Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.

Февраль 1999


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru

  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 17 февраля 1999

    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 15 February 1999 [1/4] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S Issue 1999.02.15 1999 February 15 http://www.spaceviews.com/1999/0215/ *** News *** Mir Investor Backs Out Soyuz and Proton Launch American Satellites Results of NEAR Eros Flyby Reported New Hubble Images Reveal Planetary Dust Disks SPACEHAB Feels Effects of ISS Delays NASA Assigns Cosmonauts to Shuttle Missions Berkeley Announces New Radio Telescope Devoted to SETI SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Book Reviews *** This New Ocean Nothingness *** CyberSpace *** Deep Cold Solar Sails Home Page Cosmological Parameters Poll New Mars: A Journal of the Martian Frontier Editor's Note: In association with Amazon.com, we are now providing links directly to the bookseller's Web site from book reviews in this and future issues. This gives you the ability to easily order books reviewed here at significant discounts, while we earn a small percentage of those sales to help support this publication. We're also working on a book review archive on our Web site, which should be completed in the near future. -- Jeff Foust Editor, SpaceViews jeff@spaceviews.com *** News *** Mir Investor Backs Out The mysterious private investor who was to support Russia's Mir space station has reportedly backed out, endangering plans to continue use of the station beyond this year, Russian officials announced Thursday, February 11. Russian Space Agency chief Yuri Koptev said that claims that Energia, the company that operates Mir for the RSA, had found an unnamed foreign investor to support Mir for the next three years were just "wishful thinking." "They have indeed carried out serious work with an investor who had the money," Koptev told the Associated Press. "But the investor has some problems." Energia announced in December that it had found an investor to support continued operations of Mir for the next three years. At that time they refused to reveal the name of the investor, wanting to wait first for government approval of investment guarantees. On January 22, Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov signed a decree extending Mir's life to 2002, contingent on Energia finding private funding needed to support operations. Energia did not, however, reveal the name of the sponsor. The Russian government warned at the time the decree was signed that no government money would be used to continue the continued operation of Mir, as the country's already-small space budget was devoted to he International Space Station. "If Energia can find non-budgetary money, or putting it bluntly, sponsors, then the Mir station will continue to exist," Alexander Botvinko, deputy head of the Russian Space Agency, told Reuters in January. "If they don't find the money, then we'll follow the plan [to deorbit the station this summer] that was earlier approved." Rumors circulated both online and in the Russian media that the mystery investor was China, who is developing its own manned space program. Koptev, however, denied those reports. "If they had been interested in flying on our station, they would have done it a long time ago," he said. Without private funding, Koptev said, Russia will abandon the station in August or September, only slightly later than its original plan, which called for deorbiting the station in June or July 1999. An August date would allow Russia to complete one final six-month crew rotation on the station. A Soyuz spacecraft is scheduled for launch February 20 carrying Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev and guest cosmonauts Jean-Pierre Heignere of France and Ivan Bella of Slovakia. Afanasyev and Heignere and current Mir flight engineer Sergei Avdeyev will remain on Mir while Bella returns with current Mir commander Gennady Padalka in early March. Soyuz and Proton Launch American Satellites Russian Soyuz and Proton boosters launched communications satellites for Globalstar and Loral last week, after a January agreement cleared the way for continued launches of American payloads on Russian boosters. A Soyuz booster, with an Ikar upper stage, lifted off from Baikonur, Kazakhstan at 10:54 pm EST February 8 (0354 UT February 9). There were no problems with the launch and the four Globalstar satellites carried on the booster were acquired by ground controllers several hours after launch. Globalstar has an ambitious launch schedule in an effort to complete its constellation of 52 satellites (48 operational and 4 spare) by the end of the year. Three more Soyuz-Ikar launches are planned through April, followed by three Delta 2 launches in May through August. Two more launches each of the Soyuz-Ikar and Delta are planned from September through December. Each Soyuz-Ikar and Delta 2 booster can carry four Globalstar satellites. In addition, Globalstar has an option for a September Ariane 4 launch that can carry six satellites, if needed. A Proton, operated by the Russian-American joint venture International Launch Services, lifted off from Baikonur at 12:12 am EST (0512 UT) carrying the Telstar 6 satellite. The launch proceeded smoothly, with no problems reported. The satellite will go into geosynchronous orbit at 93 degrees west and provide video and data communications for North America and the Caribbean. The satellite was built by Space Systems/Loral and is owned by Loral Skynet. The launch was previously planned for late January, but a problem with a computer in the Proton's Blok-DM upper stage delayed the launch until the 15th. The launches were the first after a trilateral agreement among the U.S., Russia, and Kazakhstan was signed in Moscow last month. The agreement sets up safeguards to protect sensitive American technologies on satellites. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 15 February 1999 [4/4] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Book Reviews *** This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age by William E. Burrows Random House, 1998 hardcover, 724 pp., illus. ISBN 0-679-44521-8 US$34.95/C$48.95 Buy this book at Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0679445218/spaceviews The concept of a one-volume history of humanity's ventures into space is hardly original. there have been dozens, if not hundreds, of books published over the years that seek to encapsulate the entire "space age" into a single volume; there are many more that limit themselves to a single but broad aspect of space history. However, there are few books that as good a comprehensive, detailed history of space exploration as William Burrow's "This New Ocean". Burrow defines the "first" Space Age from the time of Sputnik through the end of the Cold War. This is somewhat later than defined by other writers (who end the first phase of the Space age with the end of race to the Moon), but makes sense: even the post-Apollo program was driven to a degree by competition with the Soviets. The book also covers some "prehistory" of space from ancient Greek myths though World War Two and its aftermath, and also looks at the present state of and future hopes for space exploration. Burrows's approach to space history is refreshingly evenhanded and balanced. He is not trying to push a particular point of view or theory to explain why we went into space, and shaping the facts to fit that theory, but rather presenting what happened, placing individual events in the larger context of history. Unlike other works of space history, that may unduly focus on the manned space program, Burrows also provides detailed looks at military space program and space science projects, in both the U.S. and Russia (which is not surprising, since Burrows has written books on both topics in the past.) A single-volume look at such a broad topic can't cover all the details, yet Burrows manages to bring in a number of interesting nuggets not widely known, like polls that indicate that Sputnik had far less of an impact of public opinion than commonly thought, and the time the CIA "kidnapped" a Russia Lunik satellite for a night while in a Mexican exhibition to see how it worked. At $34.95 the price is a little steep, but one will be hard-pressed to find a better single book on space history than "This New Ocean." Nothingness: The Science of Empty Space by Henning Genz Perseus Books, 1998 hardcover, 340pp., illus. ISBN 0-7382-0061-1 US$30/C$43.50 Buy this book at Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0738200611/spaceviews Space is empty, right? Well, it's not completely empty, since there are atoms of hydrogen, helium, and other elements in the interstellar medium. And even if you got rid of those, there would be photons of all wavelengths passing through it, not to mention "virtual particles" that zap into and out of existence in a quirk of quantum mechanics. Physicist Henning Genz explores the topic of "empty" space in the book "Nothingness". Genz provides a history of the study of empty space, from early experiments with vacuums to present-day theoretical studies of the nature of space. The book is mostly science, with some theology and philosophy thrown in along the way. Ironically, for a book about empty space, its contents can get pretty dense along the way (perhaps as a byproduct from the translation from its original German version, "Die Entdeckung des Nichts"). However, if you're interested in just how empty "empty space" really is, check out "Nothingness". *** CyberSpace *** Deep Cold During the height of the Space Race both the United States and the Soviet Union proposed a number of innovative spacecraft, like the Dyna-Soar, Spiral, and Zvezda. Those spacecraft never flew, but they are remembered here at Deep Cold. The site's owner, Dan Roam, has created some computer-generated -- but extremely realistic -- images of the spacecraft as they might have flown. (The images may take a moment to download on a slow connestion, but they're well worth any wait.) Deep Cold is a fascinating look at spacecraft that never were! http://www.deepcold.com/ Solar Sails Home Page While the recent Znamya-2.5 experiment didn't succeed, there's a strong future ahead for solar sails. This site, by a French group developing their own solar sail projects, provides information on the possibilities of "photonic propulsion." The site has not only basic information and links to other resources, but some special features, including a comic based on an Arthur C. Clarke short story on solar sails and a solar sail simulator Java applet. http://www.ec-lille.fr/~u3p/ Cosmological Parameters Poll The Big Bang theory is well-established as the cause of the origin of the universe, but what of its eventual fate? Recent astronomical observations have suggested that the universe might continue to expand at an accelerating rate, and not come to a stop as once thought. You can weigh in with your opinions at this site. Provide three key cosmological parameters and see what happens to the universe. Vote for the combination you believe best matches what will happen to the universe. http://www.snafu.de/~bigbang/poll.html New Mars: A Journal of the Martian Frontier New Mars, a publication of the Mars Society, takes a look at the prospects for future robotic and human exploration of Mars. The site includes feature articles on various aspects of Martian exploration, opinion pieces, general Mars and society-specific news, an art gallery, and other features. An intriguing look at a new frontier! http://www.newmars.com/ This has been the February 15, 1999, issue of SpaceViews. SpaceViews is also available on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: ftp://ftp.seds.org/pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/text/19990215.txt To unsubscribe from SpaceViews, send mail to: majordomo@spaceviews.com In the body (not subject) of the message, type: unsubscribe spaceviews For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews, including letters to the editor, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@spaceviews.com. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - February 12, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Cassini Significant Events for 02/05/99 - 02/11/99 Spacecraft Status: The most recent spacecraft status is from the DSN tracking pass on Thursday, 02/11, over the Goldstone tracking station. The Cassini spacecraft is in an excellent state of health and is operating nominally. The speed of the spacecraft can be viewed on the "Where is Cassini Now?" web page (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/today/). Spacecraft Activity Summary: On Friday, 02/05, the VIMS High Level Decontamination Heaters were turned off as part of nominal procedures following a TCM (Trajectory Correction Maneuver) and the downlink data rate was returned to 40 bps. On Tuesday, 02/09, an SSR Pointer Reset was performed. Upcoming events: Activities scheduled for the week of 02/12-02/18 include: an SSR Pointer Reset on 02/16 and Flight Software Partition Maintenance on 02/17. Ranging only passes occur on 02/14 and 02/18. Cassini Outreach Cassini Mission to Saturn and Titan Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Китай планирует запустить свой собственный "шаттл" Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Китай планирует запустить свой собственный "шаттл" Китай собирается в конце будущего года запустить свой первый беспилотный корабль многоразового использования. О его названии пока не сообщается. Сейчас в Китае ведутся активные работы по запуску пилотируемого космического корабля. Если это произойдет, то Китай станет третьей страной, способной запустить своего космонавта в космос на своей собственной ракете. Китай уже давно собирался отправить человека в космос. В 1979 г. в китайской прессе появились фотографии тренировок китайского астронавта, но вскоре работы по проекту были прекращены. В конце 80-х годов в Китае начались разговоры о создании небольшого пилотируемого корабля многоразового использования. Hо дело опять кончилось ничем. Однако в 1991 г. Китай начал космическое сотрудничество с Россией. Тогда 2 китайских космонавта прошли базовый курс подготовки в Звездном городке и вернулись в Китай для передачи своего опыта другим кандидатам. В 1996 г. глава Российского космического агентства Юрий Коптев был с визитом в Китае, во время которого было подписано соглашение о космическом сотрудничестве между двумя странами. Hекоторые аналитики подозревают, что Китай купил стыковочную систему, использующуюся на российских космических кораблях. Ходили даже слухи, опровергаемые Российским космическим агентством, что китайцы собираются заплатить за дальнейшее пребывание станции "Мир" на орбите. Hо нет никаких сомнений в том, что Китай имеет все необходимое для запуска человека в космос. Китайцы уже запускали в космос крыс и мышей и возвращали их на Землю. Сейчас Китай ведет разработку модифицированной версии ракеты-носителя Long March 2E, которая могла бы доставить человека в космос. Ходят слухи, что полет состоится уже в октябре этого года и будет приурочен к 50-летию образования КHР (1 октября 1949 г.). Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 15 February 1999 [2/4] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Results of NEAR Eros Flyby Reported The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft's first close encounter with the asteroid Eros shows that the asteroid is slightly smaller than originally thought but is most likely a solid body and not a rubble pile, scientists reported Monday, February 8. The results were collected during NEAR's December 23 flyby of the asteroid, which occurred when a spacecraft glitch prevented NEAR from going into orbit around Eros as planned in January. The spacecraft took over 200 images and spectral observations of the asteroid at distances as close as 3,830 km (2,375 mi.). The data showed that Eros is slightly smaller than Earth-based radar data originally indicated. Images show that Eros is 33 by 13 by 13 km (20.5 by 8 by 8 mi.) in size. Radar data previously indicated that Eros was somewhat larger, 40.5 by 14.5 by 14 km (25.1 by 9 by 8.7 mi.). The images revealed a number of craters on the surface of Eros, as expected, with the two largest about 8.5 and 6.5 km (5.3 and 4 mi.) in diameter. Scientists saw fewer craters on Eros than seen in Galileo images of the main belt asteroid Ida, suggesting that Eros may be significantly younger that Ida. Also seen on Eros was a long ridge 20 km (12 mi.) long. That, coupled with a measured density of 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter (1.55 ounces per cubic inch), suggests to scientists that Eros is a solid body, and not a collection of rubble. In contrast, the large craters and low densities seen on Mathilde, a main-belt asteroid NEAR flew by in June 1997, made it likely that Mathilde was a loosely-bound collection of rubble and not a solid body. Some scientists have suggested that a significant fraction of asteroids may be such "rubble piles." While the data returned by NEAR was useful for scientific purposes, mission planners will also use it to prepare for the next time NEAR encounters Eros, in February 2000. NEAR is scheduled to go into orbit at that time and spend a year studying the asteroid in detail in an orbit that goes to within 15 km (9 mi.) of the surface. "The flyby of Eros has given us fundamental information that will help us plan a better orbital mission at Eros," said Andrew F. Cheng, NEAR project scientist at APL. "It has taken some of the risk out of our orbit insertion maneuver and early operations." NEAR was to go into orbit around Eros in January, but the first of four thruster burns required failed December 20 when software onboard the spacecraft aborted the burn just as it started. The faulty software has since been corrected. New Hubble Images Reveal Planetary Dust Disks New Hubble Space Telescope images of young stars have revealed the existence of dust disks that may be evidence of planetary systems forming around these stars, astronomers reported Tuesday, February 9. Images of six young stars in a star-forming region 450 light-years away in the constellation Taurus, taken by Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS) instrument, show that all six have dark bands, interpreted as lanes of dust from a disk encircling the star. "While the existence of these disks has been known from prior infrared and radio observations, the Hubble images reveal important new details such as a disk's size, shape, thickness, and orientation," said astronomer Deborah Padgett of Caltech's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. The problem with seeing dust disks directly is that the bright light from the star washes out any reflected light from the disk. The best way to see these dust disks, as with the Hubble images, is to look for disks that appear edge-on as seen from Earth, so that the disk blocks light from the star. All the disks have estimated sizes of 8-16 times Neptune's distance from the star. It's thought that planetary systems form from such dust disks, although there is no evidence in the Hubble images that planets are in fact forming. A Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image of another star system shows evidence of dust disks around a binary star system. In this case, the disk has formed around the fainter of the two stars, to a distance of 3.5 times Neptune's distance from the Sun. "The Hubble images of this disk offer further evidence that planet formation should be possible in binary star systems," said astronomer Karl Staplefeldt of JPL. The masses of all the disks seen, based on estimated from computer models, range from 1/200th to 1/10000th the mass of the Sun. By comparison, the mass of all the planets in the solar system, thought to be a small fraction of the total mass of the dust disk from which they formed, is 1/1000th of the Sun. SPACEHAB Feels Effects of ISS Delays Continued delays in the International Space Station (ISS) project are hurting the bottom line of SPACEHAB, one of the companies involved in the project, the company reported late Thursday, February 12. SPACEHAB announced that it had a net loss of $1.9 million, or $0.17 per share, in the second quarter of its 1999 fiscal year, which ended December 31 of 1998. SPACEHAB had a net income of $5.7 million, $0.43 per share, for the same period a year ago. SPACEHAB chairman and CEO Shelley Harrison blamed the loss on delays in shuttle flights that carry SPACEHAB modules caused by ongoing delays with ISS. "While our first mission to the ISS is still scheduled for May 1999, our second resupply mission has been postponed until after the launch of the Russian Service Module that is now scheduled for September 1999," Harrison said. "The revenue for this mission was nearly $2 million below our expectations for the quarter ended December 31, 1998." The ISS delays are also having an impact on SPACEHAB payloads that fly on other shuttle missions. "The debut of our Research Double Module has been slipped to December 2000," Harrison said. "A new research mission opportunity that was supported by a $15 million Congressional appropriation added to NASA's fiscal 1999 budget is now awaiting a mid-2000 flight opportunity." SPACEHAB makes habitation modules that fit inside the shuttle's cargo bay that provide additional room for research and storage during shuttle missions. The modules are owned by SPACEHAB; NASA pays for their use for each mission at a much lower cost than what it would cost the space agency to build and own the modules themselves. SPACEHAB modules have flown on a dozen shuttle missions, including the STS-95 mission last fall that featured the second flight of John Glenn. A logistics double module, carrying supplies for ISS, will fly on the next shuttle mission, STS-96, scheduled for May. SPACEHAB stock (NASDAQ:SPAB) closed at 9 1/4 Thursday, up 1/4; the financial news was released after the close of trading. The stock closed 3/8 lower on Friday. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo Update - February 12, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Galileo Europa Mission Status February 12, 1999 NASA's Galileo spacecraft is out of safing mode and has resumed normal flight operations, including playback of pictures and other science data gathered during the January 31 Europa flyby. Four hours after that flyby, Galileo entered safing mode- -a built-in protection mode designed to turn off all non- essential spacecraft activities-- while the spacecraft was performing a sun acquisition turn. The turn was halted when onboard fault protection software determined that the turn was lasting longer than it should have. Normal operations of the spacecraft were restored Wednesday, February 10, and the playback of science data resumed Thursday morning, February 11. All observations made by Galileo's instruments during the close approach to Europa on January 31 were successfully stored and are being transmitted to Earth. After Galileo entered safing mode, scientists were unable to make planned distant observations of Europa, Io and Jupiter. Galileo has gathered a wealth of information about Europa during the past three years. The spacecraft is currently halfway through a two-year extended Galileo Europa Mission, a follow-on to the primary mission that studied Jupiter, its moons and its magnetic environment. The Galileo project team is continuing its analysis of the events leading up to the safing. Analysis to date shows this event is unrelated to previous anomalies. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: This Week On Galileo - February 15-21, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... THIS WEEK ON GALILEO February 15-21, 1999 Galileo has returned to operating in a normal mode after executing two turns last week to point the spacecraft's radio antenna back to Earth. This week's activity focuses on playback of science information acquired during Galileo's January 31, 1999 flyby of Europa. Playback is interrupted once this week to perform another spacecraft turn to keep Galileo's radio antenna pointed towards Earth. Last week's spacecraft turns were required after on-board fault protection software detected that a previous spacecraft turn, attempted on January 31, was taking too long to complete. The software correctly placed the spacecraft in safe mode to await instructions from Earth, but prevented it from achieving the desired Earth-pointed attitude. All remaining encounter commands were cancelled when Galileo entered safe mode, preventing the spacecraft from making planned distant observations of Europa, Io and Jupiter. Investigations into the anomaly suggest that it was caused by a minimum or inflection point in the sensitivity of two sensors used to detect the sun, which was being used as a guide for the spacecraft turn. This vulnerability of the sun sensors may be partially due to exposure to radiation at Jupiter, but is not expected to have any impact on the remainder of Galileo's mission. Cruise operations were initiated last Thursday, February 11, and included standard maintenance on the spacecraft's propulsion system, and a standard gyroscope performance test. Processing and transmission to Earth of observations taken prior to safing was also initiated last Thursday. Through this week Galileo's playback schedule includes observations obtained by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the photopolarimeter radiometer, the spacecraft camera, and the suite of six fields and particles instruments. The photopolarimeter radiometer returns four observations during this period, all containing polarimetry measurements. Two of these focus on Jupiter and will allow scientists to learn more about the vertical cloud structure of Jupiter's atmosphere, including particle shape and size. The other two observations focus on Europa and will provide information on the texture and composition of Europa's surface materials. The near-infrared mapping spectrometer returns six observations--three of a hot spot and three of a region of Jupiter's Northern Temperate Belt. Each observation will provide measurements of the composition and thermal properties of these regions of Jupiter's atmosphere. The camera returns five observations during this week. All contain Europa and were taken during the spacecraft's close flyby of the icy moon. The first observation contains the Tegid crater region and will be used to characterize the crater's shape and determine if it has a central dome feature similar to craters seen on other Galilean satellites. The second observation contains a region of mottled or blotchy-looking terrain in an attempt to determine if there is any relationship between this type of terrain and Europa's well known triple band features. In a regional observation, the camera captures two images. The first of these images will fill a gap in an already existing map of Europa, while the second will be used to determine whether or not Europa's rotation is synchronous. The last two observations of this week will provide information on the structure of Europa's north polar plains. Finally, the fields and particles instruments begin the return of their observation of the plasma, dust, and magnetic and electric fields surrounding Europa. These data were recorded during the 50 minutes when Galileo was closest to Europa and will improve the understanding of the interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Спутник для исследования Земли получает новое имя Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Спутник для исследования Земли получает новое имя [SpaceViews] Hаучная миссия NASA по исследованию Земли - Earth Observing System - получила новое имя и новую дату старта. Решено, что спутник EOS AM-1 будет называться "Terra", запуск намечен на 15 июля 1999 г. с космодрома на базе ВВС США Ванденберг. Hовое имя было выбрано из 1100 предложений, присланных в ходе студенческого конкурса. Победительницей конкурса, проведенного NASA совместно с Американским геофизическим союзом, стала выпускница школы из Сент-Луиса Саша Джонс (Sasha Jones). В качестве приза ее школа получит компьютерную систему для анализа данных, получаемых со спутника Terra, а сама Саша вместе со своей семьей сможет присутствовать при запуске спутника в космос. Этот спутник размером с небольшой школьный автобус будет вращаться по полярной орбите должен будет проходить над каждой точкой земной поверхности в 10 ч 30 мин местного времени. Спутник будет оснащен оборудованием для исследования земной поверхности, океана, атмосферы и климатических условий. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ракета Atlas вывела на орбиту японский телекоммуникационный спутник Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ракета Atlas вывела на орбиту японский телекоммуникационный спутник [SpaceViews] 15 февраля после месяца задержек по разным причинам наконец-то состоялся запуск ракеты Atlas производства Lockheed Martin с японским телекоммуникационным спутником на борту. Старт был осуществлен с космодрома на мысе Канаверал в 4 ч 45 мин по московскому времени. Последняя задержка старта (на 1 час) была сделана из-за проблемы со спускным клапаном в кислородном баке разгонного блока Centaur - оказалось, что неправильно сработал индикатор. По плану запуск должен был состояться в середине января, но задержки из-за плохой погодой и проблем с разгонным блоком отодвинули старт на месяц. Японский телекоммуникационный спутник JCSAT-6 построен компанией Hughes, он принадлежит фирме Japan Satellite Systems и должен будет обеспечивать передачу речи, данных и телевизионных сигналов на территории Японии и Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 15 February 1999 [3/4] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NASA Assigns Cosmonauts to Shuttle Missions Three Russian cosmonauts will fly on two shuttle missions this year that deal with the assembly of the International Space Station, NASA announced Friday, February 12. Valery Ivanovich Tokarev will join the crew of STS-96, the next shuttle mission scheduled for launch this May. This mission will bring supplies to ISS that will be used on later assembly missions, as well as install cranes on the exterior of the station that will be used to move supplies during future spacewalks. Scheduled to fly on STS-101, another ISS logistics mission, are cosmonauts Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko and Boris W. Morukov. That mission, scheduled for launch in October, will send supplies to the station and check out the Service Module, which is scheduled for be launched no later than September. While all three cosmonauts have experience with the Zarya control module launched last year as well as with the Service Module, only Malenchenko has flight experience. Malenchenko spent 126 days on Mir in 1994 as commander of Mir-16. Malenchenko was scheduled to fly on STS-96, but was bumped to a later flight for unknown reasons. This caused some confusion earlier this week when the mission patch for STS-96 was released with the name of Tokarev, and not Malenchenko, on it. The shuttle Discovery is scheduled to launch May 20 on the STS-96 mission, with a seven-person crew that includes Tokarev and is commanded by Kent Rominger. Atlantis will fly the STS-101 mission with a seven-person crew commanded by James D. Halsell Jr. Berkeley Announces New Radio Telescope Devoted to SETI The University of California at Berkeley, in conjunction with the SETI Institute, announced plans Monday, February 8, to build an array of several hundred radio telescopes devoted to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The One-Hectare Telescope (1HT) will consist of an array 500 to 1,000 small antennae similar in size to those used to receive television signals from satellites. The array will cover 10,000 square meters, or one hectare (2.47 acres), hence its name. The collecting area of the 1HT would rank it among the largest radio telescopes in existence, yet Berkeley and SETI Institute astronomers estimate that the system will cost on $25 million, about one-third the price of a comparably-sized single-dish telescope. The use of a large number of mass-produced dishes will keep the costs of building, maintaining, and expanding the telescope low. Astronomers plan to start with an experimental array of a dozen dishes at Berkeley's Hat Creek Observatory in northern California. Once the concept is proven, they plan to move forward with the larger array, likely also at Hat Creek. "This represents a paradigm shift in the design and construction of radio telescopes," said SETI Institute astronomer Jill Tarter. "We hope to demonstrate that a premium instrument need not have a premium price." Such a telescope would be a tremendous boost for SETI efforts, which today rely on infrequent observing time on major radio telescopes such as Arecibo. Such a system would start with observations of 1,000 nearby Sun-like stars, according to Berkeley astronomy professor Jack Welch, and move out to study 100,000 and eventually one million stars. The 1HT could also be used for conventional radio astronomy projects at the same time as it performs SETI searches, Welch said. "We plan to have multiple beams on the sky, and, because of the wide field of view of the small antennas, we can look at more than one object at a time," he said. At the same time as announcing the observatory, Berkeley announced that Welch had been named to the Watson and Marilyn Alberts Chair in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the university's astronomy department. It's believed to be the first academic chair established for a scientist doing SETI research. "Searching for other civilizations is very important, and the discovery of an intelligent signal from space would have all sorts of repercussions," said former doctor and National Institutes of Health administrator Watson Alberts. "But that discovery may be a long time from now. A chair at Cal [Berkeley] is a way to guarantee that research in this area will continue." SpaceViews Event Horizon February TBD Delta 2 launch of the Argos, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites from Vandenberg AFB, California February 15 Atlas 2AS launch of the JCSAT-6 communications satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 7:45 pm EST (0045 UT Feb. 16) February 19 Soyuz launch of Soyuz TM-29 spacecraft with Mir relief crew at 11:18 pm EST (0418 UT Feb. 20) from Baikonur, Kazakhstan February 26 Ariane 4 launch of the Arabsat-3A and Skynet-4E comsats at 5:44 pm EST (2244 UT) from Kourou, French Guiana. March 7-13 Spaceweek -- simultaneous pro-space events around the globe March 21-26 ProSpace March Storm, Washington, DC Other News Delta, Atlas Launches Delayed Again: Launches of a Delta 2 and an Atlas 2AS were delayed last week by weather and technical problems. High winds delayed a Delta 2 launch attempt from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, February 5, while a power spike delayed a launch attempt the following day. No new launch date has been set for the Delta 2 and its payload of the ARGOS, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites, who have now suffered 10 launch scrubs. A bad pressure reading delayed the February 14 launch attempt of an Atlas 2AS from Cape Canaveral, carrying the JCSAT-6 comsat. They'll try again Monday night, February 15. Galileo Out of Safe Mode: The Galileo spacecraft returned to normal operations last week after a safe mode triggered after a January 31 flyby of Jupiter's moon Europa. Galileo started returning data from the flyby on Thursday, February 11, although observations planned for after the flyby were not conducted because of the safe mode. Galileo project officials said the safe mode was likely triggered by a turn maneuver that the spacecraft's computers determined was taking too long. The January 31 flyby was the last close approach to Europa for Galileo; the spacecraft will make several close approaches to Callisto this year to set up one or two close flybys of Io, the innermost large moon, at the end of this year. Pluto's Number Nine Again: Pluto became the ninth and most distant planet in the solar system once again early Thursday, February 11. The planet's elliptical orbit send Pluto closer to the Sun than Neptune for 20 years out of its 248-year orbit. It will next pass closer to the Sun than Neptune April 5, 2231. Moscow Space Park Fire: A fire consumed much of a Moscow exhibition devoted to space exploration February 9, AFP reported. The centerpiece of the exhibition, a model of the Buran space shuttle, was spared, but other exhibits devoted to the Soviet space program as well as the gangway leading up to the Buran were destroyed. A Russian NTV television speculated that gangs seeking to gain control of the exhibition may have set the fire. Chinese Shuttle: A Chinese engineer says the country's space program is working on a reusable space shuttle that may be launched on an unmanned mission by the end of next year. It's not clear from the reports, published by AFP and the BBC, what size the shuttle is, but given the current Chinese space expertise it's unlikely to be anything as large as the American space shuttle, and more like the X-38 or Japanese HOPE prototypes. China is developing its own manned space program, code=named "Project 921", using non-reusable capsules similar to the Russian Soyuz. In Brief: Florida's "Space Coast", the region of central Florida that includes Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center, will soon get a highly-appropriate area code: 321. The region beat out Chicago for the coveted area code, perhaps because they had a hidden advantage: the North American Numbering Plan Administration, which handles new area code assignments, is run under a contract to a division of Lockheed Martin. We can only guess how many people will try to get the number 321-LIFTOFF... Be sure to see "October Sky", the movie premiering this Friday. Based on the memoir "Rocket Boys" by Homer Hickam, it's the true story of a boy growing up in a West Virginia coal town around the time of Sputnik who dreams of building rockets. (Read our review of the book at http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/12/review3.html) It's a touching movie even for those with the least bit of interest in space... Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: JPL Educator Resource Center Relocates To Pomona Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: John G. Watson FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE February 9, 1999 JPL EDUCATOR RESOURCE CENTER RELOCATES TO POMONA The Educator Resource Center of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has relocated from JPL to 1460 E. Holt Avenue, Suite 8, Pomona. Opened at the new site in early January, the center is designed to provide assistance and resources to educators from the elementary through college level, with an emphasis on America's space program. Center goals include planning and implementing workshops for educators to acquaint them with NASA/JPL educational material and resources; becoming involved in collaborations, cooperative agreements and associations with school districts, state education agencies, colleges and universities; and distributing NASA/JPL educational materials and resources to the educational community. The storefront Educator Resource Center facility, part of an agreement between JPL's Education Affairs Office and the Pomona Unified School District, is open to educators from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday (other hours by appointment). For further information, call the Center at (909) 397-4420. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1999 (1999-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ракета Atlas вывела на орбиту (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-02011.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-02011.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$`2`!(``#_VP!#``X*"PT+"0X-#`T0#PX1%B07%A04 M%BP@(1HD-"XW-C,N,C(Z05-&.CU./C(R2&))3E9875Y=.$5F;65:;%-;75G_ MVP!#`0\0$!83%BH7%RI9.S([65E965E965E965E965E965E965E965E965E9 M65E965E965E965E965E965E965E965G_P``1"`#O`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'````@,!`0$!``````````````$"!08#!`<(_\0`-1```0,#`P,"!`4$`P`# M`````0`"$0,$(1(Q005181,B!G&!D10RH;'!(U+1X4)B\#-#<O_$`!H!`0$` M`P$!```````````````!`@,%!`;_Q``E$0`"`@$%``("`P$``````````0(# M$002(3%!!1,B<2,R0H'_V@`,`P$``A$#$0`_`/F\)@>XQE$F(DQO";9R[5!6 MQ(A$Y*DUA)\KM;&G3N:?KM#Z8=[Q/'T6MI4J%(`T*5-H.SFC/WW7JT^F^[/) MKMM5:RS*TNFW=82R@^-Y=[1]RO72Z*Z1ZU=K?#!J/\!7]9T".5P8)=)72K^. MK7,N3R/6/Q&?ZC9?@ZH`)--XECCSW"\0D^T29.W=:F^H"ZH.IC\V[/GV^NRS M+G.@-=(#,0N;JZ/JGQTSUU6?9%,B!`!<TZ3L8W2A.9!`."?ND(,RO(;0.>(2 MA"%B`4V@.=EX:(W(\;*"950&-/()&<A(@`F#,'=!*4_=,@.43E!V0H`F3E2- M,M;+I!(!:(W'=11,J\`!A)2.Z0YCA0!).^9231P@`">0/FA"$!($0<(_A(*1 MX'`6Q=$","9$YF%?=#O-=)UN\^ZGEL\A9^9@$KK;U76]9E1FX,CR%NHM=4U( MPL@IQ<6:FH=14ORLCDKG;N%9C:C3+7"0NA!<<D!?2*<6EAG*=4^L!3;J=/V5 M7\2]+J6E2E=Z8IW&3X=S]_\`*TO2K+\37:`8`R2=@%TZX&7C:ENYQ-,-TM)` M]O8PO!JU]WX+P]-&*^9/L^<@$F`@1*G5I/H5G4WC2YA@I%L-F)!,`PN%C#.@ M)V8//.$L#?=/=,Y:!&1R.48%)<8[H,3B4-)S&W*")C=0![=1W(XX20<&$RZ< M0`%&`W`3<`UQ;(=!W"40E.95!)KWM#VM+@'B'`'<;Y^P44<2C(@]U``)@HG$ M=T(:2TF([9$H`$I)^4*`2$T*X!U(IM8PM.IQG4"(A0<-)WXX2G*>KVQ`CNMC M9!X+0`/=.3*Z46U/5/IN`>T$ZM0$#YKE(DEH,3B2NA,-W@G@!91QV"UZ1=/U M/MJCRX;MSSR%<T:9>X0,E9"G4+*C7#&DS(W7T#X7;2OP+EQ&A@EXV@CA=32Z ME1K<7X>/45.34D6;6CIO2XVK5A/D!459_'W7OZG=FO</=_Q&P50XESEZ]/!X MW2[9XK99>%TBJZU:A],7+0=0]KX[<'^/LJ1PG;`6O<&O!8X:FD01W"RUY;NM M;AU(@D;M)Y'!7.UU.V6]=,Z.GL<X<]HX.$'D?-+^4Y\E!"YV#T"COA)3!&F( M$C?RC`^J8!$1RE&%*"6S!@&)028R<J%!H!!DQ`PHE`E'\J`9,XQ"(Q/TV2PC MA0#$#B4@TD';'E-L;$@<R42>^4`B2=\\(B!.,J7_``(.X.Z@@&T$X`).^$)M M<6N!$2.XE"J8!-Q!)@0#QO"BI-:7&!&TY,*]D$!@Y4MQW[I!T'P=PAK29(PV M8)X"J>`+"N_ASJC[*NZAKBE<>UP)Q/!5(4\@`\2LX2VO)&DUAFWK/D97#8+R M=-N3<V[0\R]F'>5ZXS)V"^DJ:G!21RK&ZY.*0BXM$#$KP=3H?B;<N`FI2!(/ M<<C^?NO8X\HIB3*RLIC.#BQ7=*,DVS)C!2&58=5M?PETX-']*I[F>/'T5>OF M9Q<);6=9/*RB0(`,9G&5'PCCRFUQ8X.82'`R".%AD#%1XHNIA[O3<02R<$B8 M,?4_=00GB%B`F"/U2W1^R$*"-MT;%/<8!QNH!0@23C=-H+B&@24I0#UG3I), M=DB""A/:)@A`*"Z8$P.$)@`@DF#P(W0@&'#201).Q[**$_RG!!XV660`$@E2 M=3<R0YI!P<H:1I,#*)(,R)"S21")VP4P=DD;*`]5A<FVNFN$D'#@.0M,7`M$ M&1O*R&W\%7G2Z\T!2J'W`2SRU=/07[9;&>745;UN7:/?N5WI-Y4*;).R[N.E ML+KRDWP>!J"[9X^H6XO*#J0_.,L)[]OJLJ1!@C(6N<<3R52=9M=%07#1[:A] MW_Z_W_E<O7Z?C[%_T]VFM36PK$L*6`W?)X45R&>L!A)">(B,K$HD?)`!)`&2 M4<;H`0,%`3YXPH``,3!CN@F8WPB7'.82!B?*`%)K3I+@,#!,;2HRF#&[9^:` M=0-;4<*;]30<.B)0D!J<`($XR80KSX!<*;0``YQ]KL$-.5S4@=AA$0!"DUI> MX`1/D@)$0[NF`-,DP>/*S0(HS!,8Y1P@@@P5`,8W$KI0K.H56O9N%R0!)P%8 MMIY0-K;/;4H-JLRUPD*-1TF%2=$O?3<ZW>?:[+?![*V>5])IK/MAN.1=5LGC MP7YG*=6W;<4'TG[.'V/!7)U:C1$U:C6>"<KB_K5LS%-KZA\"`K=;6DXR9:Z[ M,IQ1G:U)U"J^E4$/:8*A]U9]<J-JU;=YI&G5=2#GB9WV_2%628CZKYJ6,O;T M=;GT7'E,#P@@B)",0(!GE8@(W.R7&Z)3)D\*%$#!P@';"$*`#WV3!`SS..R6 M(1N@#<J52FZF[2]I:Z`8/D2/T48@Y0@#:90CG"$P`"<Y*(P#W\IR-(@&><K) M$`1V2<28!.WZ*8+/2<"UWJ2((.`.<?90V/=4!J*#DY0GL<B4`H3:#(A`)@]C MA:KX#Z`SK'4S5KP;>WASFSEQX$=EE%+L';I?P5?5J-*LZD_U'0X`G2&CR>ZO M[CX2O#0!FBQY,%K#J_?_`"MZ[VMAHVX"INI752DUS'PP.Y=#OT'^UMA=.7XP MX"27+,%1^'K5MVZW-&M7N2"!,,IX!F=_"NJ/2[>W#*K&TJ+:C2(I,!>UPX)= MY5Q9V#/P;;AWOU&7#LW@CL0N/4[6M2#GV]2J]M6&EH;JC/YI[P(SX6$HQSAO M)L4VUE<%5=_#=AU.]=7N*E=U0&*SO4$#&&MQQ^@7.M\$]%MZ55]>K<-%(:B? M4&1WV6LM+>F;,T'`8W\GO]>ZRWQAU?2RETQI_JG-5T_\=P#\]_LLH1W24482 M?K,'U>G1I.8RA3<QC2X-U$$D3B2.58?!_0'=;OW:X%"DV23L7<#_`-V4*E#\ M;1T![=7YFSP9_;_2Z=$ZQ3Z7U,40&BT?#*CHW/\`=]/V6ZVG;+=YX:E+*P6/ M5?@RM;U,4GL!!.MHE@^L_P"%D[JUJ6U4TJ@`SAW!7W2Q#7,=2=4UM(_(\R"/ MKQ]`LC\3_!Y8*E:PINJT7#-$;L/_`%6MN$WM?#,EE'S%,G$!3JTC2JN;OI.X MY7,A>9IKAF0P)!,C'!3.DO&@$;;GE1"%B4#MNC<@3`\HX0`3L)Y0`=T)Y;(Q ME"`2.%*2&QPB9`!X61`G;PD=]DP?:1C)[93<V"(<'8!D#;PJ"/"#L#.4DSO" M`,E7'PWUBMT/JM.X9.B=-1G]S>54-<6N!!@@KK=7%2ZKOKUG%]1YDN.)6<6D M#]`VE[;7U!M6UK4ZK'"?:X'[KQW,W%X*#VZ*-,:WYP>T_9?#+:]N+6H'V]9] M)XY8XA?1NA_%]2KTEK:E+\178T^HZH_+H_TK&MM_@1O'9M9I4@\:FAC1J<.` M%S:*;VTVB=!`>)&8X65K?$GXJFYYM`"VG_49J_,T.$C;.!]I7:M\4MJ&!;RX M01HK1[3YTPJ]/9CHJFLEWU2I0M+&I=M/Y6?D:1%0<!?(JUY4O+NM5K$:JA)+ MMA)Q]E?_`!1U>K=LM'V;#0H-<=7IN,E_'`X_E9JV],^HZLY\L!AHB)\S\UNI M@X/GLQE+)[!5#:3'`!I<!B-NY_?[KQ=1M2^NVK19#:F2!P8_9=G$.=J<`W`# M1_;SGZ87GO;AS:;J!;#R<D<-C`7IN<7#\C7%<\&I^#_C%UAHL>IG7;;4ZI$F MG\^X_9?4J52G6IA["'L<)!&Q"_.DD'LKSHWQ7U7HP#+>OZE`?_55]S?IV^BY MDL2_9N+'XZZ*>E]0<^DT"WK'4PQM_P!?HLBK_P")_B>O\0U*!?2%"G2;^1KI M!=R502K.6<9"`I@`C?/"2%J*-PB1R-T-.EP)`/@\I?-,F3DSP@$(+A.!^R$( M0#X0(GW3'A=75=O3'I^W20#OY7.9D+8TB"X3R3^BBF>(6(",X1&>$D(`.Z:2 M$`Y5ET:\;:7S/6);2=ASFB2V=C]%6#RG.<+.$W%Y0:SP?3+KH-Q:Q<6U6E4I M5:>J).DGDC@3YQNJ"X]%M`T*#@UKB14+09`&^^0-_K$\`6GPYU[J%/X?<QS? M4%`Z6![)Y$9\9W7@O:E+\9ZP8&ESH/INC'88G/T71IW269=&B32Z/.*5*YI: M`YK:3B`'.,Z>9&TGYPJAQ_#5=+7$U6O/J:VX!&W.>^0KVH^GK?Z;&`F`_P!0 MAQ!\8@?->'K=NT%EPRF&0`QT-@'L<>/X6RV+_LO!%^'B=4<RF^K7<:A)R=Y( MV_;[*K>\O>7.,N<9*]\4FB7UF-:[)IQJS_"@RUIW3]%J7:XP'X!^7^US+;-[ MVKI'H5>%D\,HW*G4I/I5'LJ#2]A@@J$S)Y6D!,X1RB?NFXESI.YR@$'$&0A2 M,AN``'%1_=`$91PF(,`#/S3!`&6@D]T`@TD^4)Z#!=&`A`*5*`63@:?.2H)Q MA9)D!$I3A"@)3B,03*#)!=YA1X0F0/<3NDG."$#[(!0@(V0=\;(#TT+^ZM@X M4;BHP._,`[>>ZZMZQ?L=++FHT\0=EX4+)6273)M1<],O+BZOF4Z]Q@2YH<!E MT8$QW5L:-P^W].K=O]P=ZN@#WS'<>!PLDQY8\.:8+3((6KM+L7=HU_\`SV>/ M*Z&B<;).,WE_LT:ARA',4<:73K:F[%(./=YG_2];G:&:&^UO]K1`^RD!`E<2 M=3EV(50C_5'.=LY=LJNKVSM(N63_`&OCGM_C[*F.ZV-1C7TS3<):X00LI=V[ MK:X?3=P<'N.ZXWR%&R6]=,Z&FMWQP^T<4#<(X@([+FGJ).).EI?(:('CG"&D M@S.0,2D2))C/9*,(`DQ'"?,@8'!2&\`IM`+P"Z`=S"`!&9)VPA/0?<1.$)C` M(\*30#(),QB.4.+@/3.P.WE(0=Y^BI``D'=*<1P@$C;"%"@A".4`(!@R$("( M!*"(PA-I`,D2J0BFCB$XWDJ%$O?TF[_#W8:\Q3?[3X/!7A@C"!NLX3<)*2\, M6E)89L*IC"&"!*\73+@75`-<XFHS#O/8KWD`XA?3U6JR"E$Y-E2K>ULC.Y&2 MJ[JEKZ]L:@_^2GD1F1S_`)^Z]]0R8X"*8S/9+:OM@XR+79&MY2,CJQ$">Z#, MY7NZE:-M[@EF&.ES>P\?^\+PNWWE?,60<).,CK)IK*$CA`,".ZDT-R2X".(D ME8%%@#&2D-U-KH:]@!<'#SB.5"#$P8VE`3>UVD/,0^8@C]N$*,DMB<#("$8$ M1G*%(0&DDD'@1NHH`(Q*;2!,B>WA(0@X,(`0DGO&%`",(,`D;^4!5`$R1.!" M1QA&50"!C<2GP,?5)0!*9<)'M&/U20F0>FQN3:7;*D^W9P'(6I+@&!S2"'"0 M1R%C5=](NO4I_AWG+,MGMV73^.OVR^M],\FJJW1W+M%D!)4S[6^4-`"BZ25W M')9.<H2?AYKRW_%6SJ?_`#W9\UGH+SH(@M!\;96J8V79/V51URR=1J-N&LAE M3<_]O]KD_(TY_D2_9T--/"V-E2YKFD!PC$Q\T9)VWX388</;/A2_I^D22?4D M:8VCF?T7'P>P@=MH00)@$0I5O3UCTB[3I$ZAF8S])E1B)V*@`-D8*$$-@03/ M.$(!?-!4GDO=)`!``@>,*,J,#;D:0))20"0903(5`(0B(A0`B?*''428`GLD MJ!HR2A"I!)QW1"8=`(C=0HN$(1*@&=.D1(/*G;UG4*S*C(U-,[+F@"2LLO.4 M#74Z[:UNVI3V>%%4_2+CTZKK=YPX^W/*NV-ER^FTERMKW>^G)U$'"9VMJ1>X M"%:=8M:)Z3^#>!KJ0XG^WLNO2+9C`ZXK#^G3&H^57W]TZO6?5<=UKG_-/;XC M&+^M;O3#5:;K>J^F\%M1AA<YDJZZU;E](7+6C4W#SXX/\?94BX6HJ=4W!G5A M)3BI(-RI>T`S.KM"B(S,IM<6DQRM!F`P)@(1JQ!VX\(5R!9B$#?*!W3<X.>7 M0`"9@<*`4$[(0CG*`2<$S'"$3.!A`&(\HA.,;CY(GOE4"X1*$`$D`"2>$R!) MSB.Z$E`/E-SM3B8`G@**<(`0FYI;$\B0E*`;3I<""01D$+9]%=^/HTWM!+OR MN`'*Q:N_A;JYZ1U,5'`.I5!I,[`\.^A7JTU\JF\>FJVM6+#-IU6X%"@VRI`M MTYJ$\E43G`NC<+O=575'N>XRYQ7F&!*[]-6V)RY6Y?"&X@M+"T:7`AP[@[K* MW=NZUN'TG9@X/<+4M&HKQ=9M/6MO48/ZE(3\V\_^^:\VOTZG#='M'HTUSW;9 M,SG*<@SJWX@(C$R/DI'1Z38G7)U9XQ'\K@'1(C)`)`'=";A&&EI$`F$)T")V M0`"#G/`[H!VPA0`CY)B.25%`,H03G)0!,P@&V,DQC@\H$#SX2RD@&I5-'MT2 M,>Z>Z@F/*H)0!3#M3222-/(VS_[LHB.4&(")(!'!0!C(1F/"$#90!X)PCG"$ M(`1./*$(#1]*NS<VXIO/]2F(^87M=O"RUE<&UN65<D#!'<*SJ=:`/]&E)X+S M_'^UV]+KH*O%CY1S[M-*4\Q]+I@@*0<QGNJO8QO=Y`"R]?J=S5@"L6CD-$0O M(ZHYWYCJS,G=8V?(Q_RA#1XYDSOU"E2IWE06S@^CNTC8>%Y3NF#)]Q,*5)CZ AKPQC07'C;8+D-Y>3H"=I:_V&1W(0DTM!.H$B#L4*`__9 ` end sum -r/size 34072/7267 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 59011/5253 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года