believe that up to half of young stars might possess protoplanetary disks. According to astronomer Eric Becklin of UCLA, about half of stars a million years old have dust disks, a fraction that drops to 20 percent for stars hundreds of millions of years old. Becklin believes these dust disks disappear as planets form, but "that cannot be yet established," he said. Scientists are also using ISO data to determine the origin of these dust disks and their composition. Callisto May Have Subsurface Ocean Europa may not be the only large moon of Jupiter to have an ocean beneath its surface, as scientists have found evidence for such a body of water beneath the surface of Callisto, NASA reported Wednesday, October 21. Data returned by the Galileo spacecraft suggests that Callisto, the outermost of Jupiter's four large Galilean satellites, may have a salty ocean of liquid water hidden beneath its cratered surface. "Until now, we thought Callisto was a dead and boring moon, just a hunk of rock and ice," said Dr. Margaret Kivelson of UCLA. "The new data certainly suggest that something is hidden below Callisto's surface, and that something may very well be a salty ocean." Such an ocean would have to be at least 10 km (6 mi.) thick to support the magnetic field, scientists said. It would likely be buried beneath about 200 km (120 mi.) of ice on the surface. Evidence for a liquid water ocean comes from magnetometer readings from Galileo, which show variations in Callisto's magnetic field. Such variations can be explained by changes in electrical currents associated with Jupiter that flow near the moon. Neither Callisto's extremely tenuous atmosphere nor its icy crust could support the moon's magnetic field, Kivelson said, but a subsurface liquid could. "If this liquid were salty like Earth's oceans, it could carry sufficient electrical currents to produce the magnetic field," she said. Similar magnetic field changes have been seen with Europa and associated with a liquid water ocean that many scientists believe exist beneath Europa's icy crust. "This seemed to fit nicely with other data supporting the idea that beneath Europa's icy crust, a liquid ocean might be serving as a conductor of electricity," said Kivelson. The existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa has been seen as a key piece of evidence to support the possibility of life on that world. However, scientists cautioned that the same may not be true for Callisto. "Biologists believe liquid water and energy are then needed to actually support life, so it's exciting to find another place where we might have liquid water," said JPL's Torrence Johnson, Galileo project scientist. "But, energy is another matter, and currently, Callisto's ocean is only being heated by radioactive elements, whereas Europa has tidal energy as well." That lack of additional tidal energy could hinder or prevent the development of life in Callisto's oceans. Galileo will make four more flybys of Callisto next year, but Kivelson and colleagues are focusing their attention on Ganymede, a large moon between Europa and Callisto, to see if it might also have a subterranean liquid water ocean. SpaceViews Event Horizon November 4 Launch of a Proton carrying the PAS-8 comsat from Baikonur, Kazakhstan November 6 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying five replacement Iridium satellites from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California November 7 Landing of the space shuttle Discovery on mission STS-95, at 11:49 am EST (1649 UT) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida November 19 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Bonum 1 satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida November 20 Launch of a Proton carrying the Zarya space station module from Baikonus, Kazakhstan December 2-3 NSS's "Property Rights and Commercial Space Development" meeting, Washington, DC December 3 Launch of space shuttle Endeavour on STS-88, launch of the Unity space station module, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida December 10 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Climae Orbiter spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [5/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Other News Delta 3 Fixed: Boeing investigators have isolated the problem that caused a Delta 3 booster to go out of control on its maiden flight August 25 and found a solution, the company reported Monday, October 19. A "roll instability" caused by the 4-hertz back-and-forth rocking of three solid-rocket motors (SRMs) ignited after launch led to the eventual loss of control and destruction of the booster, investigators concluded. As the vibrations grew dominant 40-50 seconds after launch the rocket tried to correct it by steering the thrusters, but ran out of hydraulic fluid, leading to eventual loss of control. "The roll instability which led to the Delta 3 failure can be corrected by a change to our control software," chief investigator Clarance Quan said. The next Delta 3 launch is planned for the first quarter of 1999. Progress Launched: A Progress resupply spacecraft lifted off Sunday, October 25 and docked with the Mir space station two days later. Progress M-40 carried supplies for Mir and its two-man crew, including food, water, and personal items, including New Year's gifts for the crew, who will not get another cargo spacecraft for the rest of this year. The spacecraft also carried the Znamya ("Banner") 2.5 experimental space mirror. The mirror, which will deploy from the spacecraft after it undocks from Mir in Feburary 1999, will test ways to illuminate nighttime regions of the Earth by reflecting sunlight. SETI Hoax?: Claims that a British amateur has discovered a radio signal from an alien intelligence have been debunked as a hoax by SETI scientists. The anonymous Briton, later identified as a Mr. Paul Dore, claimed to have detected a signal from the star EQ Pegasi. His reports, pushed on a SETI mailing list and elsewhere on the Internet, were mentioned in a BBC report. However, other amateur and professional SETI researchers have picked up no signs of such a signal, although a signal was detected from that star in September by Project Phoenix at Arecibo but failed to pass their stringent confirmation checks. "A hacker gone wild," concluded Professor Nathan Cohen of Boston University. "Too many 'Contact' reruns. Case closed." Still, Dore claims the signal is true and is reportedly planning a press conference as early as this week to formally present his claims. Mars Discoveries: New images returned by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show that active sand dunes may be moving across the planet and "relatively recent" lava flows, scientists reported last week. The dunes, made of sand-sized granules of rocks and minerals, are blown across the surface by the planet's winds. The sand is either rolled along the ground or hops through the air by the winds. Images of the Elysium Basin on Mars show that its surface appears to be made of plates of solidified lava, and not lakebed sediments as once thought. This means the region might once have been covered with giant ponds of molten lava, according to work by Alfred McEwen of the U.S. Geological Survey. "These eruptions could be much younger than the youngest of the large Martian volcanoes like Ascraeus Mons and Olympus Mons in the Tharsis region, but they would still have occurred many, many millions of years ago," he said. Hubble Heritage: The Space Telescope Science Institute has started a program last month to share dramatic, colorful images of the cosmos with the public. The Hubble Heritage Program will post a newly-processed color image from the Hubble Space Telescope on the first Thursday of every month, institute offcials announced. A team of scientists and image processing experts are going through 5.4-terabyte archive of images of over 10,000 objects, looking for the best images. They then combine images taken at several wavelengths to create the color images presented to the public. The first set of Heritage images includes dramatic views of Saturn, the Milky Way, another spiral galaxy, and a bubble of hot gas from a star. Other News: Vanity Fair and The New Yorker are not the magazines you're most likely to find insightful articles about space. Yet, the November issue of Vanity Fair includes an article by Bryan Burrough about NASA's experience on the Russian Mir space station. The article is an excerpt from "Dragonfly: NASA and the Crisis aboard Mir" published this month (look for a review in the December issue of SpaceViews). The New Yorker's Oct. 26-Nov. 2 double issue includes "Starship Private Enterprise", an article that looks at SpaceDev's efforts to make a business out of space exploration. In the article, SpaceDev founder Jim Benson compares commercial space exploration with the psychological barrier of the four-minute mile. "If we break this four-minute mile of space, go out and make some money doing something practical that is needed in an existing market, all hell is going to break loose..." *** Articles *** The Start of the Manned Space Race by Andrew J. LePage Introduction At the same time NACA and the USAF were studying manned spaceflight (see "The Beginnings of America's Man in Space Program" in the October 1998 issue of Space Views), comparable efforts were quietly taking place independently in the Soviet Union . As with virtually every other aspect of the Soviet Union's early space program, Chief Designer Sergei P. Korolev and his OKB-1 (Special Design Bureau No. 1) lead the way. All during the 1950s when Korolev and his colleague, Mikhail K. Tikhonravov of NII-4 (Scientific Research Institute No. 4), were pushing their original Earth satellite proposal, it also included plans to send probes to the Moon and men into orbit. When the satellite proposal was finally adopted by the Soviet government on January 30, 1956, the lunar probe and manned satellite projects were also given the green light. Initially the bulk of the resources at OKB-1 were poured into building Object D (which would eventually become Sputnik 3) as well as continuing development of the R-7 as both an ICBM and the basis of a launch vehicle. Work on more advanced space missions did not begin until after November of 1956 when Tikhonravov and his group were officially transferred from NII-4 to Korolev's OKB-1 to become Project Department No. 9. On March 8, 1957 the group was reorganized to focus exclusively on the planning and development of spacecraft. Within a month the group released their first preliminary plan for lunar and manned spaceflights. As these efforts began, Korolev envisioned the need for short suborbital manned flights comparable to the existing program to launch dogs on high altitude ballistic flights using "geophysical" rockets. At this time manned missions into orbit were not anticipated until the 1964 to 1967 time frame. But the launches of Sputnik 1 and 2 in October and November of 1957 changed everything. The first Sputnik launches were to affect the manned space program in several ways. The impact the launch of Sputnik 1 had on the West led Soviet Primer Nikita Krushchev to exploit space missions for their propaganda value. Development of more advanced and spectacular missions like the manned satellite program were immediately approved and placed on the fast track. Also at the insistence of Krushchev, Sputnik 2 was launched with a dog on board. While thermal control problems marred the mission, it did demonstrate that weightlessness would not be a major hazard for a human (see "Sputnik 2: The First Animal in Space" in the November 1997 issue of Space Views). As a result, Korolev scrapped his initial, more conservative approach and moved ahead with a much more aggressive plan. In December of 1957 Korolev established three new design groups under Tikhonravov: The first group would design automatic lunar probes, another group communication satellites, and the last would work on piloted spacecraft using the designs of the successors of Object D as a starting point. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [6/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Moving Towards a Manned Satellite As work was moving forward during 1956 and 1957 on Object D, a group at Department No. 9 under Eugeniy F. Ryazanov was already performing preliminary studies on a series of successors designated Object OD (with "OD" standing for "Oriented D"). Unlike Object D whose orientation was not controlled, Object OD would be equipped with an attitude control system to point its payload of photo-reconnaissance cameras. Object OD-1 would use a lightweight, passive attitude control system and be equipped with a cone-shaped reentry module to return its payload of exposed film. Unfortunately early studies quickly showed that the mass of Object OD-1 would exceed the 1,400 kilogram (3,100 pound) payload capability of the R-7-based 8A91 being developed to launch Object D. A more powerful rocket would be needed. Based on experience with the 8K71 ICBM as well as the 8K71PS and 8A91 satellite launch vehicle versions of the R-7, development of an improved ICBM called the R-7A (also known by the designation 8K74) was begun. Many of the R-7A upgrades could be incorporated into a new family of satellite launch vehicles to increase their reliability and payload performance. One of the designs to result from these studies was the 8A92. Like the 8A91, the 8A92 was initially envisioned as a two-stage launch vehicle consisting of four strapon boosters surrounding a sustainer core. Its increased performance promised to orbit a payload of as much as 1,700 kilograms (3,700 pounds). But even this enhanced lift capability would prove to be insufficient. By the end of 1957, the Object OD-1 design was still 400 kilograms (880 pounds) overweight. With continuing development problems and the change in goals in December of 1957, work on Object OD-1 was ended. Resources were instead shifted to the development of the larger and more advanced Object OD-2. In its reconnaissance configuration, this spacecraft retained the basic cone-shaped reentry module of Object OD-1 but it was now mated to a large cylindrical service module containing an active attitude control and other support systems not required for the return to Earth. The 4,900 kilogram (10,800 pound) mass of Object OD-2 required the development of a larger launch vehicle called the 8A93. The 8A93 would be a three-stage rocket using a stripped down R-7A for the first two stages and a third stage based on the Blok E being developed for the 8K73 Moon rocket (see "The Soviets Reach for the Moon" in the May 1998 issue of Space Views). With a third stage built around the powerful RD-109 engine being developed by OKB-456 under Valentin P. Glushko, this much more powerful rocket promised to deliver a payload as great as 5,300 kilogram (11,700 pounds) into orbit. A Manned Spacecraft Design A team of engineers from Project Department No. 9 under Konstantin P. Feoktistov were assigned the task of designing a manned version of Object OD-2. While this team retained the original concept of employing separate service and reentry modules to minimize the total spacecraft mass, they ultimately designed a spacecraft totally different from the original OD-2 concept. As would be the case with its sister the 8K73, this team anticipated that the development of the Blok E stage of the 8A93 would drag on far longer than anticipated. Instead they opted to use the 8K72K. Based on the 8K72 launch vehicle then under development to launch the E-1 lunar probes, the 8K72K would incorporate a number of modifications to improve its performance and reliability. This included an improved Blok E third stage that replaced the RO-5 engine used in the 8K72 with an upgraded RO-7 being developed by OKB-154 under Semyin A. Kosberg. For later flights, the original two-stage 8A92 concept would be upgraded to include an improved Blok E stage. The orbital payload of the 8K72K and 8A92 would be no more than 4,700 kilograms (10,300 pounds) but it was felt that these rockets would be available at a sooner date than the more powerful 8A93. Presented with more stringent payload limits, Feoktistov's team had to make every effort to minimize the mass of the manned OD-2. While a variety of shapes for the reentry module were considered, the original conical shape was ultimately abandoned in favor of a 2.3 meter (7.5 foot) in diameter sphere. Such a simple shape had many advantages. First the aerodynamics of a sphere were well understood and it promised to be stable. This shape also maximized the interior volume for the passenger and critical recovery systems while at the same time minimizing the mass of the required heat shielding. By offsetting its center of mass from its center of figure, the reentry module would automatically keep itself oriented during its return to Earth without the weight penalty of an active attitude control system. This approach did result in a more punishing ballistic reentry but peak braking loads would still be limited to a tolerable 10 Gs. This design also promised to keep the landing target errors to an acceptable 200 to 300 kilometers (125 to 190 miles). While a lightweight, unpressurized service module was studied, ultimately Korolev's wish to use a pressurized one was adopted despite the weight penalty. This helped to simplify thermal control problems, offered a more benign environment for the onboard systems, and would speed development. The final hurdle to a successful manned mission was the landing. American efforts centered on a parachute-assisted water landing that would take advantage of their large naval surface fleet. Soviet designers opted for a touchdown on land to take advantage of the Soviet Union's vast territory. A variety of systems including a helicopter-like rotor favored by Korolev were considered for the final braking but ultimately it was decided to use a simple a parachute. Unfortunately a parachute large enough to guarantee a survivable landing for the passenger-laden reentry module would be prohibitively heavy. In April of 1958 Feoktistov's design team came up with an ingenious solution which they called "the forced landing procedure". The cosmonaut would ride inside the reentry module until after the worse of the reentry was completed. At an altitude of 7 kilometers (23,000 feet) the cosmonaut would use an ejection seat to blast clear and make a final descent using his own parachute. The descending reentry module would then be free to make a rough landing at a final speed of 10 meters per second (22 miles per hour) using a small parachute. This ejection seat could also double as a launch escape system to pull the cosmonaut clear of his craft in case of a catastrophic failure during ascent. While the manned Object OD-2 concept was much different than the original Object OD-2 design, Feoktistov's team broadened its appeal further by designing a reconnaissance variant. In this second version, all the systems needed to support a passenger were removed and a photo-reconnaissance package installed. This approach only made sense since both manned and reconnaissance orbital missions involved the return of a payload from orbit. This new Object OD-2 proposal was presented to Korolev in June of 1958. He approved the manned design and the cone-shaped reconnaissance configuration of the OD-2 was eventually dropped in favor of Feokstitov's unified spacecraft design concept. But while Korolev was convinced that this was the best way to proceed, he still had powerful critics that needed to be swayed. Seeking Approval At this time there was much debate among the various Chief Designers and officials in the Soviet government on which path their space program should take. Echoing concerns that are still voiced today, one group insisted that manned spaceflight was too expensive and would yield few if any tangible benefits. They felt that the country's limited resources were better spent on the development of unmanned spacecraft to perform various useful tasks. While a valid argument could be made on this point, Krushchev clearly preferred a manned flight for its potential propaganda value. In addition, because of the amount of hardware shared between the manned and unmanned reconnaissance versions of Object OD-2 that Feoktistov group had designed, development efforts for a manned spacecraft could have direct applications towards a highly useful photo-reconnaissance satellite. Others thought that suborbital flights should be a prerequisite for a full blown manned orbital flight. But by May of 1958 even Korolev had become convinced that manned suborbital flights, even suborbital test flights, were superfluous. This was in part due to the relative success of Sputnik 2 and a continuing series of canine suborbital test flights. Korolev also argued that the development of hardware needed for a manned suborbital flight would not add as much to the art as an orbital mission would. This despite the small additional effort required to achieve the latter. In the end Korolev had decided that a manned suborbital flight would be a meaningless stunt. He felt that moving directly to the development of a manned satellite would be of much greater value given the growing competition with the United States and the resources he had available. In the end Korolev won the argument and the Council of Chief Designers approved his plan for a manned orbital spaceflight in November of 1958. Work to design and manufacture this new spacecraft began in earnest in early 1959 as the Soviet government issued a series of secret decrees on the matter. By the summer of that year the spacecraft officially received the name the world would know it by: Vostok. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [7/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Bibliography Peter A. Gorin, "Zenit - The First Soviet Photo-Reconnaissance Satellite", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 50, No. 11, pp. 441-448, November 1997 Bart Hendrickx, "Korolev: Facts and Myths", Spaceflight, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 44-48, February 1996 Asif A. Siddiqi, "Before Sputnik: Early Satellite Studies in The Soviet Union 1947-1957 - Part 2", Spaceflight, Vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 389-392, November 1997 Timothy Varfolomeyev, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space Part 3: Lunar Launchings for Impact and Photography", Spaceflight, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 206-208, June 1996 Timothy Varfolomeyev, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space Part 7: Launch Vehicles for the First Reconnaissance Satellite", Spaceflight, Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 360-363, September 1998 Wayne R. Matson (editor), Cosmonautics: A Colorful History, Cosmos Books, 1994 Making Progress on the Frontier: The 1998 Space Frontier Conference by Jeff Foust The prospects for commercial development of space appeared to take an upturn this year, from the passage of the Commercial Space Act to Lunar Prospector's confirmation that water ice exists on the Moon, opening new possibilities for commercial use of the Moon. Those beliefs were in evidence at the Space Frontier Conference, held by the Space Frontier Foundation October 9-11 in Los Angeles. At the conference, an optimistic future for commercial space was presented, from Earth orbit to the Moon and asteroids. Speakers also made clear the challenges ahead, from the need to successfully develop low-cost space access to the dangers a possible future economic recession might pose. Making Money on the Moon The confirmation of water ice on the poles of the Moon has raised interest in further exploration of our nearest neighbor, both from a scientific and commercial standpoint. Several plans for lunar exploration were reported at the conference. David Gump, CEO of LunaCorp, discussed his company's new plans for lunar exploration. LunaCorp has shelved plans for a rover that would travel for thousands of kilometers around the surface in favor of a mission focused on the north pole of the Moon. The IceBreaker mission, planned for a July 2002 launch, would send a lander and rover to Peary crater near the Moon's north pole to search for ice. The rover, developed by Carnegie Mellon University's Robotics Institute, would be able to drill up to 1.2 meters into the lunar regolith to look for deposits of water ice. A radar will be able to penetrate to deeper levels to provide a better estimate about the amount of water ice buried in the Moon. LunaCorp estimated IceBreaker will cost between $80-$200 million, depending on the launch vehicle used: the low end assumes a $10-million launch on a Roton. The company still plans to pay for the mission through commercial sponsorships, data purchase, and interactive opportunities via TV and the Web to give people the opportunity to drive the rover once the primary part of the mission is completed. Applied Space Resources (ASR) is pushing forward with its Lunar Retriever mission to return over 10 kg (22 lbs.) of lunar rock and soil samples to the Earth. ASR plans to send the $50-million spacecraft to Mare Nectaris in August 2001. At the conference, ASR officials announced plans to sell "Lunar Time Capsules", nickel discs microetched with text and graphics provided by purchasers, to fly on the spacecraft. If 500,000 time capsules are purchased at $189 each, the company said, it will give nearly half its payload of lunar samples, 5 kg (11 lbs.), to scientists at no charge. The company also said it plans to select one 1-kg "forgotten experiment" to fly on the mission at no charge. The remainder of the 10-kg payload space will be available for $5 million per kg. Even commercial human bases were a topic of discussion. Alan Binder, chief scientist for the Lunar Prospector mission and a long-time proponent of lunar exploration, said he is working on plans for a manned commercial lunar base that could be established in the north polar regions in as little as 10 years. He said a workshop planned for March 1999, before the annual Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference in Houston, will work out details of a business plan that could finance such a project. Binder is also planning future robotic missions to the Moon, and has identified over 100 sites for visits by future mission, perhaps in conjunction with human activities. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [8/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... How to Keep Mir Alive One of the major programs of the Space Frontier Foundation has been "Keep Mir Alive", an effort to prevent next year's planned deorbiting of the Russian space station. Any decision to keep Mir in orbit needs to be made soon, according Victor Blagov, deputy head mission controller for Mir, who spoke at the conference. Blagov said three deorbiting burns are scheduled for Mir: one in November, a second in February 1999, and a final one in June. (It has since been reported that the November's burn may actually raise the orbit slightly, to counter the effects of increased atmospheric drag.) A decision to keep Mir in orbit needs to be made before the second burn in February, Blagov said. Keeping Mir in orbit also means keeping it continuously occupied, he told SpaceViews. The station would soon spin out of control and become unusable if left unoccupied for even a short time, he claims. This would rule out proposals to loft the station into a high "cold storage orbit" and leave it unoccupied for several years. The three Progress spacecraft that will help deorbit Mir could also be used to raise its orbit to an altitude of 400 km. That altitude is as high as the Soyuz spacecraft can fly and is also near the limit beyond which radiation levels are too high, Blagov said. In such a high orbit Mir could survive to 2001, but would need to be continuously occupied at a cost of $20 million a month, he said. Blagov stressed that Mir is today "fully operational", having recovered from a series of accidents and technical problems. The main problems keeping the station from staying in orbit are "financial, not technical," he said. If Mir could be kept in orbit, there could be considerable commercial uses for it, claimed Michael Lawson, CEO of Space Marketing, Inc. Lawson arranged the filming of a Pepsi ad on and outside Mir, using a large inflatable Pepsi can, that will be used next year in advertising for the next Star Wars movie. He also hinted at the possibility of filming a portion of a future episode of "The X-Files" television show from Mir. Both Mir and the International Space Station can coexist, Lawson said. "Two stations are better than one station." "The Watch" Kicks Off The Space Frontier Foundation and the Foundation for the International Non-Governmental Development of Space (FINDS) used the conference to officially kick off "The Watch", their program to support the search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that could both prove a threat to the Earth and provide resources for future space exploration. The program, which has received $50,000 in startup funds from FINDS, will give money to needy astronomers involved in the search for NEOs. However, they said to have any real impact on NEO searches they need to raise at least $1 million and up to $3 million a year. To achieve that goal they are looking at an unconventional source of funds: naming rights. Traditionally astronomers who discover asteroids get the right to name them, provided they meet the standards of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The Watch proposes to name asteroids discovered by participating astronomers after donors to the program, and is in discussion with the IAU about this proposal. RLV Update The conference has become a key opportunity to check on the progress of the several commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV) companies, and this year was no exception. Although reports of substantial progress towards the first flight of such vehicles were limited, several companies reported that they would be ready for at least test flights in 1999. Kistler Aerospace appeared to be the farthest along, with its two-stage K-1 RLV. Robert Meuser, vice president of Kistler, said the vehicle was progressing. Several contractors had reached key milestones, as AeroJet completed "6 or 7" tests of the NK-33 and NK-43 engines used on the K-1 and Lockheed Martin completed one of the fuel tanks. The company is planning for a first test flight from Woomera, Australia, some time in 1999, with commercial flights starting as soon as possible thereafter. However, there was no comment on reports that funding to Kistler subcontractors had slowed down or dried up because of financial problems at the company. Rotary Rocket is moving towards some atmospheric test flights -- without rocket power -- of the Roton in 1999, according to company CEO Gary Hudson. They were planning to complete a rotor test facility by the end of October. A complete orbital flight of the Roton could be as little as 18 months away "if all goes well," Hudson said. The completion of a series of tow flights by Kelly Space and Technology (KST) "was one of the major breakthroughs of the industry this year," claimed chairman Michael Kelly. The tests, designed to test the ability to tow large vehicles like the company's planned RLVs, gained a lot of credibility for KST and the RLV industry in general. The company is continuing design work on its Astroliner RLV, scheduled to begin commercial operations in 2002. KST also recently won a $1 million NASA contract to contribute to a space transportation architecture study. Robert Wolf, chief engineer of Pioneer Rocketplane, said the company used funding from NASA's Bantam-X program to improve the design of the Pathfinder rocketplane this summer. The revised vehicle uses a shuttle-derived thermal-protection system and two F404 turbofan engines (the same as those used on the F-18 fighter) mounted on the sides of the vehicle. The F404s provide less thrust than the original F100s, but are lighter, according to Wolf. The company is still looking for a prime contractor to begin production of the vehicle. Foundation Awards The Space Frontier Foundation handed a number of awards at the conference. Alan Binder and Gregg Maryniak won the "Vision to Reality" award for their pioneering early work for Lunar Prospector. Andrew Chaikin won the "Best Presentation of Space" award for writing the book "A Man on the Moon", the basis for the Emmy-winning HBO miniseries "From the Earth to the Moon." A special award was given to Energia RSC, in the person of deputy mission controller Victor Blagov, for their work keeping Mir operational. Ben Muniz won the "Service to the Foundation" award and artist Peter Thorpe won the Founder's Award. ProSpace, the grassroots space lobbying group, also handed out awards at the conference. Rep. Dana Rohrabacher, chair of the House Science Committee's space subcommittee, won their "Legislator of the Year" award while Jeff Krukin was named "Activist of the Year". ProSpace also announced that the 1999 March Storm was tentatively scheduled for the week of March 21. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [9/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Book Reviews *** by Jeff Foust Mars: Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet by Paul Raeburn and Matt Golombek National Geographic Society, 1998 hardcover, 232 pp., illus. ISBN 0-7922-7373-7 US$40/C$56 By now, more than a year after the last data was sent back to Earth by Mars Pathfinder, you are likely more than familiar with the mission and have seen countless images of the Martian surface sent back by Pathfinder, either on its Web site or in magazines. So why spend $40 on another book with mostly the same images? Because "Mars: Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet" does a beautiful job presenting the images and puts them into context. The book includes many dozens of photos from Pathfinder -- and from other spacecraft missions like Viking, Mariner 9, and even Mars Global Surveyor -- all beautifully reproduced at high resolution (much better than what you can find on the Web, unless you're willing to wait hours downloading the high-res versions!) Several 3-D images are included, as well as two pairs of 3-D glasses. For a coffee-table sized book like this, you would expect little from the text. Instead, Paul Raeburn's text helps tie the pictures together and provide a historical context: about half of the book discusses the history of MArtian exploration from early telescopic observations through Viking. The history of the Pathfinder program is also included and is among the best to date (Donna Shirley's "Managing Martians" goes into greater detail, but focuses on the development of the rover only.) Project scientist Matthew Golombek contributed the foreward to the book. At $40, this book is something of an investment (although through online book sellers you should be able to get it at a significant discount.) However, the beautiful pictures and excellent text are more than worth the price for anyone fascinated with the Red Planet. Worlds Without End: The Exploration of Planets Known and Unknown by John S. Lewis Helix Books, 1998 hardcover, 240pp., illus. ISBN 0-7382-0011-5 US$24 The discovery of extrasolar planets has become a hot topic in recent years, as astronomers discover more planets and evidence grows that stars with planets may be more the rule then the exception. However, little has been written about what these planets might be like, or how they -- or our own solar system, for that matter -- formed. John S. Lewis's "Worlds Without End" provides a readable introduction to the formation and development of planets. Lewis explores the processes that create a solar system. Throughout the book he keeps an eye towards what conditions are needed for worlds to support life, noting that a planet need not be a clone of Earth to be hospitable to life (Europa is very different from Earth, for example, but may still support life.) Even an "Earthlet" orbiting a brown dwarf star could support life, he noted. Solar system formation can be a dense, technical topic, but Lewis writes in an easily-understandable style that at times is almost lighthearted. Fans of Lewis's recent books, "Rain of Iron and Ice" and "Mining the Sky" will like this book, even though it's on a different topic, as well as others interested in how other worlds might form. Star Ware by Philip S. Harrington John Wiley and Sons, 1998 softcover, 376pp., illus. ISBN 0-471-18311-3 US$19.95/C$27.95 As with any hobby, the serious amateur astronomer can acquire a bewildering array of equipment, including telescopes, eyepieces, filters, cameras, mounts, and more. So how does anyone just getting into the field get started? Philip Harrington's "Star Ware" provides not only a guide for those getting started in amateur astronomy, but resources for the more advanced looking for the latest gadget. Harrington's book starts with an introduction to telescopes, then a guide to purchasing the right kind of telescope (or binoculars) to meet the reader's observing needs. From there he goes on to accessories, like eyepieces, filters, and more, including specialized devices built by amateurs themselves to meet their observing needs. He also includes a guide to the care of astronomical equipment and information on some objects a beginner can start observing. The book is well written, although the concept of cameras, especially CCD cameras, is glossed over fairly quickly, when one could argue this fast-growing field might deserve a chapter all its own -- a minor omission. Otherwise, "Star Ware" is an excellent starter guide for the beginning amateur astronomer and reference for the advanced amateur. *** NSS News *** Upcoming Boston NSS Events Thursday, November 5, 7:45pm Tour of the AXAF Science Center AXAF (Advanced X-ray Astronomical Facility) Science Center Thurs. Nov 5th, 7:45. You must be prompt, no one will be after 7:46! You can meet in lobby of "Hill Building" which is near the intersection of Broadway & Hampshire St., near RR tracks, enter through doors under the pedestrian bridge over Broadway. Or meet PROMPTLY at 7:30, at our usual meeting location, and walk over. There is a limit of 15 people, but if we get more, it is possible to get additional tours. Thursday, December 3, 7:30pm "The Overview Effect" by Frank White Frank White, author of "The Overview Effect" will be giving a talk and doing a book signing! The 2nd edition of his book has been released and he will be talking about the changes in the world and in the space movement/space program since the publishing of the first edition in 1987. Unless otherwise specified, Boston NSS Meetings are held on the first Thursdays of every month at 545 Main Street (Technology Square), 8th floor, Cambridge, near the Kendall/MIT stop on the Red Line. Free parking is available. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [10/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Regular Features *** Jonathan's Space Report No. 378 by Jonathan McDowell [Ed. Note: Go to http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~jcm/space/jsr/jsr.html for back issues and other information about Jonathan's Space Report.] Shuttle and Mir STS-95 was launched on Oct 29 with Sen. John Glenn and the first Spanish astronaut Pedro Duque among the crew. The US Navy PANSAT student satellite was deployed on Oct 30 into a 550 x 561 x 28.5 deg orbit. Meanwhile, Endeavour has been moved to pad 39A in preparation for STS-88 with a Space Station module payload. Cargo ship Progress M-40 was launched from Baykonur on 1998 Oct 25. It docked with the Mir orbital station to provide supplies on Oct 27. It also carries the Znamya-2.5 solar illumination experiment. Visit to Kourou I had the opportunity to be present for the launch of Ariane V113 on Oct 28, and in this special report describe my visit to the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) in Guyane francaise, S America. Pictures to accompany this report are at http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~jcm/space/jsr/csg.html The small French town of Kourou is on the northern coast of the South American landmass, at the edge of the Amazonian forest. From the air, the approach to the region is over a dense mat of trees broken only by the occasional river. The person next to me on the plane remarked that the shape of the trees and their closeness to each other made it look like a forest of broccoli. On a sandy beach covered with palm trees sits a modern hotel where the penitentiary once stood (the notorious Devil's Island is visible a few miles offshore). We arrived the evening before launch after an hour-long bus ride from Cayenne airport, in time for a banquet of fresh seafood, baked plantain, and tropical juices as well as more traditionally French dishes. I didn't get to see too much of the town itself, but it has a population of around 17000 consisting mostly of recent immigrants from the rest of South America, the Caribbean and Europe, together with indigenous Amerinds and a village of the descendants of Africans who escaped slavery and developed their own communities. The next morning, a short bus ride to the west of town takes us to the Centre Technique, and the Jupiter launch control room where the representatives of the various agencies briefed us. The speakers used either French or English as they preferred, with headphones provided for all of us to give simultaneous translation for anyone who wasn't fluent in one or other language. Launcher V113 was an Ariane 44L model, and carried the most massive payload of any Ariane 4 to date, with 4.9 tonnes carried to orbit; it was also the first time Arianespace has carried out three launches in a single month. The V113 vehicle used the lightest stages available at the factory, and the fuel in the lower stages was kept at a lower temperature than usual to increase its density and allow a few extra kilograms to be loaded - they ended up with more than 230 tonnes in the L220 first stage. These measures allowed the record payload, and Arianespace president Jean-Marie Luton predicted that eventually we'll see a 5-tonne payload on Ariane 4. Two satellites were carried, Afristar and GE 5; both were delivered to geostationary orbit. The lower payload is the GE-5 satellite, with C and Ku band transponders to augment the GE Americom system. GE Americom contracted with Daimler-Benz Aerospace/Dornier Satellitensystem GmbH/Friedrichshafen to provide the satellite in orbit. They in turn contracted Alcatel/Cannes to provide the Spacebus 2000 satellite, originally built as a backup for Argentina's Nahuelsat. This allowed Dornier and Alcatel to deliver the satellite in a record twelve months. Dry mass of GE 5 is 769 kg; it carries 950 kg of propellant at launch. The upper payload was the first WorldSpace satellite, Afristar. Afristar will broadcast digital radio over Africa and the Middle East. Small handheld radios will be able to pick up the transmissions from its three L-band beams; the satellite can carry from 24 to 96 radio channels with on-board processing to allow variable bit rates from mono to CD audio quality transmission. Broadcasters send their programs up to the satellite with a small X-band ground station. It will be followed next year by Asiastar and Ameristar. Afristar is a Matra Marconi Space (Toulouse) Eurostar 2000+, using a Marquardt R-4D apogee engine. Prime contractor for the combined satellite and comms payload is Alcatel. Dry mass of Afristar is 1205 kg; it carries 1534 kg of propellant at launch. The WorldSpace project is led by Ethiopian-born Noah Samara, whose ebullient personality was very much in evidence at CSG during the V113 launch. There was a strong feeling that Afristar was not just yet one more `boring' comsat, but part of a crusade to empower the developing world by providing improved access to information. Samara's mantra is that `people are only as developed as the information they access.' Another of the leading figures in WorldSpace, chief engineer Pierre Madon, was feted for completing a notable career in aerospace which included a leading role in the first French rocket program Diamant and the Symphonie comsat of the 1970s, as well as a long career at Intelsat. CSG is operated by the French space agency CNES. The Ariane launch vehicle was developed by the European Space Agency, ESA, together with CNES, and is operated by the Arianespace company. Travelling further west from Jupiter on the old Route Nationale 1 coast road, we reach the CSG proper, with the entrance guarded by the French Foreign Legion. The launch pads are on the north side of the road, nearer the sea. We first pass the small clearing which marks the sounding rocket launch area ("aire de lancement fusee-sondes"). Here in 1968 was the first launch from CSG, a small Veronique rocket. The area has four launchers, three still in use for small weather rockets and amateur launches. A little further and we reach the now disused Diamant pad. Used between 1970 and 1975, CNES launched several small satellites from here using the Diamant B and Diamant B P.4 vehicles. The other old pad was the Aire de Lancement Europa, some distance to the west. A single orbital launch attempt from here by the Europa vehicle failed in 1971. However, by 1979 the pad had been rebuilt to become ELA 1, the first Ensemble de Lancement Ariane, marking the beginning of Europe's success in the commercial space launch services business with Ariane launches from 1979 to 1989, when the ELA1 pad was retired. Only a water tower marks the spot currently. Next to ELA1 is ELA2, which we didn't get too close to as it was occupied by our fully fuelled V113 launch vehicle. In the early afternoon, the enclosed gantry was rolled back from ELA2 to reveal the Ariane rocket on the pad, and fuelling of the cryogenic third stage began. We were able to observe the rocket from the roof of a nearby building - the third stage was enclosed in insulation, and no venting was visible. The pad is surprisingly close to the Ariane 4 assembly building, containing the V114 launcher now being assembled, and the nearby ESA and Arianespace offices. The remaining launch site is ELA3, which is spread over a large area between ELA2 and the Diamant area. The rocket and payload are assembled in two large buildings, BIL and BAF, and are then taken out to the pad on a mobile launch platform (Table de Lancement) which travels on a small railway. We saw the launch platform used for the Ariane 503 mission being returned by rail to the BAF building, while a second platform was under construction nearby. The BIL and BAF are to the south of the main road while the pad is to the north. The Ariane 5 pad itself, ZL3 (Zone de lancement) contains only the minimal equipment for launch, to simplify reconstruction if there is a launch accident. A simple umbilical tower is flanked by three large lightning towers which dominate the site's appearance, reminiscent of the N-1/Energiya pads at Baykonur. The main pad has a circular mount for the central core and mounts for the solid boosters on each side, above large flame trenches filled with water (the water suppresses reflection of sound energy from the launch which would otherwise increase the vibration levels inside the payload fairing). The trenches are similar to the ones I saw at Vandenberg's SLC-6 Shuttle pad. A large water tower and liquid hydrogen and helium storage facilities complete the picture. After our visits to the launch site were complete, and a brief trip back to Kourou, we set off again to the Jupiter control center where we watched the final countdown from the auditorium surrounding the launch control room proper. (We had the choice of going to the outdoor Toucan viewing point closer to the pad, but I decided it would be geekier to get as close to the launch controllers as I could). The launch commentary, with the cultivated and reassuring tones of former BBC man Martin Ransom lending a touch of class, punctuated the countdown as the display screens showed live TV from the pad beside the clocks and status displays, and the controllers pored over their consoles in front of us. At T-1 minute, the side doors of the auditorium were opened and we rushed out on the terrace to watch. We scanned the dark horizon and didn't know which direction to look, but then 'Allumage!' and a bright light appeared in the distance to our left. Slowly this new star rose into the sky - initially it was pretty much pointlike. It arced over our position and we began to see the trail of fire behind it. About half a minute later, the sound began to reach us as a dull roar which grew to a loud crackling sound. Separation of the strapon boosters was visible as a dramatic flare, and we were able to follow the rocket through first stage separation as it moved down the coast to our right. The disappearance of the first stage plume as followed by a bright flash like a firework as the separation occurred. Trooping back to our seats, we heard the report of second stage separation and settled down to watch the graphic of the long third stage burn. At T+20 min the Afristar satellite finally separated and a huge cheer went up, followed two minutes later by another cheer for GE 5. Afristar and GE 5 were placed in a 200 x 35788 km x 6.5 deg orbit. The launch team put on T-shirts celebrating the month's three launches (I thought the big boss Luton looked a little uncomfortable in such informal attire), and after the obligatory speeches (Walter Braun of GE Americom bravely and courteously giving his in French) a long night of partying began. The following day, most of the group went off to tour Devil's Island, but I stayed in Kourou to interview space center old-timers and soak up some beach time to brace myself for Friday's 4:30 am homeward wakeup call. Thanks to Arianespace for making my trip possible, and to Marie-Vincente Pasdeloup, Jean-Michel Desobeau, Yves Dejean, Martin Ransom, Pierre Madon and others for their helpful information. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [11/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Recent Launches * Ariane 503 The Ariane 503 mission described last week was the first Ariane 5 launch carried out by Arianespace, and is numbered V112 in their system. For the first two Ariane 5 flights, CNES and ESA both owned the launch vehicle and carried out the launch. On V112, Arianespace owned the vehicle but ESA and CNES were the customers. * Meteosat 1 apogee motor The Meteosat 1 apogee motor has finally been cataloged by Space Command. The motor has been assigned international designation 1977-108D and catalog number 13907. Until around Oct 1, 13907 was assigned to a piece of debris from a 1967 explosion, 1967-01AB. This debris object was in an elliptical orbit of 292 x 17909 km x 24 deg on Sep 30, it's not clear where it is in the catalog now. The practice of reassigning previously used catalog numbers is really confusing, and I do wish Space Command wouldn't do it. It's not like they are going to run out of positive integers, after all... Meteosat 1 was launched on 1977 Nov 23 and ejected its apogee motor after reaching geostationary orbit some days later. There's some confusion as to what apogee motor was used - ESA bulletin 85 implies an Aerojet solid motor, probably an SVM-5; other sources which say it used an Italian SNIA/BPD solid motor derived from the one developed for the Europa program are probably incorrect. * Deep Space 1 Marc Rayman from the DS1 team reports that Deep Space 1 was injected into a 0.99 x 1.32 AU x 0.4 deg solar orbit, with a mass of 486.3 kg (including 81.5 kg of Xe and 31.1 kg of hydrazine). He corrects me that DS1 was built by both JPL and Spectrum Astro, rather than 'by Spectrum Astro for JPL'. Table of Recent Launches Date UT Name Launch Vehicle Site Mission INTL. DES. Sep 8 2113 Iridium SV77) Delta 7920 Vandenberg SLC2 Comsat 51E Iridium SV79) Comsat 51D Iridium SV80) Comsat 51C Iridium SV81) Comsat 51B Iridium SV82) Comsat 51A Sep 9 2029 Globalstar FM5 ) Zenit-2 Baykonur Comsat F05 Globalstar FM7 ) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM9 ) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM10) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM11) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM12) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM13) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM16) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM17) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM18) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM20) Comsat F05 Globalstar FM21) Comsat F05 Sep 16 0631 PAS 7 Ariane 44LP Kourou ELA2 Comsat 52A Sep 23 0506 Orbcomm FM21 ) Pegasus XL/HAPS Wallops I Comsat 53A Orbcomm FM22 ) Comsat 53B Orbcomm FM23 ) Comsat 53C Orbcomm FM24 ) Comsat 53D Orbcomm FM25 ) Comsat 53E Orbcomm FM26 ) Comsat 53F Orbcomm FM27 ) Comsat 53G Orbcomm FM28 ) Comsat 53H Sep 28 2341 Molniya-1T? Molniya-M Plesetsk Comsat 54A Oct 3 1004 STEX ) ARPA Taurus Vandenberg 576E Technol. 55A ATEX ) Oct 5 2251 Eutelsat W2 ) Ariane 44L Kourou ELA2 Comsat 56A Sirius 3 ) Comsat 56B Oct 9 2250 Hot Bird 5 Atlas IIA Canaveral SLC36B Comsat 57A Oct 20 0719 UHF F/O F9 Atlas IIA Canaveral SLC36A Comsat 58A Oct 21 1637 ARD ) Ariane 5 Kourou ELA3 Technol. Maqsat 3) Technol. 59A Oct 23 0002 SCD-2 Pegasus Canaveral RW02/20 Rem.Sens. 60A Oct 24 1208 Deep Space 1) Delta 7326 Canaveral SLC17A Probe 61A SEDSAT 1 ) Amateur 61B Oct 25 0414 Progress M-40 Soyuz-U Baykonur LC1 Cargo 62A Oct 28 2216 Afristar ) Ariane 44L Kourou ELA2 Radio com 63A GE 5 ) Comsat 63B Oct 29 1919 Discovery ) Shuttle Kennedy LC39B Spaceship 64A Spacehab ) Laboratory 64A Oct 30 1845 PANSAT - Discovery, LEO Test sat 64B Current Shuttle Processing Status _________________________________ Orbiters Location Mission Launch Due OV-102 Columbia OPF Bay 3 STS-93 OV-103 Discovery LEO STS-95 Oct 29 OV-104 Atlantis OPF Bay 2 ? OV-105 Endeavour LC39A STS-88 Dec 3 MLP2/ LC39B MLP3/RSRM-67/ET-97/OV-105 LC39A STS-88 This is the current issue of "SpaceViews" (tm), published by the Boston Chapter, National Space Society (NSS), distributed in electronic form. It is also sent as a 8 to 12 page double column newsletter via US Mail. You may re-distribute this electronically for non-profit use as long as the entire contents (including this notice) are intact, and you send us the names of all recipients (include us in your distribution list). MAILING LIST INFORMATION: Subscribing and Unsubscribing: To stop receiving the large monthly 'SpaceViews' newsletter, send this e-mail message: To: MajorDomo@spaceviews.com Subject: anything UNsubscribe SpaceViews To receive electronic copies of this SpaceViews newsletter and/or other information about space and NSS, send an e-mail message similar to the following. This example subscribes you to 4 separate mailing lists which are described below. Of course, fill in your own Internet address where is says "YourAddress@StateU.edu" and your real name inside the parenthesis. Try to send it from you own account on your own computer, so that the message appears to be from you. To: MajorDomo@spaceviews.com Subject: anything subscribe SpaceViews YourAddress@StateU.edu (Full Name) which YourAddress@StateU.edu help These subscriptions requests are now handled automatically. The subject line is ignored. The body of the message should contain commands such as: help - send me more information about these commands, which <my_address> - which lists am I on, info <list_name> - mail me a description of a list, UNsubscribe <list_name> - remove me from a list, Subscribe <list_name> <my_address> <full name> - add me to a list, Although it is possible to omit your address and name, please include them when subscribing so that we know who you really are, and to avoid problems like having the name of a workstation inadvertently embedded in you address. Problems: To get a message to a real person, mail to: SpaceViews-Approval@spaceviews.com Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 04 ноября 1998 (1998-11-04) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - November 1998 [12/12] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS: Articles, letters to the editor, chapter updates, andother similar submissions for SpaceViews are always welcome. The deadline for each month's issue is the 20th of the month before (i.e. the August deadline is July 20). The preferred method of submission is ASCII text files by e-mail; send articles and other submissions to jeff@spaceviews.com. If you would like to submit articles in other formats, or would like to submit articles by another method than e-mail, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at the above e-mail address. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION: Copyright (C) 1998 by Boston Chapter of National Space Society, a non-profit educational organization 501(c)3. Permission is hereby granted to redistribute for non-profit use, provided: 1. no modifications are made (except for e-mail delivery info.) 2. this copyright notice is included, 3. you inform Boston NSS of the names of all recipients This permission may be withdrawn at any time. All other rights reserved. Some articles are individually copyrighted (C) by their authors. Excerpts cannot be used, except for reviews and criticisms, without written permission of NSS, Boston Chapter. (We will try to respond by e-mail within four business days.) -Jeff Foust (editor, jeff@spaceviews.com), -Bruce Mackenzie (email distribution, bam@draper.com) -Roxanne Warniers (mailings, rwarnier@colybrand.com) ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. President: Elaine Mullen Board of Directors: Michael Burch Vice President: Larry Klaes Jeff Foust Secretary: Lynn Olson Bruce Mackenzie Treasurer: Roxanne Warniers John Malloy Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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