Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.


Ru.Space.News:
Ноябрь 1998
ПнВтСрЧтПтСбВс
 
1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30
 

год:


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru



  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    0.022


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 20 ноября 1998


    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Лабораторный модуль доставлен в Космический центр им. Кеннеди Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Лабораторный модуль доставлен в Космический центр им. Кеннеди [NASA] Лабораторный модуль, который считается центральной частью будущей Международной космической станции, доставлен в Космический центр им. Кеннеди. В феврале 2000 г. он будет выведен на орбиту кораблем Shuttle Endeavour. В производственном отделении Космического центра модуль пройдет последнюю предполетную подготовку. Перевозка модуля из Космического центра им. Маршалла (Хантсвилл, шт. Алабама), где он был построен, в центр им. Кеннеди была произведена на самолете "Super Guppy" (на снимке). Hа Международной космической станции в Лабораторном модуле планируется проводить самые разнообразные эксперименты из области медицины, физики Земли и космоса, а также эксперименты, для проведения которых необходимо отсутствие гравитационного поля Земли. Размеры Лабораторного модуля: длина - около 8,5 м, диаметр - около 4,3 м, вес - 14,5 т. Он будет состоять из трех цилиндрических и двух торцевых конических секций. В торцевых секциях будут люки для входа и выхода астронавтов. Обшивка модуля - алюминиевая, на нее нанесено специальное покрытие для защиты модуля от леденящего космического холода. Следующий защитный слой сделан из материала, аналог которого используется в бронежилетах, этот слой защитит модуль от космического мусора и микрометеоритов. И наконец внешняя еще одна алюминиевая обшивка будет защищать модуль от мощного солнечного излучения. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Первый полет X-33 отложен из-за проблем с двигателем Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Первый полет X-33 отложен из-за проблем с двигателем [SpaceViews] Первый полет космического корабля X-33 (на рисунке), созданного для тестирования технологий, разработанных для использования в будущих космических кораблях многоразового использования, будет отложен как минимум на 6 месяцев до декабря 1999 г. Это вызвано проблемами в двигателе. Задержка увеличит затраты на этот проект на 36 млн дол. Проблемы вызваны недостаточной надежностью крепления друг с другом деталей V-образного сопла двигателя XRS-2200, которые должны выдерживать высокую температуру. Разработкой двигателя занималась компания Rocketdyne, дочерняя фирма корпорации Boeing. Затраты, связанные с задержкой будут произведены за счет Rocketdyne. Разработка остальных компонентов X-33 продолжается по плану. Этим занимается компания Lockheed Martin, которая должна поставить законченный X-33 (без двигателя) для проведения испытаний на базе ВВС "Эдвардс" в Калифорнии. По словам одного анонимного источника из Lockheed Martin, в компании очень обрадовались, когда Rocketdyne объявила о задержке, поскольку теперь появилось время для доведения до ума остальных частей проекта. Lockheed Martin получила от NASA контракт на постройку X-33 в июле 1996 г. NASA планировало потратить на этот проект 941 млн дол., Lockheed Martin собиралась инвестировать в него как минимум 220 млн дол. Первый полет первоначально был запланирован на март 1999 г., потом старт был отодвинут на июль, а теперь и на декабрь 1999 г. X-33 не планируется выводить на орбиту. Он проведет серию полетов в атмосфере над западной территорией США для проверки работы всех своих систем. X-33 является уменьшенной вдвое моделью будущего корабля многоразового использования VentureStar, решение о создании которого будет принято на основании результатов испытательных полетов X-33. Стоимость разработки VentureStar оценивается в 5 млрд дол. Источник: InfoArt News Agency section 1 of 1 of file sv-11163.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-11163.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`"Q`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! M`0$!`0````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1$``@$"!`0#!`<%!`0``0)W``$" M`Q$$!2$Q!A)!40=A<1,B,H$(%$*1H;'!"2,S4O`58G+1"A8D-.$E\1<8&1HF M)R@I*C4V-S@Y.D-$149'2$E*4U155E=865IC9&5F9VAI:G-T=79W>'EZ@H.$ MA8:'B(F*DI.4E9:7F)F:HJ.DI::GJ*FJLK.TM;:WN+FZPL/$Q<;'R,G*TM/4 MU=;7V-G:XN/DY>;GZ.GJ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_]H`#`,!``(1`Q$`/P"[BEQ4FVDQ M7V!\L,Q[48]J?CZ48-`#,48I^#1B@"/%+BG8^E&*8AM)BI,4A%%@&8%&!3\4 M8I@,P*0BGXHQ0(CQ1BGXI<4`1XHQ4F/K1B@"/%&*?BC;0`S;1M%/QQ28H`9B MEV^U2`8HVTP(\"BGXHH`GQ1CV_2E(I,"H*$XI<4N*,>U%A#<>U&/K^5.HI@- MQ1_GI2X-&#WI@)_GI24['M1@<DX``R23@`4"&_A2?A6;'KVG37$4=N+R>"1_ M*^VQ6S&U5R<!3*1C);`&,C)ZUJD$=14PG&?PNY4H2C\2L,_"EQ[4[%+BJ(&8 M]J,>U/Q1MI@1X]J,>QI^!1@4#N,Q1M-/HQ0(9MQ2X]C^5+BC%`#<"C`IU&*` M&XHI^**+`/VTNVI-OTI<5`R+;1M_SFGXHQ[4PN,Q_G-+M/O3L>U'/I0`S'M1 MCVI^*,?YQ3%<9M'I5+6H]^CWP$:NRP,ZJZA@Q4;@"#UY%:.*%52P5N5/!'M2 MDKIH:=G<S]$CMKR'4M%NHC+9)-)$8QP#!*?-CV^F`^`1T*>U)I[3H;C3;V0O MJ&GN(9V88,JX_=S?1TPWL=P[5H>&;817.B[AM^WZ8+=B>,S6YR!]2KS'_MG[ M59\<64FFQ6WB=%_=V2^3?@#E[5B/FP!R8V.X#^ZTGK7@X7$JE4L]NO\`7D>Y MB<.ZM.ZW*>*3;4G&`P(92`0PZ$=C2A6/W59OH*]ZZ6YX23>Q'BC%61:W1&5M M)R/:(_X4):7C_<L;LY[_`&=\?GBI=:FMY+[T6J=1_9?W,JX^M&/K6A'I6IR$ M!=.N1GN\97^>*E&AZP5!&G2DEMI7<@(]S\W2H>)HK[2^\I4*K^R_N,K%&VMJ M+P[K$A.+11@X;=(HV\9YYIH\.ZTTS0K;6Y90"09\-@YYQMQCCUI?6Z/\R*^K M5OY68^VC;[5L2Z#JT6[-H791N*1L&;'J!W'TS66,,H8<@C((K6%2$U>+N93A M.#M)6(]M&*DQ]*,>U601[?\`.:*?C_.**`)<4N*?BC;690S;1MI^WVHV^U`A MF!Z48J3;[4;3Z4[@18HQ[5,$-+Y1]*+H+$&**G\LBK&GV@N;D(^/+0;V&<;@ M"!CCZBLZM>%*#J3V6II3I2J34([O0PQK7V$6.F26\,$^GZBU_!<32G,\;O(2 ML:*.1MF:-LL",C@Y!J/61KGB>RN+(W/V>WNP8YI95+,(SU$:[@%STYSQVHNM M8N_#'Q$M8+^]6#0-0MFC5W?RXH=S,X9V)P&#@)R>$9:ZA/&O@Z!H[.PABUW5 M9#^[L]&B%S(XR,L2IV(!GDDCBOE)8J#J>Y%VEJGZ]/(^GCAYJG[\E>.C7ZE? M1+'PUX?DT;0[O5H!>W:K%9V\\K22R8!`]=H^7`S@9X'I7H,5M##QL4XX(*]* M\$^.EEXBET71O%$]E8Z4;&Y$<=M9NTL]MO`96DG&%X=.%484G[QS7L'@_P`0 M_P#"3>%-*UX`+)>09F51@+*I*R`#TW*<>Q%;Q;;LS%JRT.B(CC.XA0/]VE+* MN<J#^%4\G!`)XR!]:,D@Y'ZUIRDW+7F(`1P2.W>D,O<H.F<FJA+=><Y-.(R_ M!//O1RA<;<7`CDCNE7[K!)"/XD8X_P#'20?S]:9J5XENL,IDC259#L5F`,B[ M2TB@=\(K-@?W?:LJ]U(S7T^AZ=8->W(B(N)68);6N1]V1QD[\'(15)QC.`<U M&^F1L)KZ^N6U/4[(AVD>,K'%P"R11DD)NCW#(RQW<L>@6@]3:OYYHH?M*G:U MNX<_[F</_P".Y/U`K@/$>G/I?BRY9&/V'583=QQY^6&=&"3A1V#;XW^I>NYL ML-9I%,?,*;H7.?O[25R?J!G\:Q?$*>9H=C)*=]Q;3M`7/5N&!/XF,&NC"OEK M1:.?%*]&5SEL?YQ1BGXI=M>]<\(9MHJ3%%`B7`H"GTJPD)/:IEM_:L7-(U46 MRF(R?_U4X1'TK02W%3"`"H=0M4VS-6`GM^E2+;'TK16(>E2B,5#JLM4C/6V' MI^E/%L/[OZ5?V8J*Z@:XMI[=)GA:6-HQ*G#(2"`P]QG-0ZC+5-&'J5_:V8N( MX8IK^[@0N]M9KO9`.[G[L8]V(_&O/=?U?Q7<()+#49--F8A8++3\EY<D94MC M<[=.``..E>OV_B3P9HOAQ;#?90.\)2XTNSPTHD(VR!AUSG/S-U'K6+X`O=!L MKK4Y9/+L)9/+-O<W[A9&3;AHUD95!P5#$+_?KRJV(G53C+8]6EAX4GS+<X31 M_A%XD\3^3?>.]>U&*W3F*UEF,]Q@]?O$K%G`XP3Z@5[+X?T#1O#ME]AT/3(+ M&`@!S&OSR8Z%WZL?K4\WB#P_&`7UFSR3_`_F$G_@.:YOQ'\0-%TFW!M+:[U* M[<E4A6"2W3CNTDB@`=/NAC[5A!TX[&TE.1J^,M-MM8\(ZWIU[-!!;3V;@SW# MA(XF'S([$\`!PIS[5Y+^S5KA>VUCPU-*!MVW]NN>@/R2@?CY9_.N0\::_K/B MBY9=?O`8!DV]E`"L,.1C*KU=NOS-D^F!Q7*?#S63X5\<Z5J-PP2.VN1%<DGC MR7RDGUPK$_4"H]JG.Z*]FU'4^S#CUQSZ4=6(P<$=<U(Z,KE>,YP/>L,ZY'?2 MFV\/QQZE,KLDMP'Q:VI&0=[C[QS_``)D^NT'-==S`TKV\M;"W%Q?3B&%B%7< M,L[=E11RS'LH!)[5E+%JVJS)-///I.DE<?8U`%W/\Q^:20']T",?(OS8/+*> M!-I^AV=EJ4NKW#"\UN?`EOGCVD*.`D:Y_=H!Q@<GJQ8\U:GN%64V\,?GW`(_ M=*<!,]W;^$=_4]@:E^8R14L]-L4CB2"TM(CA40!5!)[#N2?Q-9TJ?:M261[: M6U::1%23RB)9XU4G:SX_=KCS#MSNY'0G%:$%L?-^TW$GG7'1/E(2+C!V+GCW M)Y.3SCBJ>IZB$N([&RLX[_48Y1DR\0V1;Y0TC@':<-@(/F.[L.0,$2Z>K022 MVC9*J/D)_P!G"?\`H`B;_@=9/B.X'F/9+SF59V(['9MQ_7\:M"W?13+?W&HW M%[=SRYD+X6//ED!8X_X%^5.I)XY)-8$CO+(\LAW.Y)8^]=V"I<TN=[(X<=64 M8\BW97VTNVI<>U&*]6YY)%BBI2M%%Q7-F"(;:G\L`4D'"BIP,UY\GJ=T5H0; M<45.4II%*Y0Q13J4"E"GM0`T"G;:7::<M*XT+'YF>'8?0U<M[=7(,@#XY&X9 MP:@CQTJ["<`8KSL;5G!>Z=>'IQD]3GO&^G1RV\5XH*NGR,R]1W4_SKDO%-K/ MK/A^/4(YHF\H&4A82'XX<9W$#OV[5Z7?P"]LYK5CCS%(!]#V/YXK@/#;GSKW M21(T4@)FVNH<$YVL`.,8XXR>]>)4YE[Y[&&DG>!X[J%ND48E7`&?F8GKZ9KB M/$,`CO([E58)<#:V1C)'?^7Y&O5-<TS[#?W5G+\SQ$A9",?*>00.W!%<-K]L M+G3Y5"G?$#(K8X&!S]<C-=*>M^X..ECZ0^$GB`^(/`6ESO(9+RR7[%<DG)W1 MX"D_5-ASZYKJ(Q':_:(\I%;J3.N<*J!B2_\`X]EB?]JOG[]F[7UAU_4O#\SA M%U*`2PACUFBR2!]49C_P$5]`WT$4DEI/(BN()0?FZ<\`X]0VT^V*]"#O$X9J MS&M+=7C#[.S6]F#\TS+^\E&/X`?NCG[QYZX'1JD$=M96K,2D%L@+R/(V%7N6 M=C^9)-,U+4[73HE^TL\L\N1;VD(W37##^%%[_4X`ZD@50M=.N]0D-YXA2,%9 M=UOIL<V^&$#&UI"`/,DR,\Y5>,#/-5U$,ANKO7&=+!KFPTF-]CW9C:.:[.T' M$(8?+'\W^LZG!"X^]5V'3;.PTVXLM.MHK6%M\FU.\A&=[$\LV0"23DXK1+%O MO-N;U-96LW7EQBVC;YWZGT6KA!RE9;D5*BA%R>QDZM>F^N`5XB4?*/<]:H[: ME"TNVO:A%0BHH\"I-SDY/J0[:-M3;:-O^<55R2';14VVBG<#7A7*U8"X%);K M\M3E:\Z4M3T(K0KFDJ0H?2E"'%.X6(U'-7((-]0;<5:MW8<"L*\I*#<36DES M68D\*J.,52(P:TI%)%5I(\=JY,%7<KQD;XBDDDXD`/(JU%)BH-M/08KJKP4X M6,*4N65RXA+'O7!>+XET37H=8C0E7)D.T\CM)CMG!)YXYKO8VPM97BC3!J6D MOE<R09D7W'\0_+G\*\*:^S(]6D[2YD>=_$73!FUU1)WGC?$9+!<`?>0_*HSW MZ^U>8ZBH$S%0&#=>>,]Z]HAL_P"V?#5SIKF47%OF(*)6V\<QG&<8Z#'L:\DU M)/W1!4ATY*XQM]0?2LZ3O'E['=4^)26S.`TF]F\*^+;34K?<3I]S'<(A.-Z@ M@E<^ZY!K[2>6+4-,,^GW*F&\MM]M-MW#:Z91L=^H-?&/BB$J;>\QR"8VQZ=1 M_6OHOX"Z^=7\#_V9.^^[T:7[-R<DPMEHB?\`Q]?HHKT:$KZ'%6C8[?1M+^P1 M?:;FX-YJ\Z*+R_9`'G([`=$3/11@#KUR:TST(YSU)I=HS][ITIN1R<CC@C-= M25CG(KF=8(FD8]!P#WKFI&>61I9.7;DU?U"8SR[5_P!6G`'J:J[:[\/#E7,] MV>5BZW/+E6R(=OM^M&VIMOM2[?:NGF..Q!M-&RIPM&VCF"Q!LHJ?;11S!8U( M.%%6`,U!$"%%6$[&N"1Z,-B3R@!DU"P`-75^=<5!+'BN2E5:FXR.B<%RIHKX MIZ'!H`IP%=4K-6,46T8$<TR9`5R*C&3@"K")A>:\F3=*MY'<HJ=/S*.REVU. MZ8/%15ZBGS*YQ.-AT0)8"M!0,#@$>E9ZDCI5^#[N6->+BJ:C4;9Z-*;E!6// M)X_L'B.2SN(5>UFW(-Z@A?XE;GIQQ^->>>,;2WLM5D%N4-O.OF(D9!V]B/SY M_&O7?'Z1?989XW"W*`[?48.0?SS7G7CB[T^^TI;MKB&.Z@(=U!S@$?,,C/?W M[5S4VU-=F=\7S4[/H>2ZI;F:"XMC@Y4A1[]1S^5;'[/_`(A_LGQQ#IT[8M=6 MC^QODX`E!W1'ZY!7_@=5-(T_6/&NLG3/#-M_JP/M%[/\L4"YX9C_`"'4XX!K MH?B?X`A\"Z#H.O:)<337MO=D7MZ^<O,</$X3HB@HX_$9)KOIQE'4YZDD]#Z/ M.20<=>.M4K^?8#$AP6'/L*ATS7+;6-!L-=MQB*_MTF5,YVL1ROU#9'X5$P9R MS-U)YKTZ,>9W>QYF)J\D;+=E?;2[:FV4NRNSF/*Y2#;[4;?:IPAI=AHYA\I! MMHVY[5,%Y%*%S1S"L5]OM15C;11SARLOB`?\LR6&.N*E6)RVT`TJ,``4<@4\ MMU/FDFN)R9Z:A$ECC*!3N4Y'Y42KS@X_"H!(S'!)JU'RN#BN'$4VFIHZ*4DT MTRFRX-*D;N<(N?PJ?!4Y"YS^E,\QQD=/6NN$W*-S%Q2>HYX6A(R5/T-+&^\X M)Q46XDY/ZU+%C=G^5<N+IR:3-Z$HIV'M&-I+-@>U575=WRY_$5=D7=@@5#LY MX&"/6C"5;KE8JU/6Z(%X(HN[R.TMGGE)V(.@'+'H%'N3Q4Y,G```&:Y#QGJ= MWIVH:?*%C$:0R2PR/R%F!PS$=,JK#&>/F)[#%XF'/$5#213\1_:%MKA[UT2Y MN<[8LY8#MQV4<8SUZUXU9:/>>+O$-GI<$91)IBLTV/\`5HO,A_`?J5'<5ZII MVARZK;3ZWXAN9K/1(T:>1V.);E`"S,3U5,#K]YNV.IZOPE92"VDUFYMOL<MY M$JVUEL"#3[,9*18[,<[W]SCHHK"G0Y;'5*I>]C0T;2=-T+38M)T>U6VLXONH MG5R>K,>K,?4USOCIK+6_#VK:$SPBT9=E[=R,=ELP.\*N!\\H*@[1]T<L>BLW M5?$<UW>6]CI>G7]QI]XYMH[NWVJ;N;:6V1,2,1[4D+3#T^7/6NJ\)6MK+:P7 MSVHBNH0]LUK\ICLG1BLD<8```R#\V,L"#T.*UG547RV%"%US7.0^'^AR:)X. MT737NENVB@+K)$#L_>L9/E]1\_7O[5T80YQ@YSZ52\)1RV6BIHZLS'3)YK`$ M_>\N.0B'/N8C$?QK?6%@JY<[SZ<UVPJ<L58\R=)SFVRO:6JRR?OY/*C!Y]3[ M"K?]G6TDRK%,57/0D$FFL&50=BKGJ03S1'*R@HI5<]3W-3*4F[IEQA"*LT32 MZ9:PDAFF/IR/\*JS16.2-K+]&S0VXX&XD>M($QG`!..]$>;JPDHO:(Q;:-ND MI`'J*D2P#8`D))Z`+2MDA<C@=!BG)/-""(\C/%-RET9*IP6Z$-G$G.]\CVHJ MM)/*H+,Q"]RQHI\LWU$^3H@C'RBI%'/3-9"2LT?+,?J:>K'L35.++1KC(J:% MB&]ZQU=_X68#ZTJO\V=Q)K.<+IHN+LSHF.4Y(JDP(8GM4$4K.-O)JO<Q[6.1 MBN2@O9OEDS:I[RNB_N@0`O(I)_AS3!/",8<9]@:S00#BE#+GO76X)JS,4VC= MCFCV9R352>["GA3559@J]344D@;FN.CAW&IS=#>=2\;%E;Z/C,;Y]0:9=#3+ MX0B^MHK@0R"6(31;MK8ZBJ3,!U-1O.BCEABNYPBSG3DMC0OY[2\MKBTNG8PW M$;1/P<[6!!_G6&\EWJ\:Q^(9+:.W3;YEM;.S+=N.K2':,(3TC'']XGH&7%ZG M(!S5![U5/S`XS^-4J4-V2YSV1T-YY=];E8+N)+J-EEMI".(Y5.4/TSP0.JDC MO3M.U2%-8BO1']FCUQ#%<0F3/D:A"N"A/=FC5AD<$0*1]ZN9%_&77=$6/;(P M*IW-Q,9;B&&)5DOGBDA8MA8[V(AK=V]%8JL;'N-H]:Y\12B]4;X:3AHSJFND MTWQ3JL<V\0:E!%?Q-C.94`@F`^BI;'_@1JT-9M,E<R@#N5XKFM8O/[0TW0]> MMXW0+<>5,CC#QQW`\MD8?WEG6$$?[)JL9Y>B(S,.P'0U5+EY=0JQ;E='9?VM M:8)\W@<<*?\`"HI-9L%;:TV3["N2:"=HSYWKGKBB*&5MH7!'./EY!IN<%L3[ M.1TIUV`$X4D?45'_`&Z=Q/DICV))KG;N`@>4;ID8`]%^\?KT%5HXU`7S)95= MSAE&#1SIH/969T"Z_>F0A8T,8/=<9^F#FF-KUT=VZ2)&[*$S5!9+*//E0NS9 M`W2@GCV&:'N5CY$$2J3T5<'-3[1]B_9Q1,]\]UAYG)7G[_'Z452FG3=$0B`G M.,#`/U-%)RD^I221NPSJ4!IWGH&S67;++Y8+#'X&K(@F8$@<#J>E4ZIFJ1?6 MZ6G_`&D>E93"1"!N4_1JD"3'NG3./,'^-2ZA2IFW9W@#XQ5F]EW@%<5@QP7( MPP08SC[XJ[&7QM<J#C^\#_*N'$WYE.)T4DM4R&6X<$\_I4?VF3^^11*#NQO0 M?C5=@H^\P8]B#FNN-1M:F3IJY*9F.<RO]*-X/5G/XU7;:0."/H:=L?!./D[& MGSL7*/,JK]T?G5.>\V@C*TVXDV<\8_VJR+BY49RR_7/%"D#3)Y;O><!OR!IB MRD]'4'U4<U0,XQ_K"1WZTPW2?P<_7I1SBY&:6[G);)'&<4DFR6)H6D8(PP=I MP1[@]C[UE_:+AFS'Y6WON&!_.I8[F5A]V(J.K)G`I<Z'R,>3J=X7L[IU@TU+ MM+R01XW7<R[6/`)"1&1?-(^\6)Z`<ZGF2D'YWQCUK)%R6SYDHC4?W1R:K3"2 M3]]YLC0AMO.<$U/,D7RMF\C*#ER0/UIKWEO&?FGP<8^]DG\JY^-X4D9Y(@8] MI`SUS38'=4(&!NXR1Q2<@43;_M2S4$&=@.^%8C^51C5]/^;:7/JPB.3^)K'V MXP78;1P<GKFF2QC:"C-]1T^M',/D1O)K-C'\H9U([F(Y'XT+JVG-PMP,Y/WE M(K%E0D+CYFQD[<X(_P`:>ZQ.B,R+$\:[1@9#_AV//6CF#D1T"7,4@RCHX'(( M(-%8,>_<H*1D`YY%%)S!0/0[/[@^@JT/XOK112(1!)]\_C5)NK445;V'U)X> MWUK1B^Z?K1142V-$4)?X_J:J/_2BBA$#E^\OUI+C[XHHJ9;E&5?=#]*YVY_U MC444XBEN00]9/]VGQ]11138D1=_QJU+_`*A/JO\`*BB@HKR?<'TJQ_RY+_O& MBBI![D'\8^M/NON?@:**$45E^[']*NQ=_I115+8)$T'^K'XTP]!_O445)*%F +^Z:***B.Q:V/_]E0 ` end sum -r/size 58726/9285 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 45230/6716 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Рентгеновская обсерватория закончила свою работу Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Рентгеновская обсерватория закончила свою работу [SpaceViews] Hемецкий спутник ROSAT (на рисунке), который занимался астрономическими исследованиями с использованием рентгеновского телескопа, прекратил свою работу. Решение об этом было принято, когда стало ясно, что установленная на нем камера высокого разрешения не поддается ремонту. Камера была повреждена в сентябре, когда она была направлена слишком близко к Солнцу. Спутник ROSAT был запущен в 1990 г. и за последние месяцы с ним неоднократно возникали проблемы. В апреле вышло из строя устройство навигации по звездам, используемое для сохранения надлежащей ориентации спутника. Проблему пришлось решать с помощью нового программного обеспечения, но в течение лета спутник больше простаивал, чем работал. В сентябре случилась авария с камерой высокого разрешения, после чего астрономические исследования были практически прекращены. Вообще, спутник ROSAT с самого начала преследовали неудачи. Сначала предполагалось, что его вывод на орбиту осуществит "шаттл" в 1987 г., но после трагедии в 1986 г. с космическим кораблем Challenger старт был отложен и запуск состоялся только в июне 1990 г. на ракете-носителе Delta 2. В течение первых 6 месяцев своей работы ROSAT производил обзор всего неба в рентгеновском диапазоне длин волн, в результате чего в космосе было обнаружено более 60 тыс. источников рентгеновского излучения, то есть в 100 раз больше, чем было известно ранее. Затем ROSAT использовался для исследований рентгеновского излучения комет, квазаров и нейтронных звезд. Источник: InfoArt News Agency section 1 of 1 of file sv-11166.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-11166.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`"5`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! M`0$!`0````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1$``@$"!`0#!`<%!`0``0)W``$" M`Q$$!2$Q!A)!40=A<1,B,H$(%$*1H;'!"2,S4O`58G+1"A8D-.$E\1<8&1HF M)R@I*C4V-S@Y.D-$149'2$E*4U155E=865IC9&5F9VAI:G-T=79W>'EZ@H.$ MA8:'B(F*DI.4E9:7F)F:HJ.DI::GJ*FJLK.TM;:WN+FZPL/$Q<;'R,G*TM/4 MU=;7V-G:XN/DY>;GZ.GJ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_]H`#`,!``(1`Q$`/P#R#%&.,]J* M*8"Y-&?P^E(!DX%."^M-*X!U[G%*..!5RQL+J^64VUN\HB4L^WDJ/6JF:W5+ ME2E(A23;2Z#XW*'(ZD<<?2AG=CDDD]!Q41([4A-#KRM9!R*]Q[,22223UYIN MZFTH/UQ6,IME)"NKKM+J5W`$9&,CU%-HHJ1A0#BBB@!<_2C-)10`N30,G@4E M7=,T^ZU&Z2UM(C),_0=!^-5"#D[(F4E%7>Q3QBCBMG7M!U+0IDBU"$(7&58< MCITSZ\UCX/3GBJG"479JS%"<91YHNZ$Q[TE/Q^?N:3:/6HL4-HI2#^'K1BBP MQ****0"@'GCKQ2A??\J</K03CN>G>M>1+5BN`X[?_6I.GH*0M[4A/)(SCZTG M*VP6+MAJ=_IS3?V?>W%KY\;12^5(5WH>JG'4&J8SC'.*3CWHR.PJ7-M6!)+4 M,#_)HP/\FC/T_*@-S4C%P/\`)I,#_)HS1G_:-(`P/\FEP/\`)H)_VC^5)GW/ MY4P%P/3]:,#T_6DS[G\J,^Y_*D`8'^31@?Y-&?3^5&?I^5,!P)7E<?B`?YUN M^'?$^H:'>I<VK0H0<Y%O$3[=5K`S[#\J,Y!SG\ZN-24=F3*"DK-7.N\:>,K[ MQ/.)+@QD`#CR57&.@`&3^.:Y+=GJ!^%-I:IU&]Q1BH[(=]*=4?-;?A2\T>SU MZTN-?LGO--0GS8$ZD8..XS@GUI1LW9NPY.R=E<QN.I&1]:;5G4I+66_N9+*` MP6CRNT,1;)C0D[5)[X&*JTI:-I#6JN%%%%0,L7$302O$[*77@[6W#\ZKT$Y. M:*J33=T))I:ENR%BSLEZ94#(P21&X5\?*6&TDKGKCG'2EET^X6-IHMEQ`O)E M@;>`/5A]Y1_O`53I\,LD,BRQ2-'(O*NC%6'T(H36S!I[H8"#T(-%;?\`:L.I M&-->:>58+8PP3P!?-3:I\M2"0K)N//\`%@]3C%58M,ENH7EL'%R$QNB48E4' MOY?5AQU7..,XR*.6^VHN;OH9U%`(/0T5)04444`%%%*0!C!SQSQ0`E%%%`!1 M110`4444`%`H`R0`,DTO(/H10`&DHHH`****`"BBB@`HI<FC)H`,8'(ZCBDH MS2Y'H*`$HQW[BER/04^"&6YFCM[>)I9Y6"1H@)9F)P`!W)-`%PZG)-A=0B2\ M7&-\AQ*![2#DX'3=N`]*L6VE3ZA9WEYIMI(;6T9#+/*X`CWD*%9N%Z]&X[^U M;/B+5Y=$U-M%T+[+:QZ:HM9+FWMD6::9!B63S<%\%]^/F^Z%X%9B^*_%`D5S MXCU9BH/W[R1A@]003@@]QT--MR)M;9&CX;\`Z_K\<MU$L%GIT.?,O;N4+%@= M2",EA_M`;?4BKFK^"M#T^V61?B!H4\Q/*1[Y%_.+>?TK2L/B?J%U<VS^(I;\ MM"`HO--E\IL`EAOA/[I^<8P$/')(XKI(].L/'NN&&"'2M7M)P9'U&*1=/O[4 M_*6\Q`I\T<8&8V&6^\,$US2A6]IJ[1Z:?G?_`(!LE'DOUZH\/&#ZUJZ5I]I= MP74ESJ"VC1J/++0ET9NX8J=RC'<*W/IUKHM0\%0RWLUMX9U^TU6XBD,9LI@+ M6YW`L/W88[91\O56).?NURMU'>:?)-87<$UM,I!D@FC:-P<="#R.QKMI.#NY M=C&:ETT9WH^&DE]H5IJV@:A#JADBWW,0N(81;/\`)B,MN(W'<V`=O"\X/%</ MJFGWVCW0M=5T>>REVG;'.KH6'(W#/49[C@XJE#+-!*)8)7BD`.'C8J?S%=9H MGCB^LE@L=3B34-(65#)9NB%&0')41LK(O&>556R<[JA/^K"LU_PYR^^Q\M08 M+@28.YA.I!/L-G'YU$D?F.J*6)8XX7/?MZUZ+?:;X`\0SM<:5JT^DSSN7^S_ M`&+*0*%`"&/>6)+`G=&6X)!5<#.;/X0UW1[.^OHXHKZVC3:;W3V\Y(R`"RL, M;XR`0"&536E&*G)*>B%-\J?+JSCKBV:!]CM'OQDJ&R1['WIB032$B.-I"/[@ MW?RH!#G@Y)/U)K6M8C%`,YW-R:WHX>-5M[(FI5<(J^K,;.#Z,/S%)6A>7;S$ M1.PDC0G;O&2/H>N/;-52+=VXW1'ON.X?H,C\C7/4I<KLF:1FVKM$-%6&M+E; M07AMY?LC2&(3A3Y9<`$KNZ;L$''7FJ^*R*N%%*![T8H`2BE&**`$HI<>X_.C M'N*`$HI<>XHX]10`E=M\)=,GU+QG8R0P)-]C;SU4R)\K@'8^QG4NJMM9@IS@ M?2N*P/44A53UP:!,ZWQ3X!\1^&3,UW:K<VD/#7=HWFQKT^]W3K_$!D],URB] M#S6YX+U"YTOQ+IL]M>S6JFXC$K1.R;HRX#`XZC!->G7O@^#Q%J\EK<^'$TB9 MOF75=/E1()$SC<T+%00!C.P@YR23TJ%6A":C)V;-51G*#FE=(\?NE*"",#`V MAC[DU%;3SVMQ'<VTSPSQ,&CEB8HR,.A!'(-=]J'P\UF[OI(=%O\`1M52WCPT MEKJ$78X&5)!4D\<\9.,U2N/AEX\ME3S/#L[`_*/*FBD.<=]K''3O[>U==>:E M*\=4<\-(V>Y-9>/Y[RS_`+/\5Z=#K5OY9B6Z=%%W"#CD.00V.3R-Q/\`$*Z[ M0OLWBJ)-!AN;/7].:1?LL6J7#6U[8((F+[6PS'Y@F-GF+@8(`.1YQ_PAGBQ2 M!)X8UA1GM92$<G'936II&DWFGW:_;]/N;?:<$7$#1\CJ/F`YI4,'&J]'9O\` MK85?%RI0LU=?UU)]>\%Z7%JUUIVCZ_"M["[I]AU53;.Q4[?W<K`1R9.<$["< M=*Y#5M)U/1;O['JUA<6EQR=DZ%=PSC*YX89!Y&0:[.^\;7J3/!J"VFLV62OD MWPW.%R>%E!$@ZG`)*C/2N@\.:[X;U:VGT6.ZM+"UFB#0Z?KK&:U@D2/A8WZ+ MN8R%I,HWS`*N>3C5C.E/E>J[HTIRA."DM/)GE-O#&;>6YEY575$0'&XU?TOQ M%JFEW27%C<-#)%C848JR`=@P.<>JG*GN#6S/%X6U&V:V6>X\,7Z$R&UO$>XM MG8A1\L@!D0?>.&5O]ZLC6O"^L:+%'=7-LLMA*<17]JXFMI.2/ED4E<\'@X/L M*Z)5+I0C\_4S45=R?R/0M7\0^!_',W]HZG9ZGI>J[%C`MEB=`07.XN0-_P!Y M<AMI^48[YRK[P;=SQM-X;O[77(]I*QQ9@N=J@9;R'P2,GJI.:YG3H?+MQD<] M21WJI-JES97(-M*JX<2&.1%DC+#IN1@5;'N*['2=&G[LCE53VE1JQEW$4]M/ M+;W$3Q3Q,5DCD!5D8<$$'H:?I]C<ZC?6VGV49DNKEUCB0=V)P*]2@\3^(/&" M13:[X*?7;,*(O,M].?@`@DK(@W1L2.2&*_[%1ZY8V7@;37U;3-&UBSU+5(F@ MM)[J:*2*V#?ZQHF7$FXH0JEE4@%CDUYLFV[L[4^AQ/C&6P6^M](TR436>E0_ M91<`@BXDWLTD@QQM+,0O^PJUBS6MQ"D<DT$L:2H'C9T*AU.0&&1R,@C/L:KX MQQBK$MW=3I%'/<RRI$@CC61RP1`20H!Z#)/`]32TZA9K8@-"]1DG'M1FDI(H ML78MUNI5LY99;8,?+>5`C,O8E02`?Q-%044-@E8,>]&/>ER*,BI`3'O4A=A% MY7R[<[ONC.?KC-,R*3(ZC---K835Q<C_`"!29%+G_:-&?]H_G2&.?:LC!&RH M)"DK@D=CCM7I=WKUM>Z=_:\5[?Q2DQ_:H+=\P%B.1,A(ZLDF",_+LSR:\S_$ M_G6GH5H=0O?L#7T-I',C;Y)Y51,*"0"795SD#'/>L:].,[2>EOZ9U86O*D^5 M=?S6S.[^#;"*/7[C=L++!'Y@ZKN+GC'))*@87YCG`*YW#W+P:XDAOVRNY)UB M94&%0B-3M&.!C=T&0.F6(+'Y\\&2C2)=9@ANHYRDL+>;$<JT8$H+[@?D7YE! M;J,X')%>X?#JZ,VF:A(00#>``<``"WA`PO\`"..!R1W.<UVPU@FCR,0W&H^; MH=PI]"?PJ52?K^-9>I73VUC)-&RK("JJ64L-Q8*!M')R3TR,GN.H-)U-;]2K M1;)`H?(.]",XX(ZX/ID>C-@XAH=.?0NW>&$:NRK&23(&`(9<<@Y[5XC)K*:G M$=7L_!>G:I%J&HK'IMBVEH\GV.(@32[@IQN9E7YN%)/I7LNMN(=,NK@SQ6ZQ M6\CF:5-R1@*?F8=P.I%?+?C_`,6RZM?W&F:1<R6_AF#$%I91,4B9%_B91C=N M8;ANY'%<%&51U:B>R:MZ67ZG=IRIGH5W;:5J]K/IDMGX:N%WJ8;/0H(8+J,[ MAA7F:0QQDL44B/>6+$+T->6R^*M1TW5II/#P@T>V0F);>R8R12J"V/,+9\[J M>7R/0`<5:L=3.@^#X[G35N+75M2GD@^V*"A6W3:65&[EF9,D9(V$<9YM^(O! M+>%/#^GZS?ZEI]Q/>%&M;:+]X''#$GC#*!@$CC+#US7>J:OO<QY[:6*=SXT6 M2",P>&-#AO"I$LYA+HQ[%86)C3CJ-I!)Z#I2-XTU1='AM["5=-O_`#Y#-<:; M!':^=&53:A\H*<A@W/?=UXJ?1M831+M+N]\&PCRQNS'O0\CJ?-#_`%XQ787F MH:IXFM;?7K;3[2T,3*MO=7D42.I!^4))NWL0>F%ZGBNKV+DM9/YW.65?V;LH MZ=[K<\UUR#Q-.;.X\0'4Y#<J#;/J#N3(O'W6<].1S[U%>Z%-8EEGN[+S%X*Q MR[^<]`5!'ZUTR66LZX3>77B.*:)GV[O/Y+'/&&P<]>,5T&G>!8K6!;W5V,5L MI!#7DB6R/QU!<@$<]C6\,)3M>3T]4B)XN2=NO9)O]#@;#PMK6I6<EW8VHECC M.-N[:S?[H.`?H.:QKJVFM)W@NX);>5>L4JE6'U!P:]PNM>\,Z<%MF\0Z9$%' M"VH>X"CT!C4J3_P(?6N:N?&?A$6<L,]KJNMN6/[NZCB@C(]029&!]P`?I65: MEATO<EK]X4*^)D[RAI]S/+L>XI",&K=_+;3WUS-9VOV2U>1C%;^89/*0GA=Y MY;`XR:@KCL>@1XHI_P"7X44`,^;T/Y4HR",KD9SCIFDX]*./2H&.8DLQ5"JD MDA>N!Z9IOS=,'\J./2C(]*0!\WH?RI?F]#^5)D>E''I3`7G^[28/<?F*,CTH MX]*`.@\(:G9Z5J;RWZS+')&$$L(^:)MP(;U_+FOH#PP##IR2VPAFL+C,BSVR MA1(6`!)Q@,?7[K9ZFOEZMWPUXFUKPS=>?I%Z\2L1YD+`/'*!_>0\'Z]1V(K6 MG4Y=T<V(P_M5HSZGUN=%T60NY,<DD:%@6X!89!`^8].1QD$Y(&2&^#R&O;]E M((,$&"0`WWI1SCMA1C:!'C&S(^8\/X4^+&A:P/L/B&U32IY`$:1OWEK+G`^; M(R@)/\65P.6KU#2--LK9Y[RR/RW81B58,K`%B&![YW$YR>V,#%$Y)K0RH4Y0 M?*T3:S:0:EI-[IDS.([NW>&0QGYMC@@X)!YP3CBOC3Q!IL^CZO=Z=.07MY"N M\<;EZJ?Q&#^-?96J-+;P374">9,H4;2>H!Z`>O/M7SO\7=-\-^=;ZMI<T[7] M]%)-,IF#8D5DR9$/*9#-@+QP,``5YE.M+ZPXR=NR^>YZ?)^[O;J<5%K-QIFE MQZ=`VG723(THF9/-:#S%4,HW@;'4KR0.O()&#69I]]);7FGRS+]I@M)ED6WD M;Y"`P9E]LXYJH@1V(>01K@D$@G/MQ38R`P++D=QG%>DI-M:G/R))Z;GMOC/X MB:1XJTB"WMK)TQF:\\X`':G*Q*V#]Y\9]E]ZX[5/%$TT2RV%P77?YD*L^'L_ MDV/#_M*?W9!Q@[>0"#C&M(?/CCBTV"X#74RB%(Y`')51R6/0`AC[5T-SH%[= M:?;:I;W:W=S)$PO5NKU#)`^XA"Q8J2OEF,9YPP93@C%=2?+[J?\`7D<<HQW: M^_\`4CT_5H+?097G1CY\7V=?/!<E@<;5[8&=^>,$*.[>9Q>K01PZG=1H`%$I MV@#&T'G'MC-=1:6?^E6\:7=Q;PM`'2[@B79.B,?-8R$JR`<C&">!D<U!I7A^ M\\4:U/.BFTLY)'E>1^1$F20/P'%5[.531:_UJ.,X4FY2=E;_`(8YY+0_87O9 M#A"_E1CN[8R?P`Q^8JH*W/%=Y:7&I"WTT,NG6B"&`$<D#JQ]R<FL0GW_`$K& MLHQERQZ?F=-*3DN9]?P%HI**RL:"<?\`ZZ*!_GBBG80RBBBL2@HHHH`.IS2Y MX`P..])10`X#O@X/3WKLO%,/@I/#^D-H%Q-)JKJ/MBL6(''S=1@?-TQ7&#OS MTHR36D)I1:MN9RAS-.[5OQ]0YP#_`"HYHIPXJ2P&1Q70>'_%.L:%)$EM=236 M*[A)I\[L]M,CC#(T9.W#`\\9[]JP*6G:^X'T;X+U"?4[>)-)NI9_";0LK0Y! MN](FSN"ECRZ`$[6PV0`#TR9_&WA/1-2U5[VVT[2S-92Q0M!.QA6=Y"I9Y6&" M41&5A@\MO!R<`^$>#?$=WX6\06^LV:"4Q_+-"6*K-&PPR''YC@X(!P<5Z;J5 MW9^*M6T74M$UJ)#/JD-TEMJ%HZO#.NQ!&LH!1A\JDH3T&1UQ7,Z:ISYDM^OZ M&O,YQM?;\3);X=^&;2:?3M:\3SZ9J:K&8VE@!MVRN3M;C<`6VY^7.PMC##&5 MJGPU\0Z4DEW9Z=;^(=/DA*136<C28)7`D"H0<@\@<CUS7I'BW7?%EUK.A^&[ MS3X+60&2\NWBVSI=0HIRJJP]-V5(Z[2.E9K6-CH\=QKV@:E=>'_)5I+FW8F2 MV(Z`<?,I.<#AN<5M3A4G%U(6:.>=>C"2IRNFSD=.TBQ_L!H[77+1GM;AFA>X M!M2SLJ+/"PEP&QA2,-C:S!@I<"KVLV6K7\:23^5;"8*HG:^_<H^\-G##+$@$ MDL[L2>6/6N!\33:1-<PMI-B]FK1+)+$;E9D#L`1L*]/E(SGD'(."*O:CXPU# M5(K.ZU#8VKV&[[/J$(6.9\E=I<A</LVMCHV7SG@YZ54C3=K7,)4I3]Y.WD_^ M'.TT&YT6TAO;B#48VMX;C?(X9)(T9F168POSY>"H#!3E@N3A?FZC6?&7@"QT MBXT.(R+)(H69[`#&[&3ALX//8<#IVKY\3`VD8RN,&E/'2M85NK[^G_#BG@XR M>K>W]/7J;U_IV@R.9-+\0*5/2.]@=&_-0R_F15'^QK]C_HZQ7/H+>9)"?P!S M^E9]!_`TW.,G=K[C6,)15E*_JO\`*PZ6.2)S'*C1N.JN-I'X&F8JU#>74041 MS-L7HC_.GXJ<@_E1+<QS',EI`K'JT68R?PSM'X"IY8O9EW:W16HI25SQN`]# MS_A11R,=R*BBBN(L,\$4444`+VQ1244T`H[TN.3_`%[4@ZTX>@_#Z_A3$&/I M2TGTX]*7\J8"TE)_*C'L:I(`_6N[\*_$&\TC2DT"_L;74M&^<?9KE<J-S%NN M,YW$G/Z5PF/:EIN"DK,76Z.UUGQG=2?V4=.U&]:?36::SO)^)8-X`>$G)#I\ MHP3V)7!!K$USQ/K.N((=0NHOLZG=Y-O"L2,V,;B%`!/UZ<XQ6+15J/;1"Y%H MWJUU>X*1D[AD'\Q3BJ$<..G0@J?ZBFT4^5,8;=O8?4'-%%(33C#L`M)FDS29 MK10$/IN:3-!_&K4`%S10%HJ_9"YD-HHHKRC0****``4HHHJD`H&2/>ESQ^%% M%,0O<C_/6C_ZU%%4M@'!`82^3D,H_,,?Z5'115(04ZBBK`****I`%%%%4MQ# M:0]#116D`%QT/K3@HQD\_P"1_C116Z1#8]D`!/I_B/\`&A$##/0@"BBM+*Y- -]"78H[4445M9&9__V0#H ` end sum -r/size 64199/8917 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 34215/6448 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: First element of International Space Station to be launched on 20 Nove Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space Agency Press Release No. 50-98 Paris, France 18 November 1998 First element of International Space Station to be launched on 20 November The first component of the International Space Station is scheduled to be launched atop a Russian Proton launcher from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:40 local time (07:40 Central European Time) on Friday 20 November, kicking off a new era in the human exploration of space. The Space Station will provide a permanent workplace in orbit for men and women of many different nationalities. It will be assembled element by element over the next five years and, when completed in 2004, the complex will be the largest ever structure in space, stretching over 100 metres and sprawling across an area the size of a football field. The first element in orbit, the Russian-built, US-owned control module named Zarya (a Russian word meaning "daybreak"), will provide the initial propulsion and power for the future Space Station. Two weeks later, on 3 December, the second element will be launched. Carried into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Unity module will be attached to Zarya to begin the Space Station's orbital assembly. The European Space Agency is one of five partners in this international endeavour, together with the United States, Russia, Japan and Canada. ESA is contributing two major elements -- the Columbus laboratory and an Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). The first is a multi-purpose scientific and technological laboratory, to be added to the Space Station in the year 2002/2003, and the second is a transport vessel to be launched by Europe's Ariane 5 to carry supplies to the Space Station. Europe is also supplying scientific and technical equipment to NASA and the Russian Space Agency (RKA), and will take part in 19 of the 45 flights planned during the five-year assembly phase. The first European element, a data management system that will act as the "brain" of the Russian Service Module, will be launched on the fourth assembly flight early next summer. Ten of ESA's 14 member states are participating in the Space Station: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. For further information and daily status reports on the International Space Station, see ESA's Space Station web page: www.estec.esa.nl/spaceflight. Note to editors: ESA will provide live images of the launch from Baikonur, hosted by Kate Bellamy and ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter and complemented by status reports from the Russian mission control centre TsUP near Moscow, on 20 November. The feed will be transmitted in analog PAL mode. Broadcasters are welcome to use the feed: Transponder up: 06:45 CET Start of programme: 07:00 CET Scheduled lift-off: 07:40 CET End of programme: 08:15 CET Transponder down: 08:30 CET Satellite: Eutelsat 2F2 Position : 10 degrees EAST Transponder: XP25 Polarisation: Vertical Frequency: 10.9716 GHz Sound subcarrier: 6.6 MHz (English) For further information, please contact: ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax:+33(0)1.53.69.7690 Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: UCLA Geochemist's Fossil Meteorite Provides Strong Evidence that Aster Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... University of California-Los Angeles Contact: Stuart Wolpert, stuartw@college.ucla.edu, (310) 206-0511 Date: November 18, 1998 UCLA Geochemist's Fossil Meteorite Provides Strong Evidence that Asteroid Caused Mass Extinctions 65 Million Years Ago UCLA geochemist Frank T. Kyte has found a fossil meteorite believed to be from the huge asteroid that crashed to Earth 65 million years ago -- the probable cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species worldwide. In the cover story of the Nov. 19 issue of the journal Nature, Kyte presents his analysis of the sample and concludes that the cosmic impactor, some six miles in diameter, that broadsided Mexico's Yucatan peninsula was probably an asteroid, and not a comet. "The fossil meteorite strongly supports the idea that the impactor was an asteroid and not a comet," Kyte said. "There is a strong probability that this is a bullet from a smoking gun." "That was one of the worst days the Earth had in the last billion years, and it is important to understand what happened." Kyte's analysis of the sample's texture and chemistry confirmed that the object is a meteorite. He considers it highly likely that the sample is from the asteroid that struck 65 million years ago, and if so, it is the first piece of the asteroid that is large enough to study and analyze. What is Kyte's evidence that the meteorite was from an asteroid? First, comets travel at much higher velocities than asteroids, most likely vaporizing themselves on collision, Kyte noted. Therefore, the mere fact that a sample survived the impact is evidence that the object was not a comet, he said. Second, Kyte's analysis suggests that the meteorite came from a typical, rocky carbonaceous chondrite -- a description of objects in the asteroid belt -- rather than the porous, fluffy type of interplanetary dust associated with icy comets. The fossil meteorite was encrusted in mud for 65 million years, buried beneath more than 50 yards of sediment in the North Pacific Ocean. It no longer has any of its original minerals, but its texture and shape remain the same, Kyte said. Kyte located the piece while studying a sediment layer from the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary -- whose sediments are widely recognized to contain the record of a large asteroid or comet impact -- and suspected right away that he found an important clue to the mystery of what happened 65 million years ago. "Although the fossil meteorite is only a tenth of an inch in size, it was 1,000 times bigger than anything else in the sediment, "Kyte said. "In this dark brown sediment, I saw this small white speck." In his National Science Foundation-funded research, Kyte analyzed the piece using UCLA's electron microprobe and neutron activation laboratories. He found it to be high in iridium -- an element that is abundant in meteorites. "That's when I knew I had something special -- a small chunk of the asteroid," Kyte said. Asteroids, which originate in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, are pieces of largely rocky material remaining from early in the evolution of the solar system. They did not form into planets, probably because of their close proximity to Jupiter. A typical asteroid travels at about 40,000 miles per hour, Kyte noted. Comets are from beyond Pluto, and travel about twice as fast, he said. Comets are believed to be composed of about half rocky material and half icy material. Some scientists think the destructive meteorite 65 million years ago is an example of comet showers that bombard the Earth every 25-30 million years, causing mass extinctions. If the impact was from an asteroid, as Kyte believes, such theories become harder to defend, he said. The impact 65 million years ago, at the end of what is known as the Cretaceous period, is believed to have had devastating effects on the world's climate, and has been implicated in the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other forms of life. Prior to the crash, a few thousand dinosaur species had thrived for 160 million years. Questions remain about how the asteroid affected the environment, how long it took for the extinctions to occur, and the exact size of the massive object. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 20 ноября 1998 (1998-11-20) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Football-size Bubble caused by Boiling in Space, UCLA Researchers , sa Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... University of California-Los Angeles Contact: David Brown, dbrown@ea.ucla.edu, (310) 206-0540 Date: November 13, 1998 Football-size Bubble caused by Boiling in Space, UCLA Researchers say Bubbles the size of footballs could wreak havoc on a plumbing system -- especially one aboard a spacecraft halfway between here and Mars. That is one of the reasons a team of researchers at the UCLA School of Engineering and Applied Science is taking part in a $6 million NASA research program to examine the effects of boiling in space. Headed by Vijay Dhir, Chairman of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, researchers will examine what happens when liquids change state and become vapor. The research is essential for future space exploration missions to Mars and beyond. Although boiling water on earth is a relatively mundane exercise, producing few, if any, surprises, it can effect everything from power systems to life support fluids aboard a spacecraft. Dhir's team will be studying both the positive and negative effects of the phenomenon. While on one hand, boiling is a very efficient mode of heat transfer to produce power, formation of large bubbles can have negative impact on life supporting liquids and on energy conversion system performance. Of primary concern will be "nucleate boiling," involving the bubbles which form on a heated surface. On earth, these bubbles are about one to two millimeters in diameter. In the absence of gravity, however, they can "swell to the size of a football before leaving the heater," Dhir said. "We've got to understand this phenomenon so we can properly design the heat exchange equipment to be used in space," Dhir said. Although this is not the first time the subject has been studied, previous experiments have yielded insufficient and often contradictory data. Experiments will be carried out on large silicon wafers, constructed in a manner similar to semiconductors. The wafers will be large enough to accommodate a bubble as much as 12 inches in diameter. Silicon wafers will be used as test surfaces because cavities of desired size and shape can be fabricated on their surfaces. The experiments will be carried out during future space shuttle flights or possibly aboard the space station. Dhir's department will share the $6 million grant over five years with other NASA labs. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года