Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.

Ноябрь 1998


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru

  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 02 ноября 1998

    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Astronomers discover galaxy in our cosmic back yard (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... University Communications New Mexico State Univeristy Las Cruces, New Mexico Astronomers discover galaxy in our cosmic back yard By Karl Hill Two New Mexico State University astronomers teamed up with colleagues in the Netherlands to discover a large galaxy in the immediate neighborhood of our own Milky Way galaxy. Rene Walterbos, head of the astronomy department at NMSU, said the previously undetected galaxy is only about 20 million light years away -- a very close neighbor by galactic standards. "It is surprising that we apparently have not found all the large nearby galaxies," Walterbos said. "Astronomers have been finding a lot of dwarf galaxies, but this is a fairly substantial galaxy." Several large nearby galaxies lurking behind the dusty absorbing band of the Milky Way have also been discovered over the past decade, but this is the first large nearby galaxy found in the modern astronomical era that is only mildly obscured in this way. Because it is the first nearby galaxy discovered in the constellation Cepheus, the newly discovered galaxy was named Cepheus 1. It belongs to a class known as Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies, in which stars are spread further apart than in most galaxies. Signs of Cepheus 1 were first noticed in observations made with the Dwingeloo 25-meter radio telescope in the Netherlands. Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy and Butler Burton of Leiden University had been using that telescope to study compact clouds of hydrogen gas found swarming around the Milky Way. The motions of these gas clouds could be measured by their Doppler shifts -- changes in the wavelengths of the signals coming from the clouds -- and one was seen to move differently from the others. Braun and Burton contacted Walterbos and Charles Hoopes, a doctoral student in astronomy at NMSU, who used the 3.5-meter optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory to verify that the hydrogen gas signature corresponded to a new galaxy. Apache Point, high in the Sacramento Mountains on one of the best observing sites in North America, is operated by NMSU for the Astrophysical Research Consortium, a group of seven universities and research institutions. "This demonstrates very well the capabilities of Apache Point," Walterbos said. "It required a rapid response and it involved three different observational techniques." The optical picture obtained by Apache Point showed what the astronomers described as a "rather anemic-looking galaxy" with only a few sites of recent star formation scattered across a large area. Further radio observations from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in British Columbia revealed that the weak optical signal was embedded in a much larger and rapidly rotating disk of hydrogen gas, characteristic of a robust spiral galaxy. Walterbos said Cepheus 1 is one of the dozen largest nearby spiral galaxies, "and one of only two large Low Surface Brightness spirals that we know of in the nearby universe." LSB galaxies can be massive, with copious amounts of gas within them, but the gas is evolving to form stars very slowly compared with other galaxies, the astronomers said. Most galaxies occur in large clusters or groups and interact with each other gravitationally. The largest galaxies are believed to evolve by cannibalizing smaller ones. The Milky Way and its nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are on a collision course and probably will merge dramatically in a few billion years. LSB galaxies, on the other hand, are commonly found in quite empty regions of space. With little external influence on their internal circumstances, the process of star formation is not triggered efficiently, leaving vast reservoirs of gas but only a few young, bright stars. Discovery of Cepheus 1 gives astronomers a nearby example of LSB galaxies to study in detail. It also represents another step in completing the census of galaxies in the local neighborhood, which is important to determining the mass and luminosity characteristics of these fundamental building blocks of the universe. A scientific article on the discovery by the four astronomers will appear in the January 1999 issue of the "Astronomical Journal," published by the American Astronomical Society. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Air Force Weather Agency supports shuttle mission (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force News Service Released: 28 Oct 1998 Air Force Weather Agency supports shuttle mission By Tech. Sgt. Mike Jones, Air Force Weather Agency Public Affairs OFFUTT AIR FORCE BASE, Neb. (AFPN) -- Although technology characterizes shuttle launches as routine nowadays, pulling it off requires a unique combination of technical wizardry -- especially when it comes to predicting weather conditions. Members from the 45th Weather Squadron are helping to bridge that weather forecasting gap with a precise blend of information technology and training that appears to render it clairvoyant. Numerous pre-launch details have been completed this week as shuttle crew members, including Sen. John Glenn, make final preparations for an historic launch Oct. 29. Mastering such launch variables as predicting equipment operating efficiency, fuel requirements and orbital trajectories, technicians have coordinated countless successful launches. "We support a number of other launch, support and flight operations where unexpected weather conditions could be a show stopper," said Col. David P. Urbanski, 45th WS commander. Urbanski discussed the importance of weather forecasting during the solid rocket booster recovery phase. He also detailed contingency weather forecast services his squadron provides for the shuttle's search and rescue mission. "There's just so much more that goes into launching a shuttle mission than what most people see," Urbanski explained. "Every aspect is executed individually and then fused into the flawless launches people have come to expect. We've been doing this shuttle support mission for quite some time. In fact, Mr. Edward Priselac has been our dedicated launch weather officer for the past 11 years -- so if anyone knows the weather intricacies surrounding shuttle launches -- it's him." Priselac identified four critical operations that are completed prior to the shuttle's launch. He explained that each operation is conducted within a set of weather parameters that, if exceeded, would prohibit launch. "These prohibitions, or launch constraints as we refer to them, cover time periods from post flight inspections of the shuttle and boosters to fueling operations prior to a scheduled flight," said Priselac. The LWO works in conjunction with a nine-member, highly specialized launch weather team to ensure the myriad of constraint criteria are monitored. Winds, lightning, temperature and precipitation are tracked carefully, and must remain within identified ranges for the LWO to clear a launch. Each shuttle mission, based on its objective, has a specific launch window during which the craft must take off. Failure to meet that launch window results in a launch scrub and rescheduling, both timely and expensive set backs. The launch window for the Oct. 29 scheduled liftoff is 2 to 4:30 p.m. EST. Priselac, a veteran of several dozen weather launch delays, said that even with all of the improvements in forecasting capabilities weather forces are still pretty dynamic. "Even though wind and precipitation conditions are constantly changing we're forecasting a zero probability of weather conditions negatively impacting tomorrow's scheduled launch," Priselac said. "NASA requires weather forecasts projected four-days prior to scheduled shuttle launches. That lead time helps launch officials pinpoint the exact launch window. We're gleaning information from several sources to help analyze weather's potential impact." Priselac mentioned the Air Force Weather Agency here is a provider of specialized severe weather modeling products and satellite data which helps improve weather forecasting accuracy for launch officials. Other players in the Oct. 29 launch include the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group. Referred to as SMG, the group is located in Houston at the Mission Control Center in NASA's Johnson Space Center. Wayne Baggett, a lead forecaster for SMG, said both military and civilian agencies generate a variety of highly detailed weather products. Some forecasters reference AFWA's Air Force Weather Information Network for hazardous weather updates on specific regional areas. These products help SMG prepare forecasts for shuttle mission aborts and improves awareness of local weather conditions at strategic tracking and alternate landing locations. Products provided by AFWIN also serve as a backup to information provided by other specialized weather agencies. The only thing left now for the Oct. 29 mission is the actual launch countdown. "It's still going to be a tough call," said Priselac. "Although weather conditions at launch time aren't projected to exceed constraints, we have to stay responsive to any potential developments. We fully expect another flawless launch given all of the technical support focused. This flight is tracking green for a go!" Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Hubble Orbiting Systems Test to fly a Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Contact: Buddy Nelson, (510) 797-0349 Pager: (888) 916-1797 Email: buddy1@home.com 98-112 LOCKHEED MARTIN MISSILES & SPACE HUBBLE ORBITING SYSTEMS TEST TO FLY ABOARD STS-95 SUNNYVALE, Calif., October 29, 1998 -- The Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Hubble Space Telescope (HST) project office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Md., is part of the team that prepared the Hubble Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) platform for flight aboard STS-95. The HOST platform will reside in the payload bay of the space shuttle Discovery throughout the flight. "Early in our preparations for the next Hubble Servicing Mission in May 2000, the HST team here saw STS-95 as a unique opportunity to validate some of the components that will be installed on the telescope," says Jim Kelley, Lockheed Martin Hubble Space Telescope program manager at GSFC. "The entire government and industry team pulled together to meet a very aggressive schedule and take advantage of this flight opportunity, and I'm certain that what we learn from HOST will greatly benefit the Hubble program." There are six experiments on the HOST platform: The Near-Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Cooling System (NCS) will allow zero-g verification of a new cooler which should allow longer life operation than the current dewar system. This cooler is vibration free and could extend the life of NICMOS by at least 5 years. The HST 486 Computer will allow the identification of any radiation susceptible circuits in the computer replacement unit that will be installed during the next servicing mission. This computer will provide twice as much memory and three times the processor speed of the present computer and co-processor combined. Solid State Recorder (SSR) will compare on-orbit operation of the flight spare solid-state recorder with the current HST unit. Astronauts will install it during the next servicing mission to replace the tape recorder presently on Hubble. Fiber Optic Line Test will use a fiber optic line to examine the same data stream that is sent to the orbiter's Payload Data Interrogator. The results will be routed to a laptop computer for post-flight comparison. Fiber optics is expected to vastly improve Shuttle payload processing efficiency. Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) instrument will measure radiation levels of heavy ions that can affect the performance of electronic components. Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) will measure vibrations produced by the NICMOS cooler. Large vibrations could affect HST's precision pointing capabilities. "The HST project will utilize data from HOST to better assess the performance of the NCS, the HST 486 computer, and the Solid-State Recorder," says Kelley. "We'll look at how well the NCS works, from both a cooling and jitter perspective, and further evaluate the susceptibility of the HST 486 and SSR to the space radiation environment. These aren't qualification tests or acceptance tests, but rather a special occasion to learn more about how these systems perform in space." Missiles & Space has played a leading role on the HST team since being selected by NASA in 1977 to design and build the spacecraft and provide spacecraft systems integration. Since the 1990 launch, Missiles & Space and Lockheed Martin Technical Operations personnel in Sunnyvale, Calif., and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, have helped NASA manage the day-to-day spacecraft operations of the telescope, and have provided extensive preparation and training for the telescope servicing missions. In the eight years since launch on April 24, 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has proven to be a premier astronomical observatory that is performing dramatic observations and making discoveries at the forefront of astronomy. It has made over 120,000 observations, and given rise to thousands of scientific reports and research papers. HST has stayed on the scientific forefront because the telescope is serviced every few years to replace existing scientific instruments with advanced state of the art instruments; its scientific productivity has also increased as data and power systems have been upgraded with regular servicing missions. The telescope is scheduled to be serviced in March 2000 and again in March of 2003. HST is planned to operate until 2010. Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space, based in Sunnyvale, Calif., is a leading supplier of satellites and space systems to military, civil government and commercial communications organizations around the world. These spacecraft and systems have enhanced military and commercial communications; provided new and timely remote-sensing information; and furnished new data for thousands of scientists studying our planet and the universe. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: News Media Can Track John Glenn's Return to Space on the MSFC Web (For Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Steve Roy Media Relations Office Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL 35812 (256) 544-6535 Steve.Roy@msfc.nasa.gov http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news For Release: October 23, 1998 NOTE TO EDITORS: 98-213 News Media Can Track John Glenn's Return to Space on the Web Before and during Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-95 mission, the new Marshall Center Newsroom Website will post daily updates highlighting John Glenn's science and commercial product experiment activities during the nine-day mission. The "virtual newsroom" is at: http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news Available now: * Fact Sheet on John Glenn's microgravity experiments * Video and photographs of Glenn preparing for the mission. * Background on Glenn's experiments, featuring: * Latest research results on super insulator Aerogel * Latest research results on insulin crystal growth * Latest research results on Respiratory Syncytial Virus * Background on the Microgravity Research Program * Why NASA grows protein crystals in space * All recent news releases related to Glenn's microgravity experiments * Points of contact to call for interviews * Links to related material: * STS-95 mission press kit * Microgravity Research Program Website * Fact Sheets on the STS-95 microgravity experiments Available during the Discovery flight: * News tips on Glenn's next microgravity experiments -- updated daily * Still and video images of Glenn and Discovery's crew -- updated daily * Updated contact information for interviews with researchers at: * NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas * NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida * NASA's Marshall Center. Check out our Website today or call Steve Roy or Bob Thompson of the Marshall Center Media Relations Office at (256) 544-6535. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Full Circle: Inspired by John Glenn, Space Shuttle Managers Prepare , Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... June Malone Media Relations Office Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL 35812 (256) 544-7061/0034 June.Malone@msfc.nasa.gov http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news For Release: October 27, 1998 NEWS RELEASE: 98-214 Full Circle: Inspired by John Glenn, Space Shuttle Managers Prepare to Give Hero a Ride Back into Space Alex McCool remembers being "in awe" of John Glenn. Shortly after Glenn's historic Friendship 7 flight, McCool found himself sitting next to Glenn in a Houston meeting, listening as legendary rocket scientist Dr. Wernher von Braun outlined the propulsion strategy that would launch Americans to the Moon. Now, 36 years later, McCool, manager of the Space Shuttle Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., expresses a sense of honor and humility at the responsibility to safely return an American hero to space. "It really touches me," said McCool. "I feel honored to be part of the STS-95 mission of the Shuttle Discovery. It's a humbling experience to know that he's flying on our propulsion system." The Marshall Center is responsible for propulsion elements for all Shuttle flights, including the sophisticated Space Shuttle main engines, solid rocket boosters, solid rocket motors and the huge external fuel tank. McCool recalled the conversation over lunch that spring day in 1962. "John started talking about Ted Williams' baseball success -- they were Marine pilots together in World War II and the Korean War. Williams was about 40 years old and his baseball career was ending," said McCool. "Back then, folks in their 40s seemed old, and I remember John saying, 'You're not over the hill when you turn 40.' "That stuck with me ever since," said McCool, 74, "and now he's almost twice that age and getting ready to fly again." Like McCool, many of the people who are now responsible for Glenn's ride back into space were somehow inspired or motivated by his achievement. John Chapman, deputy manager of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster project at Marshall, was a fifth grader at Pine Street School in Spartanburg, S.C., when Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. "I remember it like it was yesterday," said Chapman. "Our typically squirming fifth-grade class was totally calm and quiet listening to the launch on the radio. "When I got home from school that afternoon, my dad -- who was an architect and happened to stay home from work that day -- was bowled over, choked up with emotion, the whole day after watching Glenn's launch on TV," said Chapman. "Americans felt a phenomenal sense of pride in what Glenn did then, and I'm just tickled to death and extremely honored to be part of his second flight," he said. Adding to Chapman's keen interest in Glenn's first flight was a family vacation to Washington, D.C., only months before Glenn's 1962 flight atop an Atlas rocket. "Dad took a picture of me next to a full-size, bright silver, stainless steel mock-up of an Atlas rocket at the Smithsonian Institution," remembered Chapman, "and after that, he says I told him I was going to work on those things." Chapman said he doesn't remember a time when he didn't want to make "flying machines" his career. He's spent all 25 years of his career working on rockets -- namely the Space Shuttle. And will this Shuttle launch be different than others? "Slightly, perhaps," said Chapman. "It will be an emotional moment to hear whatever is said as we approach liftoff. But in terms of our standard responsibility to make sure everything is done right, it's absolutely no different than any other I've ever been involved in -- they've all got to be done exactly right." Keith Henson, manager of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project at the Marshall Center, echoes Chapman. "Every person working on propulsion for the Space Shuttle has a strong awareness that this is serious business. In that regard, this one is just as serious but no different than the last one and the next one," said Henson. Fresh out of college, Henson started work in the Aeroballistics Laboratory at the Marshall Center about a year before Glenn's flight. "We were doing aerodynamic work on the Saturn program, headed to the Moon. John Glenn's flight proved to us that it would work, that you could do it," said Henson. "Now, we're really pulling for him because this man has again committed to serve our country, to go beyond the call of duty," said Henson. "It's an honor for us to be giving him this ride to space. It makes us feel like we're in the saddle with him." George Hopson, manager of the Space Shuttle Main Engine project office at the Marshall Center, was working in Fort Worth, Texas, for General Dynamics when Glenn made history. Hopson recalled the American public was "genuinely alarmed" after the Russians launched the first satellite and the first human in space. "John Glenn's flight helped restore the confidence of Americans and captured my imagination for working on a program that almost had patriotic connotations," said Hopson. "When a recruiting team from Marshall Space Flight Center came to Fort Worth, I applied," said Hopson, "and I've enjoyed every minute of my work here. Working on the Saturn launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle makes a person feel like a small part of history." Parker Counts, manager of the External Tank project at the Marshall Center, was a senior at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville when Glenn achieved what Counts remembers as the "magnificent event." "It's a privilege to be involved in this next launch and to reflect on all the accomplishments of almost 40 years of human space flight," said Counts. "In a way, it brings the loop to full closure to send a pioneer back to space. We're coming full circle and it's a wonderful tribute to John Glenn's abilities and to America's space program." - end - Note to Editors: Interviews supporting this release are available to media representatives by contacting June Malone, Media Relations Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, at Kennedy Space Center, (407) 867-2468. For an electronic version of this release, visit Marshall's new virtual News Center: http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news Other NASA Web sites featuring Space Shuttle information include: Space Shuttle Projects Office http://shuttle.nasa.gov Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Air Force research laboratory researchers recall John Glenn before his Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force News Service Released: 26 Oct 1998 Air Force research laboratory researchers recall John Glenn before his earth orbit By Bobbie Mixon Jr., Aeronautical Systems Center Public Affairs WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio (AFPN) -- Before John Glenn was "John Glenn," he was one of about three dozen people who might be famous someday. So says Air Force Research Laboratory research physiologist John Frazier, who was here in 1959 when the erstwhile astronaut candidate arrived for physiological and psychological testing. "An astronaut? What's that?" Frazier mused remembering his first impressions of a group of 40 men, largely fighter pilots, who were vying to be the country's first spacemen. "We knew they were special, but didn't fully appreciate how famous they were going to become." Today, John Glenn is the senior U.S. Senator from Ohio. In 1962, he was the first American to orbit Earth. More than 36 years later, Glenn, now 77, is poised to venture into space a second time Oct. 29. He and six other crew members will blast off from Kennedy Space Center, Fla., in the Space Shuttle Discovery for an eight-day mission. Frazier, now 62, is watching with interest. He still works in the Air Force Research Laboratory's centrifuge facility where he worked a mere three years when the astronaut hopefuls, including Glenn, arrived for a series of tests. "Looking back on it, there were physicians, physiologists and all different kinds of people who had input into the test program," Frazier said. "Their goal was to subject the candidates to a number of different tests to get data to help make the assessment of how to choose the original seven astronauts." During the 1950s, Wright-Patterson was one of few places in the United States with the facilities needed to screen astronaut candidates, and Frazier is one of several "old-timers" who can recall activities at the base then. Former Army Air Corps Pvt. Ray Whitney is another. Now retired, Whitney was one of the original five staff members who made up the Physiological Research Unit here in the late 1930s. That laboratory would later become the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory where much of the astronaut screening was done. Glenn was 40 years old Feb. 20 when his Mercury capsule, Friendship 7, orbited Earth three times in 1962. In the summer of 1996, Glenn, a member of the Senate Special Committee on Aging, approached NASA armed with research showing a correlation between the effects of weightlessness and aging. According to the research, weightlessness produced in astronauts blood changes, cardiovascular changes, weakening of the bones and disruption of sleep cycles -- the same things that happen to people on earth as they grow older. Glenn suggested to NASA that he take a shuttle ride to gather data that might be useful to the more than 34 million Americans on Earth who are older than 65. The space agency promised that if Glenn could pass the same physical that every other astronaut must pass, it would seriously consider his proposal. "What do I think of his going back into space?" asked Whitney with a chuckle. "I'm 85. I think it's great he's able to do it." Whitney, who won the Distinguished Flying Cross as an Air Corps private at Wright Field in 1940 for his research and participation in flight tests of the first successful pressurized aircraft, couldn't recall Glenn in particular. Dr. Henning von Gierke, a former director of the Air Force Research Lab's Biodynamics and Biocommunications Division, also has recollections of the original seven astronauts. "They were all fighter pilots with a minimum of 1,500 flying hours or so. They were all supermen," he said characterizing the first candidates. "They all had a test-pilot mentality," Frazier said. "They were all very competitive." Von Gierke, who helped set up several of 12 astronaut-screening tests conducted here by Armstrong Laboratory personnel, recalled the tests were designed to simulate anticipated experiences in a space environment. One test involved rating speech and performance characteristics in high-noise environments. The candidates were asked to speak words from a standard, phonetically balanced word list while jet-engine and rocket noise blared. The subject's speech performance was rated by a panel of expert listeners. The noise test also required the candidates to perform mathematical calculations in both quiet and noisy environments. The idea was to determine how these conditions interfered with the candidate's psychological and emotional stability by assessing error rate. Interestingly, subjects scored better under noisy conditions. In another test the astronaut candidates were blindfolded and strapped into an equilibrium chair capable of random pitch and roll. The equilibrium chair was mounted on a shake table that moved up and down at different frequencies producing vibrations that one might experience in space. The candidates were asked to compensate for any motions they perceived. Von Gierke said the testing was needed because no one had ever flown in space. "We have much better flight simulators today which incorporate many of these stresses," he said. Frazier described the centrifuge tests conducted, also conducted at Wright-Patterson, as being "structured to assess the candidates from many different perspectives." The astronaut hopefuls were initially given three centrifuge rides. During one ride, the candidates were seated in a conventional upright position and were spun around until they reached blackout levels at a maximum of 9 G's. During two other rides, the candidates were placed on their backs, as they would be situated inside the Mercury capsule. These tests in the supine position were accomplished at 8 and 12 G's. Frazier said because of aircraft design limitations in the 1950s, it was rare when subjects were taken beyond 7 or 8 G's. The centrifuge testing, however, for that first group of astronauts was much more dynamic than typical testing for the combat pilots of the day. "Back in 1959, military aircraft typically were stressed for maximum forces of 7.3 G's. That was sort of a design limit on aircraft until the F-16s and F-15s in the 1970s," he said. Noting that the rigors of astronaut testing and missions are not the same today as they were in the early days of the space program, von Gierke wishes John Glenn well. "As far as we know, on normal space missions with the shuttle, there are no particular stresses which would require superman. He certainly will do the job as well as a younger man," said the 81-year-old von Gierke, who anticipates valuable research returning from the flight. "His experience will contribute at every level of the overall team effort." (Courtesy of Air Force Materiel Command News Service) Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Air Force space and missile museum capturing, preserving history , (Fo Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force News Service Released: 26 Oct 1998 Air Force space and missile museum capturing, preserving history By Tech. Sgt. Ginger Schreitmueller, 45th Space Wing Public Affairs Office CAPE CANAVERAL AIR STATION, Fla. (AFPN) -- It's a fair bet that more people along the "Space Coast" than not will have their eyes glued toward the sky Oct. 29, watching history being made as the Shuttle Discovery takes flight on its mission to the stars. On board, one of its payload specialists will be stepping back into history. John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, will be aboard Discovery as it heads out on an 11-day science mission. Space history didn't begin in 1962 with Glenn's flight from Launch Complex 14 here, but that moment did kindle the nation's spirit and determination to go "where no man had ever gone." Many viewing the shuttle launch may only have read about the early days of space exploration, but some will remember it like yesterday. Those moments of history along the Space Coast are being preserved and treasured at the Air Force Space and Missile Museum on the Cape "where America's race to space began." "You can see it all at the museum," said Emily Perry, director of the museum. "We launched rockets. We tested missiles. We helped put the first American into orbit, the first men on the moon and helped launch the world into a love affair with the 'final frontier.' It all began at Cape Canaveral, and we strive to capture that history at the museum." It was shortly after Glenn's historic launch that officials at the Eastern Test Range -- now the 45th Space Wing -- knew they couldn't let all the history of the Cape and America's early efforts in missile and space research go unprotected. "Initially, plans were to get military construction funds to build the museum," said Bill Dickerson, a volunteer with the wing public affairs office and a long-time museum supporter. "When that didn't work, Brig. Gen. Harry 'Bud' Sands formed an advisory board and started the Air Force Space Museum Foundation to raise funds to make the museum a reality." Sands was the commander of the ETR when he initiated the paperwork to convert the site of Launch Complexes 5/6 and 26 into the space museum. After retiring as a major general, Sands continued his support of the museum volunteering as a tour guide until his death in 1993. According to historical documents, the advisory board worked with the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, to collect missiles and hardware for display at the complexes. Through a lot of fundraisers, personal sacrifices and donations, the blockhouse at Complex 26 was restored and more than 30 exhibits were on display by January 1966. Finally, in April 1966 the museum was officially recognized by the Air Force. "The minute you drive through the museum's gate you step into history," said Perry, who has been the director nearly four years. "The blockhouse, which is now an exhibit room, was used for the Explorer I mission. It's been restored as close as possible to its original configuration. The grounds of the museum are considered hallowed grounds by many. Complex 5 is where America's manned space program began. It was from that complex that Alan Sheppard and Gus Grissom were launched from on top of a Redstone rocket for their suborbital flights," she added. "From Complex 26, Explorer I -- America's first satellite in orbit -- blasted off into history." Around the grounds of the museum is a rocket garden displaying more than 50 rockets, missiles and other space hardware, said Perry. For the young and young at heart, there's even a display of space toys, collectibles and memorabilia in the blockhouse -- including a replica of the bottle used on the "I Dream of Jeannie" television show. Some of the new exhibits at the museum include "John Glenn: Take Two," a tribute to STS-95 and Glenn's return to space. Additionally, the museum has added a tracking antenna for weather rockets. Spaceport Florida Authority donated the antenna to the museum. Since the museum first opened its doors, millions of people have stepped back in time to see images of America's space and missile program. The museum counted 14 million visitors by 1979. In 1984, the National Park Service designated the site as a National Historic Landmark. The museum started with bits and pieces and throughout the years the museum staff and volunteers have enhanced the exhibits. Today, the museum boasts perhaps the largest collection of expendable launch vehicles in the free world. "We're also restoring the 'White Room' from Complex 19," said Perry. "Once the work is done, we'll put it in the rocket garden. Eventually, it will house a mock-up of a Gemini space capsule." Among the museum's most treasured features is not something you'll see inside a display case, said Perry. "We have more than 50 volunteers who help keep the museum running. Some are retired military people, some are past and present employees of the space program and some are amateur space historians. "They offer visitors a unique insight into the history by sharing many of their own personal experiences," she said. "Our volunteers also help preserve, repair, maintain and enhance the various exhibits we have on display. They also operate the gift shop. They help make the museum possible." History is still being made in and around the Cape. Right in the "backyard" of the museum sits Complex 17, where the wing's 1st Space Launch Squadron launches Delta rockets. With the future and past side-by-side at the museum, every day is another day in history. As the Shuttle Discovery takes off, once again Glenn will be able to look down from the stars and see where it all began. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12973: STS 95 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12973 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT STS 95 1998-064A 25519 29 OCTOBER 1998 DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 30 OCTOBER 1998 16:00 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Is the Glenn Mission Real Science or Public Relations? (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee Contact: Jill Bratina Vanderbilt News Service 615-343-6866 jill.bratina@vanderbilt.edu October 28, 1998 Is the Glenn Mission Real Science or Public Relations? By Drew Gaffney, MD Professor of Medicine Division of Cardiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Crewmember of STS-40 (Space Shuttle Columbia) 5-14 June, 1991 John Glenn has been America's Astronaut Icon for almost three decades. He achieved this role on a space flight of just under five hours. Not surprisingly, he's been attempting to return to space for more than ten years. Questions about his medical and physical fitness for space flight were raised in the late '80s, when there was renewed possibility of flying Members of Congress. (The U.S. flew Senator Jake Garn and Congressman Bill Nelson. As is tragically well-known, they also tried to fly a school teacher.) None of these individuals flew to advance science, but rather to advance programmatic and public policy goals. Glenn's flight exists for these latter reasons, not for science. He has been a willing subject, and I am certain that the scientists feel fortunate to have him for their studies, but it was clearly not the reason he was given a seat on the space shuttle. It is unfortunate, in my opinion, that NASA didn't state its purposes honestly. I think there would have been widespread support for Glenn's flight. It has clearly excited millions of Americans who see a man of 77 years doing something brave and technically demanding. It also has substantial nostalgic value. Having been in space for more than nine days, I can't imagine what it would be like to have been there only to leave four hours later. I wish him well. I am confident he will do a good job and will be an even better symbol following his return. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: MGS Aerobraking Update - October 28, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Wednesday, October 28 (DOY 299/19:00:00 to DOY 301/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 659 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 86 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 12200 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 41826 km Periapsis altitude = 113.1 km Current Orbit Period = 07:51:31 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 37:08:02 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: Spacecraft operations continue successful aerobraking activities. About 15 minutes have been removed from the orbit period over the last 6 passes. The drag force each pass has been maintained at the upper corridor limit and above averaging 0.295 N/m2 over the last 6 orbits. The variations in atmospheric densities have been very modest and the project has taken advantage by keeping the drag forces high. This has allowed further reduction in the gap between the planned period reduction and the actual. At the current rate of period reduction, the baseline period trajectory should be intercepted in 2 weeks. There were no maneuvers required during the period. Sequence generation, review and execution has remained uneventful this period. The P658 sequence will be replaced later today by P661 and will control S/C activities through orbit 663. The weekly reset meeting was held for week 8 today to discuss aerobraking progress and sequence parameters for the coming week. P661 is the first sequence built from the reset 8 set of parameters. All subsystems report excellent S/C health with no performance concerns. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no changes in structural performance. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with 11.3 % battery discharge depths each orbit. Starting with P661, the primary chargers will be connected for 2 minutes longer each pass to maintain at least 5 minutes of charger margin. Solar panel heating has peaked at 60°C again during this period. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 11.8°C. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. The System Test Lab (STL) was still inoperable this period. Efforts are continuing through proper channels to hire outside help to solve the problems. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 660 DOY301/20:48:49 UTC Through Periapsis for Orbit 668 DOY304/17:39:02 UTC Operations Readiness Review Part 2 - October 30, 1998 (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY301=10/28) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 10 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 2920. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: TES NIPCs Nominal drag pass sequences (P655, P658) Nominal star catalogs and ephemeris files Command loss timer reset Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - October 30, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT October 30, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Orbiter launch processing activities are proceeding on schedule in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with launch 41 days away. However, several days of schedule margin were consumed due to a problem with flight software build 8.1 which prevented the "B" side of the spacecraft from booting during testing. The cause of the problem was determined and the fix will be incorporated into build 8.2 scheduled for delivery on November 2. Software build 8.0.1 was used to continue electrical testing of the orbiter while waiting for 8.2. The down time caused by this software issue was used to accomplish mechanical closeout tasks required to configure the orbiter properly for launch and to troubleshoot various anomalies which occurred in previous testing. The reworked flight Pyro Initiation Unit was reinstalled on the orbiter and all functions and interfaces will retested and reverified next week. This completes the glass body diode rework effort for both the orbiter and lander vehicles. Mars Polar Lander: Lander launch processing activities are proceeding on schedule in the SAEF-2 facility at KSC with launch 65 days away. This was a major week of testing activity on the lander with the following tests completed very successfully: rocket engine module functional test; entry, descent, and landing "plugs out" test; mission profile tests on side "A" and side "B" of the lander using new flight software build 8.0; and attitude control subsystem phasing verification test. In addition, the backshell and harness assembly and cruise stage were installed on the lander vehicle. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: First Spanish astronaut carries a nation's dreams into space (Forwarde Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space Agency Press Release No. 44-98 Paris, France 28 October 1998 FIRST SPANISH ASTRONAUT CARRIES A NATION'S DREAMS INTO SPACE -- AND TAKES EUROPE A STEP INTO THE FUTURE ESA astronaut Pedro Duque follows in the tradition of the great Spanish explorers of past centuries when he climbs aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery tomorrow, Thursday 29 October, for a historic flight into a new world. Duque, 35, will become the first Spaniard to fly in space when he blasts into orbit with an international crew, which includes the veteran US astronaut John Glenn, on mission STS-95. His spaceflight is the latest in a series for Europe, amassing valuable experience in preparation for the International Space Station, which is to be assembled in orbit, starting this year. As well as having a member of its astronaut team on board Discovery, the European Space Agency (ESA) is supporting STS-95 with five advanced scientific experiment facilities installed in the Spacehab module, located in the payload bay. Scientists from eight European countries -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom -- have experiments on the flight to study the effects of weightlessness on various materials and substances. Pedro Duque will oversee the operation of these experiments. Pasquale Di Palermo, ESA's mission manager, describes the mission as "a valuable opportunity for Europe to experiment both in space and on the ground in preparation for the International Space Station". Tense moments for the crew and ground controllers will come during the deployment and retrieval of a small satellite called Spartan, which will fly free of the Shuttle for two days to collect information on the stream of charged particles from the Sun known as the solar wind. In case there is a problem with the operation of the satellite or in retrieving it, ESA astronaut Pedro Duque has been specially trained to go outside the Shuttle and help place it back in the cargo bay. "I'm looking forward to the flight itself, experiencing life in microgravity and being able to look down on the Earth. It is a great adventure but it will also be a time of intense hard work and activity," said Duque. "For me it is a great honour not only to represent my own nation and the rest of Europe, but also to have the privilege of working alongside John Glenn. "We're learning a lot about international cooperation and this will be a final check for some of the ESA science facilities to make sure they and the ground teams will work efficiently on the International Space Station," he added. Launch of Discovery from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center in Florida is scheduled for Thursday 29 October, with a launch window from 20:00 to 22:30 Central European Time (14:00 to 16:30 local time). Landing is planned at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility on 7 November at 18:04 Central European Time (12:04 local time), given an on-time launch and normal mission. For further information, see the ESA web page at http://www.estec.esa.int/spaceflight. During the mission, contact: 28-30 October ESA Press Desk at Kennedy Space Center, Florida Tel: (407) 639-4389 31 Oct-07 Nov ESA Press Desk at Johnson Space Center, Houston Tel: (281) 218-6836 Fax: (281) 218-6420 02-07 Nov Press Desk at ESA Villafranca, Madrid Tel: (34) 91 813 12.11 Fax: (34) 91 813 12.12 Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA's 40th Anniversary: A Look at Space Propulsion of the Past, Prese Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... June Malone Media Relations Office Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL 35812 (256) 544-7061/0034 June.Malone@msfc.nasa.gov http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news For Release: October 14, 1998 RELEASE: 98-204 NASA's 40th Anniversary: A Look at Space Propulsion of the Past, Present and Future Space transportation and propulsion have arguably brought NASA its greatest triumphs during the agency's first 40 years. Today, scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., are working to dramatically lower the costs of space transportation to open the frontier for business and pleasure over the next 40 years. When NASA was formed in 1958, the space agency quickly found itself building on the early rocket and propulsion work of luminaries such as Robert Goddard and Wernher von Braun and his team of German rocket scientists. Just more than a decade later, after an incredible burst in technology development and scientific achievement, Marshall-developed Saturn rockets boosted humans to the Moon. NASA and industry had, in a few short years, jumped from rudimentary engine designs to the development of the massive F-1 engine. The initial stage of the huge Saturn rocket was powered by five liquid-fueled F-1s, each producing 1.5 million pounds of thrust. At the time of the first Saturn V launch, von Braun, then director of Marshall Center, said, "No single event since the formation of the Marshall Center in 1960 equals today's launch in significance. For MSFC employees -- this is their finest hour." Similar sentiments were expressed in the 1970s, when Marshall had a key role in the development of the Space Shuttle and its propulsion systems. The Center continues to manage the Space Shuttle's propulsion elements, including the enormous solid rocket boosters and the super lightweight external tank. The Space Shuttle Main Engine is considered by many to be the world's most sophisticated reusable rocket engine. The three liquid-fueled main engines produce nearly one million pounds of thrust. The energy released by the three main engines at full power is the equivalent of 23 Hoover Dams. Today, Marshall engineers are turning to cutting-edge technologies such as high-temperature ceramics and lightweight yet strong composites to design simpler, more innovative propulsion systems that will help NASA dramatically lower the costs associated with getting into space, and traveling in space. Marshall engineers, for example, are designing what may be one of the world's simplest turbopump rocket engines. Only the second space launch engine developed in the United States in the last 25 years, the Fastrac engine has significantly fewer parts than previous engines. The easy-to-build engine will initially cost approximately $1.2 million to produce -- about one-fifth of the cost of similar engines. The Fastrac provides 60,000 pounds of thrust to boost payloads weighing up to 500 pounds. The first vehicle scheduled to be powered by the Fastrac engine is the X-34, a technology testbed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future low-cost reusable launch vehicles, or "space planes." Another engine currently under development and component testing is the revolutionary linear aerospike engine, which will power NASA's X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator when it begins flight tests next year. The X-33 is a half-scale technology demonstrator prototype of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) Lockheed Martin has named "VentureStar(r)." Through ground research and demonstration flights scheduled to begin next year, the X-33 will prove the technologies needed for industry to proceed to the development of a full-scale RLV. The linear aerospike features unique properties that include the ability to automatically compensate for altitude as the launch vehicle climbs, and also to steer the vehicle by varying the flow of fuel from top to bottom and side to side. The engines are powered by J-2S-heritage turbopumps from the Saturn rocket. Also, by burning a mix of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, the byproduct of the X-33's engines will be super-hot steam, making the engines much more environmentally friendly than some traditional designs. With the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstrators, NASA is demonstrating technologies required to reduce the expense of getting to space from today's costs of $10,000 per pound to $1,000 per pound. At the same time, NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at the Marshall Center is building the highway to space by developing technologies focused on the next level -- reducing the cost of getting to space to only hundreds of dollars per pound. "I think that 40 years from now traveling around in near-Earth orbit and to nearby planets will be a lot like air travel is today," said Garry Lyles, manager of the Advanced Space Transportation Program. "People will not think it's very unusual to hop on a spaceliner and go to a job on Mars or maybe even a month-long asteroid-mining mission." Lyles expects a lot of people will be working and playing in space in 40 years. Human journeys to the outer planets and robotic probes to other star systems are also part of his vision for the 2040 timeframe. "Propulsion systems for deep space missions of the future probably haven't even been thought of yet," said Lyles, "or if somebody's thought of them, they may be considered science fiction now." Lyles says space transportation needs a technology breakthrough akin to the silicon chip that revolutionized the computer industry and made desktop computers commonplace. A technology breakthrough in propulsion coupled with a business venture that lures people to space will be the key to space development and travel to other star systems, he said. "Breakthroughs don't just happen. Usually, a lot of work has preceded any breakthrough," said Lyles. "That's why the Advanced Space Transportation Program is doing technology work -- even though we don't know what the right answer is. "As long as we have a network of smart people working toward advancing propulsion for space transportation, I believe we'll have a breakthrough -- and we'll accelerate the breakthrough through NASA's technology development." NASA is studying a wide variety of propulsion technologies that could transform the vision to reality during the next 40 years of America's space program. Technologies currently being developed by the Marshall Center include air-breathing rocket engines, laser propulsion, magnetic levitation and antimatter. - end - Note to Editors: Interviews, photos and video supporting this release are available to media representatives by contacting June Malone, Media Relations Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, (256) 544-0034. For an electronic version of this release, digital images or more information, visit Marshall's Virtual NewsRoom: http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news For more information on Marshall's Space Transportation Programs Office, visit its Web site: http://stp.msfc.nasa.gov [NOTE: Images supporting this release are available at http://www1.msfc.nasa.gov/NEWSROOM/news/photos/1998/photos98-204.htm] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA's 40th Anniversary: Early Rocket Pioneers' Dreams of Space Statio Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Jerry Berg Media Relations Office Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL 35812 (256) 544-0034 jerry.berg@msfc.nasa.gov http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news For Release: October 23, 1998 RELEASE: 98-211 NASA's 40th Anniversary: Early Rocket Pioneers' Dreams of Space Station Soon to be Realized As NASA celebrates its 40th anniversary this month, scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., are seeing the dreams of the early rocket pioneers come true. In early 1952, Dr. Wernher von Braun, who would in 1960 become the Marshall Center's first director, wrote about his dreams in Collier's magazine: "Development of the space station is as inevitable as the rising of the sun; man has already poked his nose into space and he is not likely to pull it back." His plans for a large space station were published in a book the same year. Soon, von Braun's dream will be realized when the first U.S.-built elements of the International Space Station are placed in orbit. As the Space Station -- a permanent, orbiting research facility -- evolved over the last 40 years, hundreds of Marshall employees and many local businesses have contributed to its success. It began with von Braun's space station ideas, inspired by fiction writers and scientists who had envisioned permanent outposts in space since the turn of the century. In the classic, 1952 Collier's article, von Braun wrote of a majestic 250-foot-wide wheel that would orbit 1,075 miles above Earth and rotate to provide artificial gravity, similar to the station visualized in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. "From this platform, a trip to the moon itself will be just a step, as scientists reckon distance in space," von Braun wrote. But America wanted to get to the Moon before the end of the 1960s, so von Braun led the Marshall team as they developed the massive rockets that helped the nation achieve this goal. Even as we raced to the Moon, Marshall engineers -- inspired by von Braun's ideas -- continued to study space stations, including concepts using refurbished rocket stages. This led to a precursor of today's International Space Station: Skylab, a two-level workshop made from a converted Saturn S-IVB stage. Skylab -- the first American space program wholly dedicated to scientific research -- was staffed by three crews who performed hundreds of experiments for more than 171 days from May 1973 to February 1974. In a 1969 article describing Skylab, von Braun again foretold the future: "The heavy work schedule prepared for this observatory will also furnish valuable lessons about human proficiency for difficult scientific work performed under zero-gravity conditions over an extended period of time." Skylab experiments confirmed von Braun's prediction, providing the foundations for many investigations to be flown on the International Space Station. In fact, Skylab proved humans could live and work in space for long periods and would not need the artificial gravity in von Braun's early space station concept. Skylab experiments showed microgravity was not only beneficial but even necessary for some research. Building on their Skylab experience, Marshall engineers and scientists continued space station studies in the 1970s and 80s. Their designs were used to help create the International Space Station. Today, the Marshall Center's facilities and technical expertise are being used to support fabrication and testing of Space Station components. The Boeing Company, the prime Space Station contractor, built Unity and the U.S. Laboratory modules in the same Marshall Center building where decades ago others assembled the Saturn V rocket -- America's most powerful staged rocket that carried astronauts to the Moon. In addition to Boeing, more than 30 Alabama businesses have contributed to the Space Station effort, providing millions of dollars of services and equipment. Soon, the Space Shuttle Endeavour will carry Unity, the first U.S.-built component, into orbit and Space Station assembly will begin. During the last 40 years, we have learned not only that humans can live in microgravity, but also that microgravity is itself a key area of scientific activity with benefits in the form of improved products and processes back on Earth. Marshall, NASA's lead center for Microgravity Science, is fostering the development of many International Space Station investigations. When the Station becomes operational, it will offer scientists the first opportunity to do experiments over extended periods in this unique environment. The Marshall Center's proven expertise with Spacelab -- the reusable laboratory flown inside the Space Shuttle from 1981 to 1998 -- is being tapped to build Space Station experiment hardware and plan microgravity investigations. Marshall developed a multiple-user rack facility, which was tested aboard Spacelab and will be used for experiments inside the Space Station, and Marshall is managing the development of special pallets that will be used for experiments mounted on the outside of Space Station. "The Space Station program has been both exciting and challenging," said Teresa Vanhooser, a former Spacelab mission manager who is now manager of Marshall's Space Station Utilization Office. "Seeing the hardware being delivered to support the upcoming launches of Station components is watching a dream turn into reality. We are looking forward to the long-term science we can conduct." One idea has not changed since von Braun's dream long ago: the goal of establishing a permanent presence in space. If magazine stories can ignite imaginations, what wonder will be fueled by a real Space Station where an international community lives and works together? This new reality will excite the next generation of scientists, engineers and space entrepreneurs. As von Braun wrote in his Collier's article more than 45 years ago, "If we do it (build a space station), we can not only preserve the peace but we can take a long step toward uniting mankind." In the coming years, the citizens of Earth will be able to gaze into the night sky and see the International Space Station -- the result of 16 nations joining together on the largest, peacetime, multinational program ever attempted. In his 1969 blueprint for the future of the space program, von Braun wrote, "Exploration of space is the challenge of our day. If we continue to put our faith in it and pursue it, it will reward us handsomely." The International Space Station is visible proof of humankind's commitment to peaceful exploration of the universe. Just 40 years after space stations still were considered science fiction, this journey of the imagination soon will climax with an unprecedented scientific, technological and international feat: the realization of the International Space Station. - 30 - NOTE TO EDITORS/NEWS DIRECTORS: Photos are available to support this release. For more information, contact Jerry Berg, with Marshall's Media Relations Office at (256) 544-0034. For an electronic version of this release, photos or more information, visit the Marshall Center's Virtual NewsRoom at www.msfc.nasa.gov/news. [NOTE: Images supporting this release area available at http://www1.msfc.nasa.gov/NEWSROOM/news/photos/1998/photos98-211.htm] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Metropolitan Los Angeles Under A Slow Squeeze Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Mary Hardin, (818) 354-0344 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE October 28, 1998 METROPOLITAN L.A. UNDER A SLOW SQUEEZE Downtown and West Los Angeles are moving toward the San Gabriel Mountains and the metropolitan area in between is being and will be squeezed slowly over the next several thousand years, according to researchers using precise satellite surveying techniques at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA. The measurements suggest that new mountains may be forming to the south of the high San Gabriel Mountains. The results come from the Southern California Integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) Network, an array of 60 current and 250 planned GPS receivers that continuously measures the constant, yet tiny, movements of earthquake faults throughout Southern California. "We've known for some time that the area between the coastline and the Mojave Desert is being squeezed together by the constant movement of Earth's crust," said Dr. Donald Argus, a geophysicist at JPL. "This new research helps pinpoint the area that's being squeezed. Specifically, downtown and West L.A. appear to be moving toward the San Gabriel Mountains at about half a centimeter (one-fifth of an inch) per year." Argus is presenting his finding Oct. 29 at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto, Canada. "While this research does not mean that an earthquake in Los Angeles is imminent, one possible conclusion is that the earthquakes that occur in Los Angeles might be concentrated in the northern part of the basin," Argus said. The GPS surveying system uses radio signals transmitted from a constellation of 24 Earth-orbiting satellites that are jointly operated by the U.S. Departments of Defense and Transportation. Equipment on the ground receives signals from several satellites at a time, allowing scientists to pinpoint the position of a receiver to better than 1 centimeter (0.4 inch). "The regional project is designed for exactly this kind of study. Our goal is to observe and monitor the slow, small motion, called strain, of the ground in greater Los Angeles," said JPL's Dr. Frank Webb, chair of the Southern California network. "This research helps us learn where earthquakes are more likely to happen, and helps with estimating the regional earthquake hazard in Southern California. It enables other agencies to make priorities about earthquake mitigation activities, including emergency preparedness and retrofit strategies." There are now about 60 GPS receivers on the ground around Southern California with two new sites being added every week. The earthquake network began in 1990 with only four GPS receivers as a prototype project funded by NASA. It detected very small motions of Earth's crust in Southern California associated with other California earthquakes in June 1992 in the town of Landers and in January 1994 in Northridge. The Southern California network includes a number of institutions using GPS for earthquake research. The consortium is coordinated by the Southern California Earthquake Center, a National Science Foundation science and technology center headquartered at the University of Southern California. The array is operated by JPL, USC, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California at San Diego's Scripps Institution of Oceanography. More information about SCIGN is available at: http://milhouse.jpl.nasa.gov/ The JPL research is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise that seeks to understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. ##### #98107 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 ноября 1998 (1998-11-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Deep Space 1 Update - October 28, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Deep Space 1 Mission Status October 28, 1998 The outward-bound Deep Space 1 spacecraft, now more than twice the Moon's distance from Earth, is in excellent condition in its fifth day of flight. Spacecraft engineers yesterday successfully diagnosed and corrected a glitch that had resulted in one of Deep Space 1's solar panels temporarily pointing away from the Sun. Spacecraft operations were not affected because more than adequate power is provided by just one solar panel, said Deputy Mission Manager Dr. Marc Rayman at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. Commands sent to the spacecraft late yesterday fixed the problem, he said. Engineering data from the spacecraft is being analyzed to determine whether the glitch was due to a random error induced in the spacecraft's solar array electronics caused by natural radiation in space. Yesterday, spacecraft commands were also successfully sent to begin preparation of various system components for the planned Nov. 9 start-up of the ion propulsion engine. In addition, a control device for the ion propulsion engine was turned on, the first step in the two-week process to condition the system for its first use. On Friday, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute its first turn in a maneuver designed to point the ion engine in a sunward direction to allow solar heating to "bake" off contaminants such as water vapor and other atmospheric chemicals that typically remain on spacecraft surfaces after launch. Engineers have noted an improvement in the somewhat erratic behavior of the spacecraft's star tracker. The device -- not one of the mission's 12 new technologies -- from time to time appears to fail for a second or two, but for the most part is operating normally. This is not expected to impact the mission For a recorded update on Deep Space 1's progress, call JPL's Mission Status Line at (800) 391-6654. Deep Space 1, launched Saturday, October 24 from Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL, is the first launch of the New Millennium Program, a series of deep-space and Earth-orbiting missions designed to test new technologies for use on science missions of the 21st century. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года