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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 18 ноября 1998


    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - 15 November 1998 [1/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Welcome to the Space Calendar! This Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries for the upcoming year. It is also available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/ ** NOTE THAT THIS IS A NEW URL ** The WWW version of the Space Calendar includes over 1,000 links to related home pages. This calendar is compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke. Please send any updates or corrections to baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov. Note that launch dates are subject to change at any time. Also, note that anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only. The following people have contributed to this month's calendar: Roger Lighty, Andrew Yee, Philippe Berthe, Michele Orsini, Kurt Donaldson ========================= SPACE CALENDAR November 15, 1998 ========================= * indicates changes from last month's calendar. November 1998 * Nov ?? - Telstar-6 Proton Launch Nov 01 - Asteroid 102 Miriam Occults SAO 164159 (8.7 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Asteroid 576 Emanuela Occults TAC +096711 (10.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TS66 at Opposition (37.825 AU - 21.9 Mag) Nov 01 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Polyot 1 Launch (USSR), 1st Spacecraft With Extensive Maneuver Capability * Nov 02 - Asteroid 1998 SF35 Closest Approach To Earth (0.610 AU) Nov 03 - Taurids Meteor Shower Peak * Nov 03 - COmet P/1998 S1 Perihelion (2.548 AU) Nov 03 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mariner 10 Launch (Venus/Mercury Flyby Mission) * Nov 04 - Panamsat 8 Proton Launch Nov 05 - Globalstar Soyuz Launch Nov 05 - Asteroid 15 Eunomia at Opposition (7.9 Magnitude) * Nov 06 - Asteroid 1998 TT3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.266 AU) Nov 07 - Comet Takamizawa Perihelion (1.585 AU) Nov 08 - Asteroid 51 Nemausa at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 08 - Asteroid 4055 Magellan Closest Approach to Earth (0.983 AU) Nov 08 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Pioneer 9 Launch Nov 09 - Asteroid 69 Hesperia at Opposition (10.8 Magnitude) Nov 09 - Mercury Occults 184412 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 10 - Asteroid 46 Hestia at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 10 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Zond 6 Launch (Soviet Moon Flyby Mission) Nov 11 - Mercury Greatest Eastern Elongation (22 Degrees) Nov 11 - Asteroid 1996 Adams Closest Approach To Earth (1.395 AU) Nov 12 - Asteroid 1998 MQ Closest Approach To Earth (0.464 AU) Nov 12 - Asteroid 3907 Kilmartin Closest Approach To Earth (1.558 AU) Nov 13 - Insat-2E Ariane 4 Launch Nov 13 - Moon Occults Mars Nov 13 - Asteroid 145 Adeona Occults PPM 736551 (10.9 Magnitude Star) Nov 13 - 20th Anniversary (1978), HEAO 2 Launch (Einstein X-Ray Observatory) Nov 14 - Asteroid 1997 CX5 Closest Approach To Earth (0.740 AU) * Nov 14 - Asteroid 1994 VA1 Closest Approach To Earth (0.754 AU) * Nov 15 - Asteroid 1998 SS49 Near-Earth Flyby (0.253 AU) Nov 15 - Asteroid 7095 Lamettrie Closest Approach To Earth (2.062 AU) Nov 15 - 10th Anniversary (1988), 1st & Only Buran Launch (Soviet Space Shuttle) Nov 15 - William Herschell's 260th Birthday (1738) Nov 16 - Comet C/1998 G1 (LINEAR) Perihelion (2.132 AU) Nov 16 - Asteroid 6995 (1996 BZ1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.978 AU) Nov 16 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab-4 Launch Nov 17 - Leonids Meteor Shower Peak (Potential Meteor Storm) Nov 18 - Asteroid 270 Anahita at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) * Nov 19 - Bonum-1 Delta 2 Launch Nov 19 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #56 (OTM-56) Nov 19 - Comet Kowal-Vavorva Perihelion (2.575 AU) * Nov 19 - Asteroid 1998 SY14 Near-Earth Flyby (0.036 AU) Nov 19 - Asteroid 4125 Lew Allen Closest Approach To Earth (1.024 AU) Nov 20 - FGB (Functional Cargo Block) Proton-K Launch (Element of the International Space Station) Nov 20 - Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults PPM 709785 (9.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 20 - Asteroid 4300 (1955 SG1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.234 AU) Nov 21 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner Perihelion (1.034 AU) Nov 21 - Asteroid 45 Eugenia Occults SAO 94447 (8.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 22 - Galileo, Europa 18 Flyby * Nov 22 - Asteroid 9172 (1989 OB) Closest Approach To Earth (0.811 AU) Nov 23 - Asteroid 3753 Cruithne Near-Earth Flyby (0.313 AU) Nov 24 - QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) Titan II Launch Nov 24 - MCI 1 Atlas 2AS Launch * Nov 24 - SATMEX 5 Ariane 4 Launch Nov 24 - Asteroid 1865 Cerberus Near-Earth Flyby (0.1634 AU) Nov 24 - Asteroid 7050 (1982 FE3) Closest Approach To Earth (2.286 AU) Nov 25 - Asteroid FG3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.0384 AU) Nov 25 - Asteroid 7017 Uradowan Closest Approach To Earth (1.438 AU) Nov 26 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #57 (OTM-57) Nov 26 - Asteroid 5 Astraea at Opposition (9.8 Magnitude) Nov 26 - Asteroid 1627 Ivar Closest Approach To Earth (1.209 AU) * Nov 27 - IKONOS-1 Athena 2 Launch Nov 27 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner Closest Approach To Earth (0.850 AU) Nov 27 - Asteroid 7344 Summerfield Closest Approach To Earth (1.801 AU) Nov 28 - Moon Occults Jupiter Nov 28 - Mercury Passes 0.25 Degrees From Venus Nov 28 - Asteroid 42 Isis at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Asteroid 1989 UR Near-Earth Flyby (0.058 AU) * Nov 28 - Asteroid 1998 SA15 Near-Earth Flyby (0.151 AU) Nov 28 - Comet P/1997 T3 (Lagerkvist-Carsenty) Closest Approach To Earth (3.457 AU) Nov 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 UF25 At Opposition (43.905 AU - 25.5 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 UG25 At Opposition (42.320 AU - 24.8 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 VK8 At Opposition (42.519 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Nov 28 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-9 Launch (Columbia), 1st Flight of Spacelab (ESA) Nov 29 - Asteroid 1 Ceres at Opposition (7.0 Magnitude) Nov 29 - Asteroid 6265 (1985 TW3) Closest Approach To Earth (1.233 AU) Nov 29 - Asteroid 1992 RN1 Closest Approach To Earth (1.486 AU) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - 15 November 1998 [2/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... December 1998 Dec ?? - Chinasat-8 Long March 3B Launch Dec 02 - Asteroid 4268 Grebenikov Closest Approach To Earth (1.195 AU) Dec 02 - Asteroid 6877 Giada Closest Approach To Earth (1.346 AU) Dec 02 - Kuiper Belt Object YY3 at Opposition (29.786 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Dec 02 - Mercury at Perihelion Dec 02 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-27 Launch (Atlantis), DOD Classified Mission Dec 02 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-61 Launch (Endeavour), 1st Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Dec 03 - STS-88 Launch, Endeavour, 1st Space Station Assembly Flight * Dec 03 - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) Pegasus XL Launch * Dec 03 - Globalstar Soyuz Launch Dec 03 - Cassini, Deep Space Maneuver (TCM-5) Dec 04 - Venus Occults 185332 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 04 - Asteroid 1866 Sisypus Near-Earth Flyby (0.338 AU) * Dec 04 - Asteroid 8507 (1991 CB1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.155 AU) Dec 04 - Asteroid 7172 Multatuli Closest Approach To Earth (1.339 AU) Dec 04 - Asteroid 2915 Moskvina Closest Approach To Earth (1.530 AU) Dec 04 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus, Venus Orbit Insertion Dec 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Pioneer 10, Jupiter Flyby Dec 06 - Asteroid 3362 Khufu Near-Earth Flyby (0.364 AU) Dec 06 - Asteroid 7543 Prylis Closest Approach To Earth (3.911 AU) Dec 06 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Pioneer 3 Launch (Moon Flyby Mission) Dec 07 - Cassini at Aphelion (1.58 AU) Dec 07 - Comet Lovas 1 Closest Approach To Earth (0.870 AU) Dec 08 - Asteroid 1985 UJ Closest Approach To Earth (0.922 AU) Dec 08 - Asteroid 1994 SE Closest Approach To Earth (1.379 AU) Dec 09 - Asteroid 6524 Baalke at Opposition (1.251 AU - 15.0 Magnitude) Dec 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Landing on Venus Dec 10 - Mars Climate Orbiter Delta 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter) Dec 10 - Asteroid 6054 Ghiberti Closest Approach To Earth (1.550 AU) Dec 10 - Asteroid 1916 Boreas Closest Approach To Earth (1.687 AU) Dec 11 - Asteroid 52 Europa at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Dec 11 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77824 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3122 Florence Closest Approach to Earth (1.092 AU) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3772 Piaf Closest Approach To Earth (2.191 AU) Dec 12 - Tempo 1 Proton Launch (Russia) Dec 12 - Asteroid 7480 Norwan Near-Earth Flyby (0.360 AU) Dec 12 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 WY2 at Opposition (46.432 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Dec 13 - ICO Atlas 2AS Launch Dec 13 - Asteroid 6318 Cronkite Closest Approach To Earth (0.588 AU) Dec 13 - Asteroid 6326 (1991 FJ1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.451 AU) Dec 14 - Asteroid 4957 Brucemurray Closest Approach to Earth (0.718 AU) Dec 14 - Asteroid 3288 Seleucus Closest Approach To Earth (1.439 AU) Dec 15 - ROCSAT Athena 1 Launch * Dec 16 - Asteroid 5189 (1990 UQ) Closest Approach To Earth (1.163 AU) Dec 17 - LORAL Atlas 2 Launch * Dec 17 - Asteroid 5402 Kejosmith Closest Approach To Earth (1.021 AU) Dec 17 - 95th Anniversary (1903), Wright Brothers' 1st Airplane Flight Dec 18 - Nozomi (Planet-B), 2nd Moon Flyby Dec 18 - DSP Titan 4B Launch * Dec 18 - Asteroid 1993 RR2 Closest Approach To Earth (2.268 AU) * Dec 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Thaicom 1 Launch, 1st Thailand Satellite Dec 18 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Score Launch (1st Telecommunication Satellite) Dec 19 - Asteroid 6985 (1994 UF2) Closest Approach To Earth (1.226 AU) * Dec 19 - Asteroid 4559 Strauss Closest Approach To Earth (2.013 AU) Dec 20 - NEAR, 1st Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-1) Dec 20 - Nozomi (Planet-B), Earth Gravity Assist Dec 20 - Mercury At Its Greatest Western Elongation (21 Degrees) Dec 20 - Asteroid 3352 McAuliffe Near-Earth Flyby (0.396 AU) Dec 20 - 1st Day Of Ramadan Dec 21 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 21 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 8 Launch Dec 22 - Panamsat-6B Ariane 4 Launch Dec 22 - Winter Solstice, 01:55 UT Dec 22 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Closest Approach to Earth (1.103 AU) Dec 22 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77608 (8.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 23 - Cassini, Probe Checkout #3 Dec 23 - Comet C/1998 G1 (LINEAR)</a> Cosest Approach to Earth (1.982 AU) Dec 24 - Asteroid 49 Pales Occults PPM 206242 (9.5 Magnitude Star) * Dec 24 - Asteroid 7894 (1994 XC1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.754 AU) Dec 25 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #1 (TCM-1) Dec 25 - Moon Occults Jupiter Dec 25 - Asteroid 5164 Mullo Closest Approach To Earth (0.966 AU) * Dec 25 - Asteroid 5721 (1984 SO5) Closest Approach To Earth (1.545 AU) Dec 25 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 26 - Asteroid 7474 (1992 TC) Closest Approach To Earth (0.577 AU) Dec 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #58 (OTM-58) Dec 27 - NEAR, Eros Satellite Search (A) Dec 27 - Asteroid 1998 QT60 Closest Approach To Earth (0.766 AU) Dec 28 - NEAR, 2nd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-2) Dec 28 - NEAR, 3rd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-3) Dec 29 - Asteroid 132 Aethra At Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Dec 29 - Asteroid 67 Asia At Opposition Dec 31 - Leap Second Added To World's Clocks January 1999 Jan ?? - UHF-F10 Atlas 2 Launch Jan 01 - NEAR, Eros Satellite Search (B) Jan 01 - Asteroid 6053 (1993 BW3) Closest Approach To Earth (0.585 AU) Jan 02 - NEAR, Eros Satellite Search (C) Jan 02 - Asteroid 2062 Aten Closest Approach To Earth (1.027 AU) * Jan 02 - Asteroid 3892 Dezso Closest Approach To Earth (1.883 AU) Jan 02 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Luna 1 Launch (1st Moon Mission) Jan 03 - Mars Polar Lander Delta 2 Launch Jan 03 - NEAR, 4th Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-4) Jan 03 - Quadrantids Meteor Shower Peak * Jan 03 - Asteroid 7553 (1981 FG) Closest Approach To Earth (1.256 AU) Jan 04 - NEAR, Eros Satellite Search (D) Jan 04 - Earth at Perihelion (0.983 AU From Sun) Jan 05 - Venus Passes 1.7 Degrees From Neptune Jan 05 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 5 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Jan 07 - Asteroid 6239 Minos Near-Earth Flyby (0.386 AU) * Jan 07 - Asteroid 7614 (1996 EA) Closest Approach To Earth (1.468 AU) * Jan 08 - Argos/Orsted/Sunsat Delta 2 Launch Jan 09 - Cassini At Opposition Jan 09 - Asteroid 5261 Eureka Closest Approach To Earth (0.700 AU) Jan 10 - NEAR, Asteroid Eros Orbit Insertion * Jan 10 - Asteroid 4775 Hansen Closest Approach To Earth (1.857 AU) Jan 10 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 6 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Jan 11 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Closest Approach to Earth (0.875 AU) * Jan 12 - Asteroid 1991 BB Closest Approach To Earth (1.171 AU) * Jan 12 - Asteroid 7546 (1979 MB4) Closest Approach To Earth (1.508 AU) * Jan 13 - JCSat 6 Atlas IIAS Launch Jan 13 - Venus Passes 0.9 Degrees From Uranus Jan 13 - Mars Occults 139407 (7.1 Magnitude Star) Jan 13 - Comet Harrington-Abell Closest Approach To Earth (0.802 AU) Jan 13 - Olin Wilson's 90th Birthday (1909) * Jan 15 - Asteroid 2938 Hopi Closest Approach To Earth (2.343 AU) Jan 15 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CU29 at Opposition (43.808 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) * Jan 16 - Asteroid 3849 Incidentia Closest Approach To Earth (1.385 AU) Jan 16 - 30th Anniversary (1969), 1st Manned Vehicle Docking & 1st Crew Exchange (Soyuz 4 & 5) Jan 17 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CS29 at Opposition (42.619 - 21.4 Magnitude) Jan 18 - Mars Polar Lander, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #1 (TCM-1) Jan 18 - Asteroid 1991 VE Near-Earth Flyby (0.1434 AU) Jan 20 - NEAR, OCM-1, Eros Orbit 401x200 km Jan 21 - STS-93 Launch, Space Shuttle Columbia, AXAF-1 Jan 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CW29 at Opposition (41.495 AU - 22.8 Magnitude) Jan 22 - Asiastar/Telkom-1 Ariane 504 Launch Jan 22 - Asteroid 103 Hera At Opposition Jan 23 - Asteroid 5131 (1990 BG) Closest Approach To Earth (0.803) Jan 24 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #2 (TCM-2) Jan 24 - Comet C/1998 M5 (LINEAR) Perihelion (1.747 AU) Jan 25 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Clementine Launch (Moon Orbiter) Jan 25 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Echo 2 Launch, 1st Joint US-USSR Program Jan 27 - NEAR, OCM-2, Eros Orbit 205x195 km Jan 27 - Milstar-2 Titan 4B Launch Jan 27 - Mercury Passes 2.2 Degrees From Neptune Jan 27 - Comet Harrington-Abell Perihelion (1.758 AU) Jan 28 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #6 (TCM-6) * Jan 28 - Globalstar Soyuz Launch Jan 29 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #59 (OTM-59) Jan 29 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Phobos 2 Mars Orbit Insertion Jan 31 - Penumbral Lunar Eclipse Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - 15 November 1998 [3/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... February 1999 Feb ?? - ADEOS II H-2 Launch (Japan) Feb ?? - Arabsat 3A/Skynet 4E Ariane 4 Launch Feb ?? - Nimiq-1 Proton Launch (Russia) Feb 01 - Galileo, Europa 19 Flyby Feb 01 - Comet Bowell-Skiff Closest Approach To Earth (1.211 AU) Feb 01 - Asteroid 4503 Cleobulus Near-Earth Flyby (0.344 AU) * Feb 01 - Asteroid 6050 (1992 AE) Closest Approach To Earth (1.528 AU) Feb 02 - Mars Polar Lander, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #2 (TCM-2) Feb 02 - Terriers/Mublcom/Celestis 03 Pegasus XL Launch Feb 02 - Mercury Passes 1.5 Degrees From Uranus Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), STS-60 Launch (Discovery), 1st Russian Cosmonaut on Space Shuttle, Wake Shield Facility Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of NASDA H-2 Launch Vehicle (Japan) Feb 03 - 15th Anniversary (1984), STS-41B Launch (Challenger), 1st Untethered Spacewalk (Manned Maneuvering Unit) Feb 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DB2 at Opposition (39.299 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #60 (OTM-60) Feb 05 - NEAR, OCM-3, Eros Orbit 205x85 km Feb 05 - Asteroid 1992 KD At Opposition Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DA2 at Opposition (33.070 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CT29 at Opposition (43.893 AU - 21.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10 Venus Flyby Feb 06 - STARDUST Delta 2 Launch (Comet Sample Return Mission) Feb 06 - Asteroid 2061 Anza Closest Approach To Earth (1.867 AU) Feb 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CR29 at Opposition (41.011 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) Feb 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CV29 at Opposition (39.590 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Feb 08 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of CZ-3A Launcher (China) Feb 10 - Asteroid 4596 (1981 QB) Closest Approach To Earth (1.131 AU) Feb 10 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 4 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Feb 11 - Pluto Crosses Neptune's Orbit And Becomes the Farthest Planet From the Sun Feb 12 - NEAR, OCM-4, Eros Orbit 102x99 km Feb 12 - Asteroid 19 Fortuna At Opposition Feb 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 5 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Feb 15 - IKONOS 2 Athena 2 Launch Feb 15 - Asteroid 10 Hygiea At Opposition Feb 15 - Asteroid 11 Parthenope At Opposition Feb 15 - Galileo Galilei's 435th Birthday (1564) Feb 16 - Annular Eclipse, Visible From Central Australia Feb 16 - Chinese New Year Feb 17 - Moon Occults Mercury Feb 17 - Asteroid 156 Xanthippe At Opposition Feb 17 - Asteroid 6322 (1991 CQ) Closest Approach To Earth (0.525 AU) Feb 21 - STARDUST, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #1 (TCM-1) Feb 21 - Asteroid 1998 QS52 Closest Approach To Earth (0.699 AU) Feb 22 - NEAR, OCM-5, Eros Orbit 510x98 km Feb 22 - TM-29 Soyuz Launch (Russia) Feb 23 - Venus Passes 0.1 Degrees From Jupiter Feb 23 - Asteroid 89 Julia At Opposition * Feb 24 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Solwind P78-1 Launch Feb 25 - NEAR, Low-Phase Flyby Of Eros * Feb 25 - Asteroid 1997 DF Closest Approach To Earth (0.611 AU) Feb 25 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 6 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) Feb 25 - 50th Anniversary (1949), WAC Corporal Launch Feb 27 - NEAR, OCM-6, Eros Orbit 500x100 km Feb 27 - Asteroid 349 Dembowska At Opposition * Feb 27 - Asteroid 1992 BL2 Closest Approach To Earth (1.268 AU) Feb 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CQ29 at Opposition (40.142 AU - 22.6 Magnitude) Feb 28 - Mercury at Perihelion Feb 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DC2 at Opposition (40.172 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Feb 28 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Discoverer 1 Launch (1st Polar Orbiter) March 1999 Mar ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Mapping Begins Mar ?? - CATSAT Ultralite Launch Mar ?? - Intelsat K-TV Ariane 4 Launch Mar ?? - Globalstar Soyuz Launch * Mar ?? - Galaxy 11 Zenit 3SL Launch * Mar 01 - Iridium 12 Delta 2 Launch Mar 03 - Mercury At Its Greatest Eastern Elongation (18 Degrees) Mar 03 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Apollo 9 Launch Mar 03 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Pioneer 4 Launch (1st US Moon Flyby) Mar 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 ES2 at Opposition (44.307 AU - 24.0 Magnitude) Mar 05 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Voyager 1 Flyby of Jupiter * Mar 08 - Orion F3 Delta 3 Launch Mar 08 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Perihelion (1.771 AU) Mar 09 - NEAR, OCM-7, Eros Orbit 165x50 km Mar 09 - Comet Skiff-Kosai Perihelion (2.789 AU) Mar 09 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 7 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Mar 10 - Progress M-41 Launch (Russia) Mar 10 - Comet C/1998 M5 (LINEAR) Closest Approach To Earth (1.534 AU) Mar 12 - Asteroid 1864 Daedalus Closest Approach To Earth (1.331 AU) Mar 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 6 Mars Flyby/Landing (Soviet Union) Mar 14 - Albert Einstein's 120th Birthday (1879) Mar 15 - NEAR, OCM-8, Eros Orbit 56x49 km Mar 15 - DOD Titan 4 Launch Mar 16 - Comet Shoemaker 1 Perihelion (1.979 AU) Mar 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #61 (OTM-61) Mar 18 - Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Delta 2 Launch Mar 18 - Asteroid 6047 (1991 TB1) Near-Earth Flyby (0.1632 AU) * Mar 19 - Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Pegasus XL Launch Mar 19 - Venus Passes 2.4 Degrees From Saturn Mar 20 - Asteroid 140 Siwa At Opposition Mar 21 - Vernal Equinox, 01:46 UT Mar 21 - Comet Mueller 3 Perihelion (3.010 AU) Mar 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 GV9 at Opposition (41.230 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Mar 22 - Galileo Enters Solar Conjunction * Mar 25 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 8 Closest Approach To Earth (2.083 AU) Mar 26 - Asteroid 1992 SK Near-Earth Flyby (0.0560 AU) Mar 27 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 7 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) Mar 28 - Pierre Simon Laplace's 250th Birthday (1749) Mar 29 - Asteroid 12 Victoria At Opposition Mar 29 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10, 1st Mercury Flyby Mar 30 - NEAR, OCM-9, Eros Orbit 55x33 km April 1999 Apr ?? - Eutelsat-W3/Insat 3B Ariane 505 Launch Apr ?? - Astra-2B Ariane 4 Launch Apr ?? - GPS IIR-3 Delta 2 Launch * Apr ?? - Globalstar Soyuz Launch Apr 01 - Asteroid 1863 Antinous Near-Earth Flyby (0.1894 AU) Apr 02 - Progress M-42 Launch (Russia) Apr 02 - Asteroid 5869 Tanith Closest Approach To Earth (0.776 AU) Apr 02 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Selection Of The Mercury 7 Astronauts Apr 03 - Comet Schorr Perihelion (2.847 AU) Apr 04 - Easter Sunday Apr 04 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Ahead 1 Hour (North America) Apr 06 - Comet Singer-Brewster Perihelion (2.032 AU) * Apr 06 - Asteroid 6239 Minos Near-Earth Flyby (0.303 AU) Apr 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 FW at Opposition (40.975 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Apr 08 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #7 (TCM-7) Apr 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 HM5 at Opposition (31.060 AU - 23.0 Magntude) Apr 08 - 35th Anniversary (1964), Gemini 1 Launch (Unmanned) * Apr 09 - Asteroid 1981 Midas Closest Approach To Earth (0.490 AU) Apr 10 - Galileo Exits Solar Conjunction Apr 10 - Moon Occults Neptune Apr 11 - Moon Occults Uranus Apr 11 - Venus Occults 76150 (7.7 Magnitude Star) Apr 12 - Asteroid 1580 Betulia Closest Approach To Earth (1.291 AU) Apr 12 - 150th Anniversary (1849), de Gasparis' Discovery of Asteroid Hygiea Apr 14 - Moon Occults Mercury Apr 14 - Christian Huygens' 370th Birthday (1629) * Apr 15 - Landsat 7 Delta 2 Launch Apr 16 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (27.5 Degrees) Apr 16 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 EV3 at Opposition (43.701 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Apr 18 - Asteroid 1992 KD Closest Approach To Earth (1.073 AU) Apr 20 - Lyrids Meteor Shower Peak Apr 20 - Venus at Perihelion Apr 21 - Asteroid 3103 Eger Closest Approach To Earth (1.021 AU) Apr 22 - Asteroid 387 Aquitania At Opposition Apr 24 - Mars At Opposition Apr 25 - NEAR, OCM-10, Eros Orbit 35x35 km Apr 26 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 6 Closest Approach To Earth (2.066 AU) Apr 27 - Asteroid 1989 ML Near-Earth Flyby (0.2520 AU) Apr 27 - Comet Bowell-Skiff Perihelion (1.972 AU) Apr 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JQ1 at Opposition (41.9 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) * Apr 28 - Abrixas Launch (Germany) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - 15 November 1998 [4/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... May 1999 May ?? - ACRIMSat Launch May ?? - Globalstar Soyuz Launch May 01 - TSX-5 Pegasus XL Launch May 01 - Mercury Passes 1.6 Degrees From Jupiter May 01 - 50th Anniversary (1949), Kuiper's Discovery of Nereid (Neptune Moon) May 02 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #62 (OTM-62) May 02 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 6 Perihelion (1.135 AU) May 04 - Comet Forbes Perihelion (1.446 AU) May 04 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Magellan Launch (Venus Orbiter) May 05 - Galileo, Callisto 20 Flyby May 05 - Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak May 06 - Comet Faye Perihelion (1.657 AU) May 07 - Moon Occults Neptune May 08 - Moon Occults Uranus May 09 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #63 (OTM-63) May 13 - STS-96 Launch, Endeavour, ISS-2 (Spacehab-DM), Logistics Carrier May 13 - Mercury Passes 0.6 Degrees From Saturn May 16 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 5 Venus Impact May 17 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 6 Venus Impact May 18 - Jupiter at Perihelion May 18 - Asteroid 8405 (1995 GO) At Opposition (7.985 AU - 18.5 Magnitude) May 18 - 2060 Chiron at Oppositon (8.445 AU - 16.1 Magnitude) May 18 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Apollo 10 Launch May 21 - Venus Occults 78995 (7.5 Magnitude Star) May 21 - Venus Occults 79012 (7.7 Magnitude Star) May 21 - Asteroid 1998 HD14 Near-Earth Flyby (0.264 AU) May 23 - Asteroid 27 Euterpe At Opposition May 26 - Asteroid 41 Daphne At Opposition May 27 - Mercury at Perihelion May 28 - 35th Anniversary (1964), 1st Launch of the Saturn 1 Rocket May 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JS at Opposition (34.136 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) May 29 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Luna 22 Launch (Soviet Moon Orbiter) May 30 - EOS AM-1 Atlas IIAS Launch May 30 - Pluto at Opposition June 1999 * Jun ?? - Globalstar Delta 2 Launch Jun 02 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #64 (OTM-64) Jun 02 - Asteroid 6489 Golevka Near-Earth Flyby (0.0500 AU) Jun 03 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #8 (TCM-8) Jun 03 - GOES-L Atlas IIA Launch Jun 03 - Moon Occults Neptune Jun 04 - Moon Occults Uranus Jun 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JR1 at Opposition (33.757 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Jun 05 - John Couch Adams' 180th Birthday (1819) Jun 07 - Asteroid 8567 (1996 HW1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.046 AU) Jun 08 - Space Station Mir Deorbited? Jun 10 - NEAR, OCM-11, Eros Orbit 55x34 km Jun 10 - Asteroid 1995 LG Closest Approach To Earth (0.958 AU) Jun 10 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 KV1 at Opposition (39.729 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Jun 11 - Venus at Greatest Eastern Elongation (45 Degrees) Jun 11 - Comet Singer-Brewster Closest Approach To Earth (1.110 AU) Jun 12 - Asteroid 56 Melete At Opposition Jun 13 - Jet Propulsion Lab's 55th Birthday (1944) Jun 16 - Asteroid 1685 Toro Closest Approach To Earth (0.757 AU) Jun 17 - NEAR, OCM-12, Eros Orbit 51x49 km Jun 21 - Summer Solstice (19:49 UT) Jun 24 - Cassini, 2nd Venus Flyby Jun 25 - NEAR, OCM-14, Eros Orbit 50x49 km Jun 25 - Asteroid 93 Minerva At Opposition * Jun 25 - Comet C/1998 T1 (LINEAR) Perihelion (1.476 AU) Jun 26 - Comet Kowal-Vavrova Closest Approach To Earth (2.091 AU) Jun 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #65 (OTM-65) Jun 27 - Comet Ge-Wang Perihelion (2.496 AU) Jun 28 - Venus Occults 98625 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Jun 29 - Cassini at Perihelion (0.72 AU) Jun 30 - Galileo, Callisto 21 Encounter July 1999 * Jul ?? - Russian Service Module Proton Launch (International Space Station Element) Jul ?? - ENVISAT Ariane 5 Launch Jul ?? - Soyuz Launch To International Space Station * Jul ?? - Panamsat 1R Ariane 4 Launch Jul 01 - Giotto, Earth Flyby? Jul 01 - Kompsat Taurus Launch Jul 01 - Moon Occults Neptune Jul 01 - Asteroid 2201 Oljato Near-Earth Flyby (0.398 AU) Jul 02 - NEAR, OCM-15, Eros Orbit 52x49 km Jul 02 - Moon Occults Uranus * Jul 03 - Comet C/1998 T1 (LINEAR) Closest Approach To Earth (0.492 AU) Jul 04 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #66 (OTM-66) Jul 04 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #9 (TCM-9) Jul 05 - Earth At Aphelion (1.017 AU From Sun) Jul 09 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Voyager 2 Flyby Of Jupiter Jul 10 - Asteroid 116 Sirona At Opposition Jul 11 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Skylab Re-Enters Into Earth's Atmosphere Jul 12 - Comet Tempel 2 Closest Approach To Earth (0.654 AU) Jul 13 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Luna 15 Launch (Soviet Moon Sample Return) Jul 16 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts Jupiter Jul 16 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Apollo 11 Launch (1st Manned Moon Landing) Jul 19 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #10 (TCM-10) Jul 20 - Soyuz TM-204 Launch (1st International Space Station Crew) Jul 20 - 30th Anniversary (1969), 1st Man On The Moon Jul 21 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Luna 15 Impact On Moon Jul 22 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #67 (OTM-67) Jul 22 - NEAR, OCM-16, Eros Orbit 50x40 km Jul 22 - TDRS-H Atlas Launch Jul 22 - Freidrich Bessel's 215th Birthday (1784) Jul 25 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #3 (TCM-3) Jul 25 - Neptune At Opposition Jul 27 - Kuiper Belt Object KR65 At Opposition (42.782 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) Jul 28 - Deep Space 1, Asteroid 1992 KD Encounter Jul 28 - Partial Lunar Eclipse Jul 28 - Moon Occults Neptune Jul 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1998 KS65 At Opposition (41.214 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Jul 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1998 KG62 At Opposition (43.761 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) Jul 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1986 KY61 At Opposition (44.803 AU - 24.1 Magnitude) Jul 28 - 35th Anniversary (1964), Ranger 7 Launch (Moon Impact Mission) Jul 29 - NEAR, OCM-17, Eros Orbit 46x42 km Jul 29 - South Delta-Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Jul 29 - Moon Occults Uranus Jul 31 - Asteroid 4341 Poseidon Closest Approach To Earth (1.546 AU) Jul 31 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 6 Mars Flyby August 1999 Aug ?? - ICO-4 Delta 3 Launch * Aug ?? - MTSat H-II Launch (Japan) Aug 01 - DMSP Titan 2 Launch Aug 01 - Alpha Capricornids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 03 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #11 (TCM-11) Aug 03 - Comet Arend Perihelion (1.917 AU) Aug 03 - Asteroid 1566 Icarus Closest Approach To Earth (0.651 AU) * Aug 05 - STS-101 Launch, Atlantis, ISS-2, SPACEHAB-DM Aug 05 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 7 Mars Flyby Aug 06 - Southern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 07 - Uranus At Opposition Aug 08 - Zond 7 Launch (Soviet Moon Mission) Aug 09 - Comet Arend Closest Approach To Earth (2.499 AU) Aug 10 - Moon Occults Mercury Aug 11 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #68 (OTM-68) Aug 11 - Solar Eclipse (Visible From Europe) Aug 12 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #12 (TCM-12) Aug 12 - Perseids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 12 - Asteroid 5585 Parks Closest Approach To Earth (0.860 AU) Aug 14 - Galileo, Callisto 22 Flyby Aug 14 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (18 Degrees) Aug 18 - Cassini, Earth Flyby Aug 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #69 (OTM-69) * Aug 21 - Iridium 13 Delta 2 Launch Aug 22 - Cassini, Probe Checkout #4 Aug 23 - NEAR, OCM-18, Eros Orbit 105x42 km Aug 23 - Mercury At Perihelion Aug 24 - Moon Occults Neptune Aug 25 - Northern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 25 - Moon Occults Uranus Aug 25 - Comet Giclas Perihelion (1.846 AU) Aug 25 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Voyager 2 Neptune Flyby Aug 28 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #70 (OTM-70) Aug 28 - 210th Anniversary (1789), Herschel's Discovery Of Saturn Moon Enceladus Aug 30 - Comet Forbes Closest Approach To Earth (0.978 AU) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - 15 November 1998 [5/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... September 1999 Sep ?? - GPS IIR-4 Delta 2 Launch Sep 01 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Pioneer 11 Flyby Of Saturn Sep 06 - NEAR, Low-Phase Flyby Of Eros Sep 06 - NEAR, OCM-19, Eros Orbit 515x99 km Sep 06 - Asteroid 7495 Feynman Closest Approach To Earth (2.199 AU) Sep 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RR20 at Opposition (42.662 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) Sep 08 - Comet Tempel 2 Perihelion (1.482 AU) Sep 08 - Asteroid 699 Hela Closest Approach To Earth (0.644 AU) Sep 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RX9 at Opposition (41.136 AU - 24.2 Magnitude) Sep 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RT5 at Opposition (41.444 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Sep 09 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #13 (TCM-13) Sep 09 - William Bond's 210th Birthday (1789) Sep 12 - NEAR, OCM-20, Eros Orbit 490x99 km Sep 12 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Luna 2 Launch (Soviet Moon Mission) Sep 13 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #4 (TCM-4) Sep 13 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #71 (OTM-71) Sep 13 - Cassini At Opposition Sep 13 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QY9 at Opposition (28.483 AU - 22.1 Magnitude) Sep 16 - Galileo, Callisto 23 Flyby * Sep 16 - STS-99 Launch, Endeavour, Shuttle Radar Topography Sep 16 - Comet Kearns-Kwee Perihelion (2.334 AU) * Sep 18 - Deep Space 1, End Of Primary Mission Sep 19 - NEAR, OCM-21, Eros Orbit 105x40 km Sep 20 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #72 (OTM-72) Sep 20 - Moon Occults Neptune Sep 21 - Moon Occults Uranus Sep 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QH4 at Opposition (40.410 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Sep 21 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10, 2nd Flyby Of Mercury Sep 23 - Autumnal Equinox, 11:23 UT Sep 23 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RY6 At Opposition (40.367 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Sep 23 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TO66 at Opposition (44.944 AU - 21.1 Magnitude) Sep 24 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Orbit Insertion Sep 24 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 TX8 at Opposition (31.010 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Sep 24 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QJ4 at Opposition (33.542 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 25 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 RO at Opposition (30.499 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 26 - Comet Kearns-Kwee Closest Approach To Earth (2.471 AU) Sep 27 - NEAR, OCM-22, Eros Orbit 42x38 km Sep 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #73 (OTM-73) Sep 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 TB at Opposition (28.856 AU - 21.7 Magnitude) Sep 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RL13 at Opposition (43.517 AU - 26.0 Magnitude) * Sep 30 - Asteroid 1992 SK Closest Approach To Earth (0.479 AU) October 1999 * Oct 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SC at Opposition (33.800 AU - 22.4 Magnitude) * Oct 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1992 QB1 at Opposition (39.916 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) * Oct 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TK66 at Opposition (41.870 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) * Oct 02 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TR66 at Opposition (34.282 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) * Oct 04 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #3 (TCM-3) * Oct 04 - Asteroid 1998 SG35 Closest Approach To Earth (8.329 AU) * Oct 04 - 40th Anniversay (1959), Luna 3 Launch (Soviet Moon Flyby Mission) * Oct 06 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #74 (OTM-74) * Oct 06 - NEAR, OCM-23, Eros Orbit 54x42 km * Oct 06 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SB at Opposition (29.808 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) * Oct 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RQ20 at Opposition (38.566 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) * Oct 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QZ9 at Opposition (34.096 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) * Oct 09 - Draconids Meteor Shower Peak * Oct 09 - Asteroid 1998 TU3 Closest Approach To Earth (0.757 AU) * Oct 09 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 SZ10 at Opposition (30.629 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) * Oct 10 - Jupiter Occults 92746 (8.0 Magnitude Star) * Oct 10 - Asteroid 7547 (1979 MO4) Closest Approach To Earth (1.928 AU) * Oct 11 - Nozomi (Planet-B), Mars Orbit Insertion (Japan) * Oct 11 - Galileo, Io 24 Flyby * Oct 11 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 SZ4 at Opposition (29.154 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) * Oct 12 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Magellan Burnup In Venus' Atmosphere * Oct 12 - 35th Anniversary (1964), Voskhod 1 Launch * Oct 14 - NEAR, OCM-24, Eros Orbit 50x46 km * Oct 14 - Asteroid 1998 SZ27 Closest Approach To Earth (0.513 AU) * Oct 15 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #75 (OTM-75) * Oct 15 - Asteroid 7664 (1994 TE3) Closest Approach To Earth (1.599 AU) * Oct 16 - Asteroid 3200 Phaethon Closest Approach To Earth (1.124 AU) * Oct 18 - Moon Occults Neptune * Oct 18 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Galileo Launch (Jupiter Orbiter) * Oct 19 - Moon Occults Uranus * Oct 21 - Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1)/SAC-C Delta 2 Launch * Oct 21 - Orionid Meteor Shower Peak * Oct 21 - Mars Occults 186484 (7.6 Magnitude Star) * Oct 23 - Jupiter At Opposition * Oct 23 - Asteroid 1990 UA Near-Earth Flyby (0.223 AU) * Oct 23 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TP66 at Opposition (25.383 AU - 20.7 Magnitude) * Oct 24 - Mercury Greatest Eastern Elongation (24 Degrees) * Oct 24 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TQ66 at Opposition (33.630 AU - 21.9 Magnitude) * Oct 27 - HETE-2/ACRIM Pegasus XL Launch * Oct 28 - STS-92 Launch, Discovery, ISS-3 (3-Person Permanent Habitation) * Oct 28 - NEAR, OCM-25, Eros Orbit 51x45 km * Oct 28 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Luna 23 Launch (Soviet Moon Sample Return Mission) * Oct 29 - Asteroid 7681 (1996 YK2) Closest Approach To Earth (1.412 AU) * Oct 30 - Venus at Greatest Western Elongation (46.5 Degrees) * Oct 31 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Back 1 Hour (USA) * Oct 31 - Asteroid 7678 Onoda Closest Approach To Earth (2.088 AU) ___ _____ ___ /_ /| /____/ \ /_ /| Ron Baalke | baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov | | | | __ \ /| | | | Jet Propulsion Lab | ___| | | | |__) |/ | | |__ Pasadena, CA | Two wrongs don't make a right, /___| | | | ___/ | |/__ /| | but two Wrights made an |_____|/ |_|/ |_____|/ | airplane. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [1/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S U P D A T E 1998 November 15 http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/1115/ *** Top Stories *** Glenn Shuttle Mission a Success ISS Orbit Change Dropped Observers, Spacecraft Gear Up for Leonid Storm DS1 Ion Engine Shuts Down *** Technology *** Engine Problems Delay X-33 First Flight Mir Cosmonauts Complete Spacewalk Proton, Delta Boosters Launch Satellites *** Policy *** Consultants Issue Recommendations on NASA Space Flight Options ESA Gives Go Ahead for Mars Express Australian Senate Introduces Space Bill *** Science *** NASA Selects Discovery Mission Candidates X-Ray Observatory Mission Ends Astronomers Measure Rotation of Kuiper Belt Object Astronomers Discover 1000th Pulsar *** CyberSpace *** CyberSpace Reviews Software Review: SkyBase *** Space Capsules *** SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Top Stories *** Glenn Shuttle Mission a Success The space shuttle Discovery landed at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Saturday afternoon, November 7, wrapping up one of the most publicized shuttle missions in history. The shuttle landed at 12:04 pm EST (1704 UT) at Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15. The shuttle had no problems with the landing, even though the drag chute was not used to help slow the shuttle down. Engineers had been concerned about the drag chute after the drag chute door fell off seconds before launch October 29. There was a remote possibility that the chute would deploy before landing, which would have resulted in a harder-than-normal landing that might have blown out a tire or damaged a strut. Mission controllers were concerned with the weather in the hours leading up to the landing, but skies remained clear and winds were low enough to permit a landing on the first possible time. A second landing time an hour and a half later was also available, as were two landing times at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Senator and former astronaut John Glenn reported no problems with his return to Earth. Modifying a line he said in orbit last week and during his first space mission in 1962, he commented just after landing over the radio, "One-g and I feel fine." "I'm about 95 to 98 percent back to normal," Glenn told reporters at a post-flight press conference November 8. He acknowledged that he couldn't move his head around quickly without feeling uncomfortable, a condition common to astronauts after their return to Earth. Glenn said the mission went "very well", and he worked with the rest of the crew without problems. "This is really an outstanding crew," he said. While Glenn said he has a "very definite obligation" to complete the scientific followup to the mission, he said he had no definite plans for any public relations followup, although he is open to any plans NASA has. "I firmly believe this is a good program," he said. "If I can help relay that feeling to more people, then I would like to do that." Mission STS-95, publicized for its flight of Glenn, is regarded as a great success by NASA. The crew successfully deployed and retrieved the Spartan-201 solar science satellite, deployed a small Navy comsat, and conducted a number of experiments. A week after the end of the mission, the publicity that followed the mission had faded considerably. Glenn and the STS-95 crew were treated to a Veterans Day parade in Houston November 11, and a ticker-tape parade is planned for New York this week. However, his first post-flight interview, on the NBC TV program "Meet the Press" November 15, was interrupted part way through by coverage of the Iraq crisis. The next shuttle flight is STS-88, the first International Space Station assembly flight. Launch of the shuttle Endeavour is scheduled for December 3. ISS Orbit Change Dropped Russia has withdrawn a request to alter the orbit of the International Space Station so that it would lie in the same plane as the existing Mir space station, the Russian Space Agency announced Wednesday, November 11. Russia had requested permission from NASA last week to launch the Zarya control module, the first element of ISS, ten hours later than planned. This would have put the module in the same orbit as Mir, making the transfer of equipment or even entire modules from Mir to ISS relatively easy. Instead, a Russian Space Agency spokesman told Reuters, "The launch will take place on November 20 at 9:40 am (1:40 am EST, 0640 UT) as planned." Analysts in the U.S. were concerned that the request, made two weeks before the launch, was a move to help them keep operating Mir. The station is scheduled to be deorbited in mid-1999, but some Russians have openly advocated keeping the station operational past that date. Some experts have also suggested that Russia would like to take one or more existing modules from Mir and use them on ISS in place of building new research modules, as originally planned. The current poor state of the Russian economy may prevent their construction, and has already delayed the launch of the Service Module by over a year. Another key Russian spoke out Wednesday in favor of keeping Mir in orbit. "It is purely a political question that there is pressure for us to get rid of Mir as soon as possible," veteran cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyov told Reuters. "It is clear why. Who has the station? We do." Solovyov said Mir should be kept operational for at least two, and as many as five, years. A spokesman for Energia RSC, the Russian company that operates Mir for the Russian Space Agency, claimed that up to 100,000 people could lose their jobs if Mir was deorbited next year as planned. Had Zarya's launch been adjusted to place it in a different orbit, the launch of STS-88, the first shuttle mission dedicated to ISS assembly, may have been delayed even longer. The online publication NASA Watch reported Tuesday that the shuttle launch could have been pushed back from December 3 to the 17th or 18th, because the Sun's angle to the orbital plane would be high enough to violate solar exposure limits. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [2/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Observers, Spacecraft Gear Up for Leonid Storm Astronomers around the world are preparing to observe what may be a heavy "storm" of meteors from the Leonids this week, while others take measures to protect spacecraft from the hail of tiny rocks that threaten to damage or disable them. The Leonids are one of several meteor showers that take place annually. The Leonids, associated with the comet Tempel-Tuttle, peaks every November 17-18. However, about every 33 years the Leonids are significantly stronger as the Earth passes through a region near the comet itself. The last such peak was in 1966, so 1998 and/or 1999 are thought likely to have similar meteor "storms". The peak of the storm, when thousands of meteors are observed over the course of a single hour, is forecast to be observable from the Far East and central Asia. NASA has dispatched two aircraft that will observe the storm while flying above Japan. "The central theme of this mission is astrobiology," said principal investigator Peter Jenniskens of the SETI Institute. The instruments on the aircraft will look for traces of organic molecules in the meteor trails. "This may help us understand how extraterrestrial materials helped create the conditions on Earth necessary for the origin of life." Other observing plans are in the works worldwide, with efforts concentrating on China, Mongolia, Thailand, and other regions expected to be able to see the peak of the storm. While astronomers prepare to feast on the burst of meteors that will be visible, spacecraft operators are taking measures to protect their satellites against any possible damage from the meteors. While the meteors will be small, there will be many of them during the peak of storm, all traveling at speeds up to 72 kilometers per second (45 miles per second), making the Leonids 13-18 times more energetic than a typical meteor. However, the Leonids are believed to be smaller than typical meteors, lessening their effects. Engineers are less concerned with damage from the Leonids themselves but secondary effects from meteor impacts. "The meteoroids are probably not going to punch a hole through a satellite," noted Jim Woodburn, chief orbital scientist for Analytical Graphics, Inc., makers of Satellite Tool Kit software. "But when they hit something, they are going so fast that the object will vaporize into plasma, which has a real potential to wipe out the sensitive electronic equipment on-board satellites." In 1993 the European Space Agency's Olympus communications spacecraft was lost after the Perseid meteor shower. Engineers believe that a meteor hit the spacecraft, creating a plasma cloud that shorted out the electronics on the spacecraft. Controllers will move many satellites into orientations to minimize the amount of the spacecraft exposed to the meteor stream, although in most cases spacecraft operations will continue. In some cases, like the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, instrument will be turned off to prevent them shorting out form an impact. The Hubble Space Telescope will be rotated so that its mirrors will be pointed away from the meteors, and its solar panels similarly aligned. However, HST observations will continue, as the spacecraft takes a 10-hour observation a quasar, along with Kuiper Belt Object searches and engineering studies to investigate the properties of meteor dust. The Mir crew will continue work during the Leonids, but may be ordered to the relative security of the Soyuz escape module during the peak of the storm. A spacewalk last week by the Mir crew installed an experiment to collect Leonid and other meteorite samples. The storms, which may also be visible in the Leonid showers of 1999 and 2000, are expected to be the last for some time. The 33-year cycle of storms will be interrupted in 2029 when a close pass to Jupiter by comet Tempel-Tuttle will alter its orbit away from the Earth, meaning the storms may not return for 100 years. [Ed. Note: Check out our special feature on the Leonids at http://www.spaceviews.com/features/leonids/ for more information about this meteor storm and links to other resources on the Web. We'll be adding more information over the next several days.] DS1 Ion Engine Shuts Down The ion engine on the experimental Deep Space 1 (DS1) spacecraft shut down just a few minutes after it was used for the first time Tuesday, November 10. Mission controllers were able to recover the spacecraft from a "safe mode" Friday, November 13, two days after a problem with a star tracker stopped normal operations. The engine, one of the showcase pieces of new technology on the spacecraft, shut down 4 1/2 minutes after it was started around 2:30 pm EST (1930 UT) November 10. The cause of the shut down is not known, and efforts to restart the engine Tuesday failed. The engine test was the first time the ion engine had been used to propel the spacecraft. The engine had been powered up and checked out prior to Tuesday's test, without any problems. JPL, the center running the DS1 mission, noted that ion engine "turn-off" has been seen in ground tests and in Earth-orbit spacecraft before. "Deep Space 1 is designed to test and validate the use of such propulsion in deep space for the first time, so the ongoing diagnosis of Tuesday's behavior is in keeping with the mission's goals," mission officials reported in a statement. The spacecraft collected "valuable diagnostic data" during the engine problems, JPL reported, and also noted that all the other systems on DS1 appeared to be functioning normally. On Wednesday, November 11, DS1 entered a "safe mode" when software on the spacecraft detected a problem with a star tracker. The tracker, used to determine the orientation and location of the spacecraft, lost its lock on a star. Efforts by the onboard fault-protection software to correct the problem failed, so it placed the spacecraft into a safe mode to await commands from Earth. Engineers on the ground were able to get the star tracker working again, but are unsure if it is a problem with the tracker itself or software used to communication between the tracker and the spacecraft's other systems. Controllers were able to put the spacecraft back into normal cruise operations on Friday, November 13. JPL reported that engineers will not work with the ion engine until late next week, more than a week after the problem first appeared. In the meantime other spacecraft systems, including instruments and control systems, will be checked out. DS1 is the first mission of the New Millennium Program, a NASA effort to develop and flight-test new technologies that can be used in future missions. The ion engine in DS1 is one of the key technologies being tested on the mission, as well as advanced solar panels, autonomous control systems, and scientific instruments. DS1's prime mission is to test the new technologies, however, there are science plans for the mission as well. The spacecraft, launched October 24, is scheduled to fly by the asteroid 1992 KD in July 1999, and may fly by two comets in 2001 if the mission is extended. To meet those goals, though, the ion engine must work, as the spacecraft has no other propulsion system. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [3/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Technology *** Engine Problems Delay X-33 First Flight The first flight of the X-33, a vehicle designed to test technologies for use in future reusable launch vehicles, will be delayed at least six months to the end of 1999 because of problems with its engine, according to press reports. The trade weekly Space News reported this week that problems manufacturing the aerospike engine for the X-33 will push back the launch to at least December 1999, six months later than planned, and add $36 million to the cost of the program. The problem is specifically related to difficulties bonding key high-temperature portions of the XRS-2200 engine together, according to a report in the Los Angeles Times. Rocketdyne, the Boeing subsidiary building the engine as a subcontractor to Lockheed Martin, has had problems with the V-shaped nozzle ramp of the engine. Unlike conventional engines, an aerospike engine does not have a bell-shaped nozzle for the exhaust to push against. Instead, a nozzle ramp is used, which allows for the optimal expansion of the exhaust plume, making the engine more efficient. Conventional nozzles don't permit such expansion, reducing the efficiency of those engines, particularly at high altitudes. The delay will cost the project an additional $36 million, but Rocketdyne will be expected to pick up the additional tab, according to Jerry Rising, a Lockheed Martin vice president supervising the X-33 project. "We are not going to add any more [funding] to the program, so we're expecting Rocketdyne to make up that difference," he told the Times. Other parts of the X-33 project are expected to continue as planned, Rising said. Lockheed Martin will ship the completed X-33, minus engine, to the test range at Edwards Air Force Base, California, for tests. Lockheed Martin has also suspended overtime work on the project. However, one anonymous worker told the Times that the delay will give other parts of the project a chance to catch up. "I think most of us are happy that Rocketdyne said they were going to be late," said the unidentified employee, working for one of the subcontractors. "I think everybody is running behind." Lockheed Martin was awarded a NASA contract in July 1996 to build the X-33. NASA planned to spend $941 million in a fixed-cost contract, and Lockheed Martin planned to invest at least $220 million into the project. The first launch was originally planned for March 1999, with fifteen test flights to be completed by December 1999. The launch date was pushed back to July 1999 last year. The X-33 is not designed to go into orbit. It will conduct a series of atmospheric flights across the western U.S. to test the engine, structures, and other features of the vehicle. X-33 is a one-half scale model of VentureStar, a proposed single-stage to orbit reusable launch vehicle. Lockheed Martin will make a decision to build the VentureStar pending the results of the X-33 flights. The VentureStar would cost an estimated $5 billion to develop, and would be a privately, not NASA, funded project. Mir Cosmonauts Complete Spacewalk Two cosmonauts on the Russian space station Mir completed a six-hour spacewalk late Tuesday, November 10, installing a meteorite experiment to the hull of the space station, while officials on the ground discussed extending the life of the aging station. Cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Avdeyev spent six hours outside Mir November 10, starting at 2:24 pm EST (1924 UT). The two installed a "meteorite trap", a French experiment to collect data on meteorites, including pieces of the meteors themselves. The experiment will stay on the station until early 1999, when it is removed and sent back to Earth. The spacewalk was timed so that the experiment would be in place before the Leonid meteor shower next week. Astronomers expect the shower to be especially intense this year and/or next year, part of a 33-year cycle of Leonid meteor "storms". The storm should not be a hazard to Mir, Russian officials said, but they will order the crew to take shelter in the Soyuz spacecraft docked to Mir during the heaviest part of the storm. Padalka and Avdeyev also deployed a small student-built satellite, Sputnik-41, and several other experiments during the spacewalk, which ended at 8:18 pm EST (0118 UT November 11). The spacewalk came as Russian Space Agency officials suggested that Mir may not be deorbited as planned in mid-1999 but be kept in orbit while assembly of the International Space Station begins. Last week Russia requested to NASA that the launch of the first element of the ISS, the Zarya control module, be pushed back 10 hours so its orbit will be in the same plane as Mir, making the transfer of equipment from one station to the other easier. Same analysts in the U.S. suggest that the move is being requested not as just a way to move equipment, but to transfer whole modules from Mir to ISS, should Russia not be able to build its planned research modules for the new station. This would require keeping Mir in orbit past mid-1999 until ISS could accommodate the Mir modules. "There is nothing crafty in this," Boris Bodin, the RSA's head of long-term planning, told Reuters. "Our thinking is based on assuring the long-term presence of man in space." NASA expects to make a decision this week on the Russia request to change the orbit plane of the ISS, a move which could delay the launch of STS-88, the first shuttle mission devoted to ISS assembly. Zarya is slated for a November 20 launch and STS-88, carrying the Unity docking module, for December 3. Proton, Delta Boosters Launch Satellites A Russian Proton rocket launched an American communications satellite early Wednesday, November 4, while a Boeing Delta 2 lifted off early Friday, November 6, carrying five satellites that will back up the Iridium global phone service system. The Proton launched the PanAmSat PAS-8 satellite at 12:12 am EST (0512 UT, 10:12 am local time) from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Proton and its Blok DM upper stage successfully placed PAS-8 into orbit. The satellite, build by Space Systems/Loral, will provide video, telecommunications, and Internet-related services for the Asia-Pacific region. PanAmSat plans to use the satellite to help provide coverage of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. The Delta 2 lifted off at 8:37 am EST (1337 UT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The five Iridium satellites on board the booster were successfully deployed about 85 minutes after launch. Four of the five satellites launch wills serve as on-orbit spares, should any of the 66 active satellite fail. The fifth will fill an operational slot in the satellite constellation. The launch comes the same week as Iridium entered commercial service, after a delay of just over a month. The company provides worldwide cellular phone service, relaying calls from mobile phones via the satellite constellation. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [4/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Policy *** Consultants Issue Recommendations on NASA Space Flight Options NASA should continue using the space shuttle until private industry, in cooperation with but not funded by the space agency, develops a human-rated reusable launch vehicle (RLV) that can meet NASA's needs at reduced costs, a consultant report issued last week concluded. The report, commissioned by NASA and carried out by Boston-based Hawthorne, Krauss, & Associates (HKA), explored several options for future NASA space access, ranging from continued use of the shuttle to using alternative RLVs. They concluded that a approach combining several options, and not very different from previously-stated NASA plans, was the best way to proceed. "The key to NASA's success in significantly reducing launch costs over the long-term is the active involvement of the private sector in a substantive risk-sharing role," HKA noted in its report. The firm noted that NASA should continue operating the space shuttle in the near term, until a replacement vehicle is available. That replacement RLV should be privately developed, with NASA as one customer among many, although NASA should "enable the development" of such a vehicle to make sure it is consistent with NASA's needs. The consultants ruled out other options such as shuttle upgrades, noting that options like liquid flyback boosters would costs several billion dollars and keep NASA in the operations business. Purchasing other RLV services, such as those planned by companies like Kistler, Kelly, and Rotary Rocket, would also not be beneficial, since they would not necessarily meet NASA's needs for human access. However, HKA left open the option of transferring one or more shuttles to private industry. Such a move could "generate valuable commercial momentum" for NASA and create market awareness for future commercial space projects. Any effort by NASA to work with commercial RLV makers should put as much of the risk of the project as possible on the companies and not on NASA. "Significant private-sector risk sharing will best assure that the new RLV project delivers on its projected costs and capabilities," the consultants said. Because of that, the report cautioned against the use of government loan guarantees, one widely-cited way to support commercial RLV development. "Loan guarantees... have the potential to place the government in the position of accepting all (or most of) the risk, with the private sector keeping all (or most of) the reward," HKA reported. "This would be a bad outcome." NASA plans to use the HKA report along with its Space Transportation Architecture Study, currently in progress, to develop a plan for future human space access by the space agency. One-year contracts for the architecture studies were handed out in September. ESA Gives Go Ahead for Mars Express The European Space Agency (ESA) announced November 5 that has approved plans for Mars Express, a combination orbiter and lander to be sent to Mars in 2003. All 14 member nations of ESA's Science Program Committee approved the mission concept, contingent on funding being available for the mission. The mission is projected to cost 150 million Euros (US$175 million). "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. He noted that Mars Express would be the least expensive and one of the most original Mars missions planned. Mars Express is scheduled for launch on a Russian Soyuz rocket in June 2003. The spacecraft will carry seven scientific instruments, including some related to European instruments lost on the Russian Mars 96 spacecraft when it crashed to Earth shortly after its November 1996 launch. The instruments will include a high-resolution camera and a ground-penetrating radar. The latter instrument will give scientists their first opportunity to search for groundwater or ice hidden beneath the Martian surface. The mission will also carry a lander. The Beagle 2 is being designed by Open University in the UK with contributions from other countries. The 60-kg (132-lb.) lander will carry a camera and instruments to study the Martian soil and rocks for evidence of past life. The addition of Beagle 2 is dependent on the lander's developers meeting their own financial commitments. The Mars Express mission will play two roles for ESA, according to Bonnet. "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Program Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings," he said. "In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet." Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [5/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Australian Senate Introduces Space Bill A bill designed to set the regulatory framework for commercial space launches by expendable and reusable launch vehicles was introduced into the Australian Senate on Thursday, November 12. The Space Activities Bill of 1998 would create regulations for securing licenses for commercial launches from Australian sites, as well as licenses for the return of reusable launchers. It also sets insurance requirements for any Australian launches. The bill is similar to the Commercial Space Act of 1998, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law last month. However, while the American bill expanded an existing regulatory scheme to promote further commercial space endeavors, the Australian bill aims to create a new regulatory environment from scratch. "Since the mid 1980s a range of commercial space launch projects have been proposed for Australia," noted Sen. Rod Kemp, who introduced the bill. "A clear legislative and regulatory framework is essential for any of these projects to proceed." Most recently, American company Kistler Aerospace decided earlier this year to develop a spaceport in Woomera for its K-1 reusable launch vehicle. The company chose to go to Australia because U.S. regulations at the time didn't permit the licensing of a reusable launch vehicle. Although there were no commercial launch regulations in Australia at the time Kistler decision, the company reached an agreement with the government. That agreement will remain in force regardless of whether the Space Activities Bill is passed, Kemp said. Kemp did not outline what the terms of the government's agreement with Kistler was, but noted that the bill would "achieve a regulatory regime largely consistent with that applied to Kistler." Other aspects of the bill, including accident investigation and penalty provisions, will affect Kistler if the bill is enacted. The legislative framework in the bill would be implemented by a new office, the Space Licensing and Safety Office (SLASO). The current Australian budget includes A$1.3 million (US$830,000) to establish the office. The bill is Australia's latest effort to attract commercial space companies. Earlier this year the Australian federal government approved a waiver of the 22% national sales tax on launch vehicles and satellites. The bill passed through the initial formalities of a first and second reading when introduced November 12. Further consideration of the bill will take place later in the month. *** Science *** NASA Selects Discovery Mission Candidates NASA announced the selection of five finalists for the next round of the Discovery Program of low-cost space science missions, including two missions seeking a second chance at funding, Thursday, November 12. The five missions, ranging in focus from Mercury to Jupiter, will receive funding to conduct four-month detailed studies before one or two missions are selected for full funding in mid-1999. "Deciding which one or two of these exciting finalists will be fully developed will be a very difficult choice," said Ed Weiler, acting associate administrator for space science at NASA. "Any one of them promises to return unique insights into our solar system." Two of the missions selected were also finalists in the last round of Discovery Program selections in 1997. The Aladdin mission would fire projectiles into the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos, then fly through the debris created by the impacts to collect samples and return them to Earth. The Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging mission, or Messenger, mission would orbit Mercury and provide the first global high-resolution images of the innermost planet. Among the other projects selected is "Deep Impact", which would fire a 500-kg (1,100-lb.) projectile into the comet P/Tempel-1, excavating fresh ice beneath the surface for study by the spacecraft. The Interior Structure and Internal Dynamical Evolution of Jupiter ("INSIDE Jupiter") would orbit Jupiter and study its magnetic and gravitational fields to learn more about the interior of the planet. The Venus Sounder for Planetary Exploration, "Vesper", would orbit Venus to study the composition and dynamics of the planet's middle atmosphere. NASA also announced that the Discovery Program would fund a "Mission of Opportunity", a chance to fly an instrument on another spacecraft. $5.3 million will go fund part of an instrument on Europe's Mars Express spacecraft to study the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. Discovery missions are intended to be low-cost, rapid-development missions to study specific planetary and space science topics. NASA will select one or two of the finalists for full funding in June 1999. Those missions will be required to launch by September 2004 with a total development cost of no more than $190 million and total mission cost of $299 million. Six Discovery missions have previously been selected. Of those, three of them, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, Mars Pathfinder, and Lunar Prospector, have already flown. The fourth mission, Stardust, is scheduled for launch in February 1999. Stardust will fly through a tail of a comet to collect dust samples and return them to Earth. Genesis, a mission to study the solar wind, is scheduled for launch in 2001. Contour, a mission to study the nuclei of three comets, will launch in 2002. X-Ray Observatory Mission Ends A long-lived German X-ray astronomy satellite was shut down Tuesday, November 3, after officials decided the damage to an instrument from a recent mishap was irreversible. A high-resolution camera on the Rontgensatellit (ROSAT) X-ray observatory was damaged in September when it pointed too close to the Sun. Engineers studying the instrument from then ground decided that the instrument had been damaged beyond repair. ROSAT, launched in 1990, had been suffering from a number of problems in recent months. A failure in April of a navigational star tracker, used to maintain the proper orientation of the satellite, meant that the star tracker from another instrument had to be used in its place. That task proved to be more difficult than first thought, and the spacecraft collected little data over the summer. Those problems had largely been corrected with new software by September when the accident with the High Resolution Imager (HRI) occurred. HRI has been the only main focal plane instrument available for use for the last four years on ROSAT, so its failure meant that there was little use to continue to operate the satellite. ROSAT started as a German project in 1975, and later grew to include contributions from the United States and United Kingdom. ROSAT was intended for launch on the space shuttle in 1987, but the 1986 Challenger accident delayed the mission. ROSAT was instead launched on a Delta 2 booster in June, 1990. For the first six months of its mission ROSAT made the first all-sky survey of the sky at X-ray wavelengths, uncovering more than 60,000 X-ray sources, nearly 100 times more than any previous survey. Since then ROSAT had been used for the specific study of X-ray sources, from comets to quasars and neutron stars. German officials said that large archive of data collected by ROSAT will continue to be available for astronomers to use. Papers using ROSAT data are being published in scientific journals at a rate of more than one a day. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [6/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Astronomers Measure Rotation of Kuiper Belt Object Astronomers have, for the first time, measured the rotation period of a Kuiper Belt Object (KBO), one of thousands of large icy bodies in the outer solar system, a team of European astronomers reported last week. The astronomers, from the European Southern Observatory in Chile and the Observatoire de Paris, found that KBO 1996 TO66 rotates once on its axis every six hours, a rate similar to comets and other large icy bodies. They reported their findings at a special conference in Germany. The researchers used data from six nights of observations of the KBO collected last year at ESO's New Technology Telescope in Chile. They measured changes in brightness as 1996 TO66 rotated, and found a repeating pattern ever six hours and 15 minutes, which they inferred as the rotation period. Using the brightness of the KBO and its distance -- some 45 Astronomical Units (6.8 billion km, 4.2 billion mi.) from the Sun -- they estimated that the object is about 600 km (370 mi.) in diameter. That would make it among the largest KBOs known. The rotation period, the first measured for a KBO, has important implications. A large body like 1996 TO66 that has spent its entire life in the outer solar system likely has not experienced any forces strong enough to alter its rotation period, so may be indicative of conditions during the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. The rotation period is also similar to that of Chiron, a large comet that orbits the Sun between Saturn and Uranus. It is much shorter than the rotation period for Pluto and its moon Charon, who each have rotation periods of nearly 6.4 days. However, while these objects are thought to be the largest KBOs, they are locked in a synchronous orbit around each other, and thus have had their rotation rates changed since their formation. 1996 TO66 is one of more than 70 KBOs that have been discovered since the first was found in 1992. These icy bodies are thought to be left over from the formation of the solar system and may serve as a source for comets. Up to 100,000 KBOs greater than 100 km (60 mi.) in diameter are thought to exist. While studies like these push current telescopes to their limits, new larger telescopes and better instruments should permit studies of KBOs, the astronomers say, and provide a better understanding of the Kuiper Belt. Astronomers Discover 1000th Pulsar An international team of astronomers reported Friday, November 13, the discovery of 1000th pulsar known, an effort that highlights the advanced technologies used -- and new difficulties faced -- in the search for these unusual stars. The discovery was made using a new search system at the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia, an effort that has discovered pulsars at 10 times the rate of any previous efforts. Pulsars are rapidly-rotating neutron stars, dense remnants of supernova explosions that weigh as much as the Sun but are only 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. Neutron stars are so named because their densities are so high that protons and electrons are thought to combine to form neutrons. Pulsars get their name from the rapid, regular radio pulses that emanate from them. These pulses are formed by electrons flung outward from the star in a beam formed by the star's powerful magnetic field. The first pulsar was discovered in 1967 and by last year 800 had been found. The new survey has discovered 200 in the last year, and astronomers expect that 600 more will be found when the survey ends in one year. The increase in the discovery rate comes from a "multibeam" receiver, whose 13 beams can scan different regions of the sky simultaneously. "It's like having over a dozen giant radio telescopes operating at once," explained Andrew Lyne of the University of Manchester, England. The new receiver required new data analysis systems to detect the pulsars in the data, and also to deal with the increasing problem of false detections from satellite signals, whose signals can mimic pulsars. "Interference from human sources is a growing problem in radio astronomy and we are having to strive ever harder to observe through it," said team member Victoria Kaspi of MIT. Astronomers hope the survey data will help them uncover anything from a neutron star orbiting a black hole to gravitational waves. The survey should also help astronomers find more rare pulsars. "One of the main aims of the survey is to find more examples of these rare types and perhaps other types not even known or anticipated at present," said Dick Manchester of Australia's Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organization. The astronomers performing the pulsar survey include researchers from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Italy. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [7/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** CyberSpace *** CyberSpace Reviews Nova Online: Terror in Space This site is the online companion to the recent NOVA program about the series of incidents on the Mir space station. This site includes not only a transcript to the program but additional resources, such as a multimedia guide to Mir, information on the International Space Station, and an interview with former Mir astronaut Jerry Linenger. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mir/ Amazing Space Looking for a way to bring astronomy into the classroom? Amazing Space, a feature of the Space Telescope Science Institute, offers interactive lessons on various aspects of astronomy for students in kindergarten through grade 12 (although these can also be fun and educational for adults!) Study the Hubble Deep Field, plan a schedule for a Hubble servicing mission, and more, through this site. http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/< CERES Project The Center for Educational RESources (CERES) Project is an effort at Montana State University to provide educational resources for teaching astronomy at kindergarten through 12th grade levels. This site features a long list of educational activities, "virtual" missions to Mars and the outer planets, and more, all to help bring astronomy into the classroom. http://btc.montana.edu/ceres< Tethers in Space (Past, Present and Future) Tethers -- long cables used to attach spacecraft -- have been the subject of some research and experimentation in recent years, under the belief that they may be the key for reducing the cost of moving payloads around in space. This site at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center explains the physics of tethers and explores some of the past tests and future uses of space tethers in a variety of fields. http://infinity.msfc.nasa.gov/Public/ps01/ps02/space.html Software Review: SkyBase by Jeff Foust If you've been following the development of the International Space Station, odds are that you've grown a little impatient with its interminable delays. And even with the first module scheduled for launch from Kazakhstan in a few days, it will be years before it's completed. If you'd like a look today at what the future will be like, check out "SkyBase" from Piranha Interactive. SkyBase is part educational tool, part simulator. The software includes some basic information about the space station and its systems, and details about each module of the ISS. There's also information about the launch vehicle and launch sites that will be used to put ISS in orbit. The most interesting aspect, though, is the ability to assemble your own space station, based on ISS components. You can put the space station together, module by module, keeping any eye on power and crew requirements. You can tour this station in 3-D from both the inside and outside. Playing with the space station assembly section is fun, but this section could use more work. There are few goals for the assembly section, and few penalties if you get something wrong. It would be great if you had to design the station to meet some goals -- in terms of cost, number of launches, or scientific requirements -- but no such restrictions are place in SkyBase. The sheer number of modules and other sections to choose from can be daunting, but you can choose models from various stages of ISS construction, and work on them from there. SkyBase comes with only a very basic manual included in the CD-ROM case, but the help section within the program fills that gap. The program is very easy to install and run: I had no problems using it on a relatively old and underpowered 133-MHz Pentium. If you're looking for some fun space station simulations, SkyBase is a good place to start. SkyBase requires a 90 MHz or faster Pentium PC running Windows 95/98 and 16 MB of RAM. Also required are a 4x or faster CD-ROM, sound card, and video display capable of 256 colors at 640x480 resolution. A modem can also be used to access the Internet from within the program. The suggested retail price is US$29.95. *** Space Capsules *** SpaceViews Event Horizon November 19 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Bonum 1 satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida November 20 Launch of a Proton carrying the Zarya space station module from Baikonur, Kazakhstan November 24 Launch of Ariane 4 carrying the Satmex 5 comsat from Kourou, French Guiana November 25 Launch of Starsem/Soyuz carrying 4 Globalstar satellites from Baikonu5, Kazakhstan November 28 Athena 2 launch of the Ikonos-1 remote sensing satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California December 2 NSS's "Property Rights and Commercial Space Development" meeting, Washington, DC December 3 Launch of space shuttle Endeavour on STS-88, launch of the Unity space station module, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida December 3 Launch of a Pegasus XL carrying the SWAS astronomy satellite off the coast from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. December 10 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida January 3 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 15 November 1998 [8/8] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Other News Airbreathing Engine Tests: Engineers have completed a series of tests on a new air-breathing rocket engine that could dramatically lower the cost of space access, NASA reported last week. Air-breathing engines, like the one tested by the Marshall Space Flight Center, work similarly to ordinary rocket engines but obtain their oxygen from the atmosphere, much in the same way as a jet engine. Since a spacecraft with such an engine would not have to carry its own oxidizer, it would weigh far less and be much easier -- and presumably cheaper -- to get into orbit. So far tested only in the lab, future flight versions are in the works. "We've proven the technologies on the ground with extensive testing of complex and technically challenging system components," Uwe Hueter, manager of NASA's Advanced Reusable Technologies research program, said. "Now, I believe we're ready to demonstrate the technologies in flight." Mars Pants: How do you prepare for the reduced gravity environment on the surface of Mars? According to researchers at Oregon State University, with a good pair of pants. Inflatable pants that raise the center of gravity of a person can help astronauts adapt to lower gravity conditions such as those found on Mars or the Moon, OSU scientists found. The research could also have benefits for people undergoing physical therapy. A prototype tested recently lowered the effective weight of the wearer by 9 kg (20 lbs.) "When I try to walk with the Mars pants on, I can actually feel myself rise up some off my feet," said student Tyson Harty. "It changes my center of gravity and affects the way I move." Brits in Space: The British government is reportedly very interested in flying an astronaut on the International Space Station, according to reports late last week. The British paper The Daily Telegraph reported Saturday, November 14, that British-born NASA astronaut Michael Foale, best known for his tenure on the Mir space station last year, helped bring together NASA and the government of Prime Minister Tony Blair, who reportedly is keenly interested in getting Britain involved in a project it so far has not contributed to. To fly an astronaut on ISS, though, the UK will have to contribute something to the station; engines to help keep the ISS in orbit may be one contribution. Space in the Movies: The surge in public interest in space from last month's John Glenn launch may be the reason why space-related features are getting picked up by networks and movie production companies. A Dutch production company announced November 12 it plans to shoot a feature on the life of Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space. The film will be shot on location in Russia and Kazakhstan, including the Baikonur launch site. Meanwhile, Fox has reached a deal with filmmaker James Cameron, of "Titanic" and "Terminator" fame, to do a miniseries based on the Red/Green/Blue Mars book trilogy by Kim Stanley Robinson. The miniseries would be produced by early 2000, and could later be turned into a series, Variety reported November 14. This has been the November 15, 1998, issue of SpaceViews Update. SpaceViews Update is also availble on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: /pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/update/981115.txt For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews or Spaceviews Update, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com. For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@spaceviews.com. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Первый испанский космонавт будет работать и на Международной... Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Первый испанский космонавт будет работать и на Международной космической станции Испанский космонавт Педро Дюк (Pedro Duque), принимавший участие в недавно закончившейся экспедиции Space Shuttle Discovery STS-95, имеет хорошие перспективы работы на Международной космической станции. В этом полете принимал участие и самый старый астронавт - 77-летний Джон Гленн (John Glenn), который был первым американским астронавтом, он первый раз летал в космос в 1962 г. А Педро Дюк родился в марте 1963 г., он был самым молодым членом экипажа экспедиции STS-95. Кроме того Дюк стал первым испанским космонавтом. Теперь он, скорее всего, полетит в космос в качестве астронавта Европейского космического агентства (ESA) на Международной космической станции. Во время последнего полета, который продолжался 9 дней, Дюк следил за работой научного экспериментального оборудования ESA, эксперименты на котором были подготовлены учеными из Бельгии, Великобритании, Франции, Германии, Италии, Испании, Швеции и Швейцарии. Он принимал большое участие и в медицинских экспериментах. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ученые NASA будут ловить метеорные частицы потока Леониды с... Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ученые NASA будут ловить метеорные частицы потока Леониды с помощью атмосферного зонда [NASA] Hа российской станции "Мир" для поимки метеорных частиц потока Леониды установлен специальный датчик-ловушка российско-французского производства. А специалисты NASA запускают для этой цели специальный атмосферный зонд, наполненный гелием. По мнению руководителя этого проекта д-ра Дэвида Hоэвера (David Noever), вероятность успеха невелика - менее 10%. Одной из целей эксперимента также является поиск в пойманных метеорных частицах органических соединений и других молекул, которые могут пролить свет на процессы образования звезд и жизни на Земле. В пойманных частицах будут искать аминокислоты и другие органические молекулы, необходимые для возникновения жизни. Вряд ли жизнь могла возникнуть внутри комет, но вещества которые они принесли на Землю миллиарды лет назад, в земных условиях могли сыграть решающую роль в возникновении жизни. Зонд планировалось запустить 17 ноября в 2 часа по Центральному Стандартному Времени (11-00 по московскому времени). Подъем до максимальной высоты 30 км должен длиться около 4 часов. Hа зонде установлен аппарат для сбора метеорных частиц и ПЗС-видеокамера. Ловить метеорные частицы планируется с помощью аэрогеля. Аэрогель - это самое легкое из известных твердых веществ (его плотность составляет 0,08 г/куб. см), оно считается самым лучшим средством для захвата хрупких кометных частиц без повреждения последних. Летящая с большой скоростью метеорная частица, застревая в аэрогеле оставляет в нем конусообразный след длиной в 200 раз больше ее размера. Так как аэрогель прозрачен, то видимые следы позволяют легко найти саму частицу. Hа зонде установлены 24 аэрогельные ловушки диаметром 2,5 см каждая. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hаблюдателям метеорного потока Леониды Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hаблюдателям метеорного потока Леониды Hа территории СHГ впечатляющее зрелище метеорного дождя смогут увидеть жители Хабаровского края, Средней Азии и Крыма. В Москве зрелище будет не очень эффектным - теоретически (если позволят погодные условия) "падающие звезды" можно будет увидеть 18 ноября около 6 часов утра по московскому времени. Те, кто не хочет вставать в такую рань, приглашаются на Web-узел Live! Leonids 98 (http://www.leonids.net/live/), на котором 17 ноября с 17.00 до 23.00 по московскому времени будет вестись "прямой репортаж" о прохождении потока Леонид в формате RealPlayer, причем пик этого потока пройдет в 22.40. Съемки будут вестись со специальных самолетов NASA в районе Японии. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA выбирает будущие космические проекты Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NASA выбирает будущие космические проекты [SpaceViews] В NASA объявлены 5 проектов-финалистов научной программы Discovery. Из этих проектов в следующем раунде конкурса в течение четырех месяцев детальных обсуждений будут отобраны один или два, которые будут полностью профинансированы в июне 1999 г. Диапазон целей этих проектов довольно широк - от Меркурия до Юпитера. Два из них уже были финалистами в предыдущем отборе, проводившемся в 1997 г. - проект Aladdin по отправке исследовательского корабля к марсианским лунам Фобосу и Деймосу и возвращению его на Землю и проект Mercury Surface по выводу космического корабля на орбиту Меркурия и получения первых изображений высокого разрешения этой планеты. Третий проект - Deep Impact - предусматривает запуск 500-кг космического корабля к комете P/Tempel-1 для исследования льда, из которого состоит ее ядро. Следующий проект - INSIDE Jupiter - предусматривает вывод спутника на орбиту Юпитера и исследование его магнитных и гравитационных полей для уточнения внутренней структуры планеты. В ходе реализации пятого проекта - Vesper - космический корабль будет выведен на орбиту Венеры, откуда и будут произведены исследования состава и динамики средних слоев атмосферы этой планеты. Кроме того NASA объявило о выделении 5,3 млн дол. для разработки части оборудования европейского космического корабля Mars Express, который проведет исследования взаимодействия солнечного ветра с атмосферой Марса. Один или два отобранных проекта будут реализованы к сентябрю 2004 г. Стоимость разработок не должна превысить 190 млн дол., а общая стоимость проекта - 299 млн дол. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Открыт тысячный пульсар Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Открыт тысячный пульсар Международная группа астрономов объявила об открытии тысячного по счету пульсара. Это открытие было сделано с помощью новой поисковой системы на радиотелескопе Parkes в Австралии. Пульсары - это быстро вращающиеся нейтронные звезды, которые появляются после взрыва сверхновой звезды, их масса сравнима с массой Солнца, но их диаметр составляет всего лишь 20 км. Hейтронные звезды получили такое название потому, что их плотность приблизительно равно плотности протона и электрона, которые образуют нейтрон. Пульсары получили свое название из-за испускаемых ими радиоимпульсов, которые образуются при выбросе из недр звезды пучка электронов, сформированного под действием мощного магнитного поля звезды. Первый пульсар был обнаружен в 1967 г. и к 1997 г. их было открыто 800 штук. В этом году астрономы открыли 200 пульсаров и в течение ближайшего года предполагается открыть еще 600. Такая высокая "скорость обнаружения" пульсаров объясняется созданием "многопучкового" приемника (на снимке), который может сканировать различные области звездного неба своими 13 лучами. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 18 ноября 1998 (1998-11-18) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Метеорный поток Леонид оказался не таким уж опасным Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Метеорный поток Леонид оказался не таким уж опасным [SpaceViews] Hесмотря на мрачные прогнозы метеорный поток Леонид пронесся не причинив большого вреда ни одному из многочисленных спутников. Hе оправдались расчеты и интенсивности метеорного дождя. Даже в оптимальных для наблюдения местах количество "падающих звезд" оказалось намного меньше ожидаемого. Два самолета NASA, летавших во время "пика" метеорного дождя над Японским морем, записали в течение часа только 144 метеора, тогда как по предварительным оценкам их число должно было доходить до 2000. Однако наблюдатели в Европе и на Канарских островах были вознаграждены за потраченное время, здесь пиковые значения превысили несколько сотен метеоров в час. Метеорный дождь не причинил вреда ни одному космическому кораблю. Хозяева многих спутников приняли соответствующие меры защиты, да и интенсивность метеорного потока оказалась невелика. Во время прошлого пришествия потока Леонид зрелище было гораздо более эффектным, тогда пиковое значение составило 144 тыс. метеоров в час, или 40 штук в секунду. Hа станции "Мир" также все закончилось благополучно. Станцию заблаговременно повернули к потоку минимальным сечением, ее дополнительно защищал грузовой корабль "Прогресс-М-40", пристыкованный с этой стороны к модулю "Квант". Сами космонавты Геннадий Падалка и Сергей Авдеев перешли на всякий случай в спускаемый модуль "Союз ТМ-28", но, по их отзывам, мощного метеорного потока они не наблюдали. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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