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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 11 февраля 1999


    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [1/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S Issue 1999.02.08 1999 February 8 http://www.spaceviews.com/1999/0208/ *** News *** Znamya Space Mirror Experiment Fails NASA Gets Steady Budget for 2000 Delta Launches Stardust Comet Mission Panel: NASA Faces Future Safety Problems NASA Reschedules Shuttle Launches; Five Planned for 1999 SOHO Satellite Working Again Mars Global Surveyor Completes Aerobraking No Minor Planet Number for Pluto SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Articles *** So You Want to "Get Into" SETI (part 2) *** Letters *** More on Vanguard *** News *** Znamya Space Mirror Experiment Fails Russian officials called off any further attempts Friday, February 5, to deploy the mylar sail of the Znamya-2.5 "space mirror", marking the end of an ambitious experiment to test a system that could reflect sunlight onto nighttime regions of the Earth. Mission controllers decided no additional effort they could make would allow the 25-meter (82-foot) mirror to properly unfold from the Progress M-40 spacecraft. The mirror, still attached to the Progress, burned up in the Earth's atmosphere later Friday. The sail was supposed to unfold from the Progress Thursday, February 4, and direct sunlight onto selected regions of Asia, Europe, and North America for very brief periods. However, the mirror snagged on an antenna jutting out from the Progress as the deployment began. "For a reason as yet unexplained, an antenna whose normal function is to assist the docking of the Progress ship was deployed by mistake, penetrating into the zone of deployment of the Znamya foil," explained Guy Pignolet, head of a French solar sail project who had talked with Vladimir Syromyatnikov, head of the Znamya experiment. The mirror was designed to deploy using the centrifugal force generated by spinning the spacecraft around its long axis, forcing the mirror out. When the sail snagged on the antenna, it wrapped around that region, bunching up on one side. "The troublemaker antenna was subsequently retracted, causing some apparently minor tears in the foil material, and a new attempt at deployment was tried," Pignolet said, "but without success, [as] the structure of the foil was lined up on the same side instead of expanding in a circle." With no chance to properly deploy the mirror, the test was canceled. "Of course we feel low, we had been preparing for the experiment, which was supposed to be such a breath-taking event," a mission control spokesman told Reuters. "The cosmonauts are also very saddened by the failure." While the test was designed to pave the way for future, larger mirrors, it's not clear if even the modest Znamya-2.5 experiment will be reflown. Financial problems in Russia, coupled with the difficulty in getting a slot of a future Progress mission, are hurdles to any future test. A smaller version of the mirror, Znamya 2, flew in space in 1993. The experiment had come under some criticism, mostly by astronomers who were concerned that fleets of such mirrors could make ground-based astronomy difficult or impossible. On the day of the test, Britain's Royal Astronomical Society issued a statement expressing its "grave concerns about the threat this technology poses to fundamental studies of Earth and the universe." Others expressed optimism about the test, not just for the benefits directing sunlight onto cities and other regions of the Earth, but for the potential for future solar sail missions or solar power satellites. "The basic concepts they [Znamya] are demonstrating can lead to a whole new field of mining solar energy in space and bringing it down to Earth," said Rick Tumlinson, president of the Space Frontier Foundation. "We hope people will give the idea a chance, and begin to understand that the solutions to many of our environmental problems lie just overhead." NASA Gets Steady Budget for 2000 NASA's budget proposal for fiscal year 2000 is very similar to what is has in 1999, with some rearrangement of funds within the agency to support the International Space Station, NASA officials reported Monday, February 1. The official budget proposal calls for $13.578 billion for NASA in fiscal year (FY) 2000, which starts October 1, 1999. This is $87 million less than its current FY1999 budget of $13.665 billion. NASA administrator appeared almost proud of the budget cut in a press conference Monday afternoon. "For the sixth year in a row, NASA's budget has declined while productivity improves," he said. Adjusted for inflation, NASA's budget has declined by $1 billion since FY1994. The overall federal budget for FY2000 is $1.77 trillion, including a $76 billion surplus. The breakdown within NASA's main areas is similar in 2000 to the 1999 budget. The cornerstone of NASA's efforts, the International Space Station, gets $2.48 billion in the budget, about $180 million more than last year. The shuttle gets almost exactly $3 billion in 2000, essentially the same amount as allocated for 1999. Space science programs get a small increase in 2000, from $2.12 to $2.20 billion, while earth science programs also get a small increase, from $1.41 to $1.46 billion. Life sciences and microgravity research gets a small declines in its budget, from $264 to $256 million. Hardest hit are NASA's aeronautics programs, which suffer a cut from $1.34 to $1.01 billion. Part of the cut is the natural wind-down of the X-33 and X-34 projects, while the rest come from cuts in specific aeronautics programs, including the High Speed Civil Transport and advanced subsonic technology programs. Some of the cut aeronautics funds will be used to support International Space Station expenses, Goldin said, although he noted that was not the primary reason they were cut. Research and operations funds within the space station program have been reprogrammed to support station assembly, he said. Goldin also said NASA plans to spend $500 million already in the budget to build a U.S. propulsion module for the International Space Station, should Russia not be able to complete or launch the Service Module. However, Goldin was optimistic that the module would be completed, saying Russian engineers were "chugging along" and only 20-30 days behind schedule. Goldin also said he and the Clinton Administration have nixed any plans to provide up to $600 million in support for the Russian space program, noting that such funding "deincentizes Russia from funding their space agency." Goldin also used the budget announcement to trot out several new projects and missions, including a proposed "Mars airplane" that would fly on Mars in 2003, on the 100th anniversary of the Wright Brothers first flight. The plane would be one of a number of low-cost "micromissions" the U.S. and international partners, notably France, have planned in the coming decade of Martian exploration. The project appears similar to a Discovery-class mission proposed this summer but not selected in the recent round of mission finalists. The new mission would likely be smaller or otherwise scaled back to fit into the smaller budgets planned for Mars micromissions. Goldin said further details on the Mars plane project would come out in the next 3-6 months, after seeking input from the aerospace and scientific communities on the project and possibly opening up competitions for the plane's design. Neither the plane no last year's pet project, a Europa orbiter, are line items in the FY2000 budget. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [2/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Delta Launches Stardust Comet Mission After a one-day delay, a Delta 2 launched NASA's Stardust comet mission Sunday, February 7, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The Delta 2 lifted off at 4:04:15 pm EST (2004:15 UT) Sunday, February 7 in perfect weather and after a problem-free count. After a series of successful engine burns the spacecraft separated from the Delta 2's third stage a little over 27 minutes after launch. A dip in current in one of the C-band radar beacons on the Delta scrubbed a launch attempt the day before with less than two minutes remaining in the countdown, forcing a one-day delay. The Discovery class mission will fly to the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Passing through the tail of the comet, the spacecraft will collect dust and gas samples to return to Earth two years later for analysis. The spacecraft will also collect samples of interstellar dust passing through the solar system. Study of comet dust may provide clues on the formation of the solar system 5 billion years ago. "Locked within comet molecules and atoms could be the record of the formation of the planets and the materials from which they were made," said Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for space science. Stardust will fly in a solar orbit and perform an Earth flyby in 2001 to put it on course for the comet. During the flyby, collectors containing aerogel -- an extremely light but strong solid -- will be used to capture dust particles while other instruments on the spacecraft take images of the comet and collect data on its composition. Interstellar dust will be collected in other phases of the mission. Stardust returns to Earth in January 2006. A small return capsule, containing the comet and interstellar dust samples, will detach from the spacecraft and parachute to a landing in the desert west of Salt Lake City, Utah. Also carried on Stardust are two small microchips etched with over 1 million names, ranging from members of the National Space Society to the names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, as well as members of the general public who signed up via the Web. The 380-kg (835-lb.) spacecraft is the fourth mission in the Discovery Program series of low-cost science missions. Previous Discovery missions include the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, Mars Pathfinder, and Lunar Prospector. Panel: NASA Faces Future Safety Problems While safety is not a present concern for NASA, personnel problems could become a safety risk for space agency in the near future, an advisory panel warned NASA in a report issued Thursday, February 4. The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), in its annual report to NASA, said that safety is "well served" by current NASA operations including the space shuttle, International Space Station, and other projects. However, panel chairman Richard Blomberg warned that problems may develop down the road as its workforce, much of which is approaching retirement age, leaves the agency. "Tight budgets have forced severe limitations on hiring," he said. "It is unclear how the expertise will be developed to continue existing programs safely and effectively guide new efforts." The panel recommended that NASA provide its field centers that deal with manned space flight the resources they need to hire new workers and to strengthen training programs. The panel also made some recommendations about space shuttle safety. They concluded that NASA improve the documentation used on space shuttle activities to reduce the number of mistakes made while processing shuttles between flights, and to keep better track of mishaps and close calls involving the shuttle. The panel's ISS recommendations included involving astronauts in training and testing at the earliest possible opportunity. They also recommended that a crew return vehicle, either Soyuz capsules or the X-38, be available to safely evacuate the entire crew. Stringent limits on radiation exposure were also recommended. The report, which also includes recommendations about EVAs, aerospace technology, and computer hardware and software, is issued annually by the ASAP. The independent panel was established by Congress after the fatal Apollo 1 accident in 1967. NASA Reschedules Shuttle Launches; Five Planned for 1999 NASA released a revised shuttle launch schedule for 1999 on Friday, February 5, with five missions planned for the year, the first of which is not scheduled until May. The shuttle Discovery will lift off May 20 on the first mission of the year. STS-96 will carry supplies to the International Space Station and install cranes on the exterior of the station to assist spacewalkers moving equipment outside the station. The oft-delayed STS-93 will be the next shuttle mission, with Columbia scheduled to launch the Chandra X-Ray Observatory July 9. The launch, last planned for April, was pushed back when problems were discovered with circuit boards similar to those used on Chandra. Chandra was shipped to the Kennedy Space Center earlier this week after a one-week delay. Previously, NASA said the one-week delay would translate into a five-week delay in the launch, but that would have conflicted with STS-96, hence the additional delay. Following STS-93 the shuttle Endeavour is scheduled for launch on mission STS-99 on September 16. This mission will be devoted almost exclusively to a radar topography mapping mission using a three-dimensional imaging radar. Two more ISS-related shuttle missions round out the 1999 launch schedule. Atlantis will launch on STS-101 October 14, carrying additional logistical equipment to the station as well as checking out the Service Module, which is expected to launch by September. Discovery will fly again December 2 on STS-92 to install an external truss to the station and an additional mating adapter. The five shuttle missions planned for 1999 are equal to the number flown in 1998. NASA had flown at least six missions a year from 1990 through 1997. A sixth shuttle flight previously planned for 1999, STS-97, will be delayed to 2000. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [3/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SOHO Satellite Working Again For the second time in six months, engineers have restored the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite to normal operations after incidents threatened the future of the mission, project officials announced Wednesday, February 3. Over the weekend, controllers uploaded new software to SOHO, which had been in a safe mode since December 21 when the last of its three gyroscopes failed. The new software allows the spacecraft to continue to operate without using any gyros. The spacecraft began returning data again February 2. The new software will allow the spacecraft to keep pointed at the Sun without having to use up its hydrazine propellant. While in safe mode, SOHO required regular thruster firings to maintain irs orientation, threatening to deplete its supply of hydrazine by the middle of the year. "SOHO is back at work and we are absolutely thrilled," said Roger Bonnet, director of science for the European Space Agency, one of the partners of te SOHO mission. "Thanks to the outstanding efforts of so many highly competent people, SOHO has a new life ahead of it and many discoveries to come." The software will allow SOHO to maintain its orientation by ignoring data from the faulty gyroscopes and instead use the spacecraft's star tracker. It marks the first time that any satellite designed to be oriented using gyros has been able to continue operations without them. "It's like instructing an airplane pilot from the ground to execute very complex maneuvers and helping him make a successful landing," said Michel Verdant, SOHO program manager for ESA. It's the second time in a half-year that engineers have brought back SOHO from near death. In June 1998 series of problems, including controller error, send SOHO tumbling. The spacecraft remained out of contact with the Earth until August, and did not return to normal operations again until October, after a long recovery operation. Two of the three gyros on SOHO failed to work after that incident. The joint NASA-ESA spacecraft, launched in December 1995, completed its primary mission in April 1998. Now that normal operations have been restored, it will continue to return data on the Sun through 2003. These observations will be important as the Sun passes though the peak of its 11-year activity cycle some time in 2000. Mars Global Surveyor Completes Aerobraking Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) successfully completed the aerobraking phase of the mission last week and will soon begin its primary mapping mission, JPL announced Thursday, February 4. MGS fired its main thruster Thursday at 3:11 am EST (0811 UT), raising its orbit out of the Martian atmosphere. MGS had been passing through the upper fringes of the atmosphere for the last several months as part of an effort to circularize its orbit. The spacecraft's orbit will drift slightly for the next two weeks and then perform one more thruster burn to put MGS into its primary mapping orbit, a circular orbit 379 kilometers (235 miles) above the Martian surface, crossing the equator at 2 am local solar time. Mapping operations will begin in March. MGS, which entered Martian orbit in September 1997, was to enter the mapping orbit a year ago. However, a weakened solar panel forced a redesign of the mission where the aerobraking was split into two less intense sections, with a break for much of 1998. Despite the delay, JPL officials said the mission showed aerobraking was a success. "The use of aerobraking has been a pioneering operation for a spacecraft at Mars, and we now know that we can use this technique with confidence for future Mars missions," Glenn Cunningham, deputy director of Mars exploration programs at JPL, said. "It has been a long and arduous task that has turned into a valuable learning experience for all of us - engineer and scientist alike," Cunningham added. "The flight team has done a superb job and we're really glad the aerobraking phase of the mission is now successfully behind us." MGS was the first Mars spacecraft to use aerobraking to adjust its orbit, in this case from a highly-elliptical 45-hour orbit to its circular 2-hour orbit. Aerobraking reduces the amount of propellant a spacecraft has to carry, reducing its mass and cost. MGS will spend the next Martian year -- 687 days -- studying the planet in detail, including information on the atmosphere, magnetic field, and the structure and composition of the surface. MGS has already made a number of major contributions to our understanding of the Red Planet, from the discovery of a residual magnetic field to new images which show that liquid water once flowed on the planet. Its most popular data, though, may have been images from the Cydonia region of the planet, which showed a feature known as the "Face on Mars" -- purportedly evidence of an alien civilization, some claimed -- looked far less like a face than once thought. No Minor Planet Number for Pluto The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has decided not to give the planet Pluto a minor planet number, like those given to asteroids, let alone demote it from planet status, the organization announced Wednesday, February 3. In a press release, IAU general secretary Johannes Andersen said that a lack of consensus in the astronomical community kept the IAU from giving Pluto a minor planet number or taking other action on Pluto's classification. "It is... the policy of the IAU that its recommendations should rest on well-established scientific facts and be backed by a broad consensus in the community concerned," he said. "A decision on the status of Pluto that did not conform to this policy would have been ineffective and therefore meaningless." In the statement, Andersen said that at no time was the IAU considering revoking Pluto's status as a planet. "No proposal to change the status of Pluto as the ninth planet in the solar system has been made by any Division, Commission or Working Group of the IAU responsible for solar system science," he said. A discussion among members of one committee, though, revolved around giving pluto a minor planet number, most likely 10,000, which is due to be assigned within the next several weeks. "The Small Bodies Names Committee of the Division has, however, decided against assigning any Minor Planet number to Pluto," Andersen said. IAU committee are, though, considering ways to classify the family of "trans-Neptunian" objects that have been discovered beyond the orbit of Neptune in the last several years. This would include Pluto and its moon, Charon, but Andersen stressed that such a process "was explicitly designed to not change Pluto's status as a planet." Reports of Pluto's imminent demise as a planet were widely reported in the media in January. Andersen attributes those reports to "incomplete and misleading information" regarding the discussion of Pluto's classification and the IAU's status. The debate grew so strong that the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society, an organization whose members include most of the planetary scientists in the world, issued a statement January 28 calling on the IAU to not give a minor planet number of Pluto. "This situation is harmful to our profession and will become more so if not put quickly to rest," Don Yeomans, a JPL scientist serving as chairman of the DPS, said in a letter to DPS members. "The public is confused, acrimonious rifts are being created within our community and many of our colleagues are being diverted from productive work to counter what they perceive to be an alarming and unnecessary crisis." An informal, nonscientific poll on the SpaceViews Web site showed that nearly two-thirds of those responding thought that Pluto should retain its classification as solely a planet. The remainder were evenly split between dual status for Pluto or designating Pluto as solely a KBO. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [4/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SpaceViews Event Horizon February TBD Delta 2 launch of the Argos, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites from Vandenberg AFB, California February 9 Soyuz-Ikar launch of four Globalstar satellites from Baikonur, Kazakhstan February 9-10 FAA Commercial Space Transportation Forecast Conference, Washington, DC February 10 Atlas 2AS launch of the JCSAT-6 communications satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 7:44 pm EST (0044 UT Feb. 1) February 17 Proton launch of the Telstar-6 communications satellite from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. February 20 Soyuz launch of Soyuz TM-29 spacecraft with Mir relief crew from Baikonur, Kazakhstan February 26 Ariane 4 launch of the Arabsat-3A and Skynet-4E comsats at 5:44 pm EST (2244 UT) from Kourou, French Guiana. March 7-13 Spaceweek March 21-26 ProSpace March Storm, Washington, DC Other News Atlas, Delta Delays: A potential problem with the Centaur upper stage of an Atlas IIAS booster delayed the February 1 launch of the JCSAT-6 satellite February 1 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The launch of the Japanese comsat is now planned for February 10... The long-delayed Delta 2 launch of the ARGOS, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites was delayed again early Sunday, February 7, by bad weather at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. No new date has been set for the launch, originally scheduled for January 14. X-38 Drop Test: A prototype of the X-38 crew return vehicle for the International Space Station completed a second drop test Saturday, February 6, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The X-38 was dropped from a B-52 aircraft at an altitude of 6,700 meters (22,000 feet). It flew free for several seconds before deploying a parafoil and gliding to a landing at the air base 12 minutes later. A second prototype, with flight control surfaces and more instruments, is planned for a similar test flight in late February. Additional test flights are planned for every six weeks, from higher altitudes. Galileo and Prospector News: The Galileo spacecraft entered a safe mode January 31 several hours after completing its last flyby of Jupiter's moon Europa. Preliminary indications point to a turn taking too long to complete as the event that caused the safe mode, a different cause than safe modes that took place during two of the last three Europa flybys. Engineers believe that Galileo did collect data during the flyby, and should be able to start returning it by late in the week... Lunar Prospector completed its transition into a lower orbit January 29. Prospector now orbits the Moon at altitudes of 15 and 45 km (9.3 and 28 mi.). Scientists will use the higher-resolution data from this low orbit to better pin down the locations of likely water ice deposits at the lunar poles, among other uses. This extended mission should last until mid-1999. New Extrasolar Planet: Swiss astronomers have discovered what may be the smallest extrasolar planet to orbit a Sun-like star, they announced February 2. The planet, orbiting the star HD 75289, has a minimum mass only 40% that of Jupiter, our solar system's largest planet, making it slightly smaller than other extrasolar planets found. The planet is only 6.9 million kilometers (4.3 million miles) from the star, requiring only 3.5 days to complete an orbit. Michel Mayor, the Geneva Observatory astronomer who led the research, noted that two-thirds of the extrasolar planets discovered to date that are extremely close to their parent stars are smaller than Jupiter, indicating a possible trend in planetary formation. Other News: The Air Force has cleared the way for Titan 2 and 4 boosters to return to service. Both had been grounded after the August 1998 destruction of a Titan 4A 40 seconds after launch. An investigation panel traced the cause of the accident to frayed wiring in the booster's power system... Teal Group consultants predicts that 2,123 satellites will be launched in the 10-year period starting in 1999, the company announced February 3. Two-thirds of those satellites will go into low-Earth orbit, with nearly half of those for various communications systems. The total number of satellites is nearly 100 more than what the company predicted in 1998... Brian De Palma, director of "Snake Eyes" and "Mission: Impossible" among many others, is expected to sign on as director of the movie "Mission to Mars", the Boston Globe reported February 7. The movie, due out late this year, will be about the second human mission to Mars, trying to figure out what happened to the first. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [1/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Articles *** So You Want to "Get Into" SETI (part 2) by Larry Klaes [Editor's Note: Part 1 of this article appeared in the January 22 issue and is available online at http://www.spaceviews.com/1999/01/article2a.html.] Your Choices Now that you are riding in the wake of those who paved the way for you to make even considering doing SETI possible, which route do you want to take? And what do you need to follow your plans? The Professional Route Before we go any further here, the first item I want to make clear is that at present, almost no one who is conducting professional SETI started out doing SETI in their careers. Very few places conduct professional SETI -- The SETI Institute (http://www.seti-inst.edu) being among the most notable exceptions -- and the majority of their employees came from careers in astronomy and engineering. Most other SETI projects, such as BETA (http://mc.harvard.edu/seti/) and SERENDIP (http://seti.ssl.berkeley.edu/), are run primarily by skilled volunteers with donated funds. So if you want to hunt for aliens, you have to learn more than just how to sit at a monitor and wait for a needle to jump. And don't expect to get paid as much as other professions in terms of financial rewards, if at all. But usually one does not get into this field just for the material benefits. Getting a degree in astronomy is my first recommendation. You have to understand the fundamentals of the Universe before you can truly begin to comprehend what life forms might be out there and why. If you don't even have an idea of where to look for them, the search will be essentially a waste of time for you and everyone else. The same applies to my recommendation of studying physics. Knowledge of computers and radio technology is highly recommended, as conducting SETI takes up massive amounts of computer data crunching power. SETI sifts through literally millions and billions of data bits per second, and trying to find some faint artificial signals in a Universe full of very noisy natural objects is a job for nothing less than advanced computers which can work fast and handle lots of information at once. Knowing how to work with such machines will be a big plus in SETI. I would also recommend learning biology. The beings you hope to pursue may be quite different from anything you might find on Earth, but understanding the fundamentals of how life forms on this planet exist and function will give you a good base to work from. Since you will be searching for intelligent beings who will have some form of advanced technological civilization (otherwise we won't be able to detect ETI from Earth with our current radio and optical telescopes), I would suggest studying sociology to learn about how cultures develop and function with themselves and others. There certainly are a wide variety of human societies to study which will give you at least some ideas for what alien cultures just might be like and their motivations and methods for reaching out to the galaxy at large. Plus all of this is good for you to know for your own intellectual benefit and personal growth. Yes, this is my "it builds character" statement. All Creatures Great and Small: Becoming an Exobiologist Of course the alien life you can search for does not necessarily have to be intelligent, at least on the technological civilization level. NASA and many universities are developing very nice programs on searching for extraterrestrials of the much simpler kind. Our latest journeys into the solar system with planetary probes have shown that some of our neighboring worlds might not be as hostile as once thought to microbes and other hardy and relatively unsophisticated creatures. For example, NASA is quite interested in finding either fossils of Mars life that lived there several billion years ago, or microbial life that still thrives on the Red Planet, perhaps dwelling under the surface where conditions are a bit wetter, warmer, and safer than above ground. Jupiter's smallest Galilean moon, Europa, appears to have a liquid ocean underneath its incredible ice crust. Some scientists are speculating that conditions in those alien seas might be just right for harboring some aquatic Europans. These are just two possibilities you could end up researching if you decide to become an exobiologist -- a career that didn't even exist in any true form until well after the advent of the Space Age. Much of the learning tools which applied to professional SETI also apply here, though with added emphasis on biology and chemistry. You may initially think that finding an alien microbe won't be as thrilling as detecting a whole civilization of very intelligent beings: But just look at the wonder and excitement generated by the possible microfossils found in Martian meteorite ALH84001 when their discovery was announced in 1996. It is most important to realize that finding any kind of life form that did not originate on planet Earth will be the key evidence humanity needs to let us know that we are not alone in the Universe. And finding organisms in our solar system could happen long before we come upon beings from other planetary systems. The Amateur Route While you probably won't make a living at doing SETI the amateur way, the wonderful thing about living in this era is that the search technology has reached the point where any serious amateur astronomer (non-Ph.D.) with a few hundred to a few thousand dollars (or equivalent currency) for the right equipment to attach to their existing satellite dish or optical telescope, can actually conduct a serious search for other galactic civilizations. You can actually possess the technological ability to scan the skies with devices that would have been the envy of most professional institutions just a decade or two ago. The extra beauty of doing your own SETI project is that you can essentially be your own boss as to how things are run. SETI does not have to belong only to the "big" boys and girls. Naturally, to conduct amateur SETI, it will help to have a more than casual interest in astronomy, a working knowledge of telescopes -- radio and optical, depending on which type of amateur SETI you want to pursue (more on that later) -- a working knowledge of computers, a good place to set up your observatory, plenty of free time, and some extra spending cash. Yes, if you want to do serious astronomy and/or SETI, it can't be done properly as a weekend hobby. Of course you can do this any way you want, but since we do not know who may be sending signals from out there by what methods or when, a near-constant vigilance is the only way to be sure of catching their call when it comes. And since it is likely that such signals will not be very powerful, especially to amateur equipment, it will also make a major difference as to how "serious" your equipment is as well. Larry Klaes (lklaes@bbn.com) is the Northeastern U.S. Regional Coordinator for the SETI League and coordinator for the Columbus Optical SETI (COSETI) Observatory. The final part of this article will appear in an upcoming issue. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 8 February 1999 [6/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Letters *** Letters to the Editor: More on Vanguard [Editor's Note: We don't advertise it much, but we do welcome letters to the editor on articles published in SpaceViews or on space-related topics. If you would like to submit a letter, send it to jeff@spaceviews.com. While all letters will be read, we can't guarantee all will be published.] Dear Editor, I just finished reading the article on Project Vanguard in the current issue of SpaceViews: (http://www.spaceviews.com/1999/02/article1a.html) a fun article which brought back memories of the old days. However the article did leave out one fun item, that being the fact that Vanguards 1, 2 & 3 all remain in orbit with Vanguard 1 and its two associated pieces of debris being the oldest artificial satellites in orbit. Those who enjoy watching artificial satellites might want to know that given the right observing circumstances the Vanguards can be seen through an amateur telescope (I've seen 1 & 2 with a 35 cm scope). For those with appropriate satellite tracking software, here are current Two Line Orbital Elements for each of the Vanguards. Each set should be good for a couple of weeks: VANGUARD 1 1 00005U 58002B 99033.55158794 +.00000463 +00000-0 +58598-3 0 03522 2 00005 034.2491 116.3123 1855960 201.9444 149.0254 10.81935672358277 VANGUARD 2 1 00011U 59001A 99035.20940436 .00001593 00000-0 87872-3 0 4292 2 00011 32.8857 36.5435 1517571 354.9767 3.7016 11.74997507692713 VANGUARD 3 1 00020U 59007A 99035.45536494 .00000949 00000-0 39125-3 0 7543 Sincerely, Patrick Wiggins Hansen Planetarium Education Department p.wiggins@m.cc.utah.edu This has been the February 8, 1999, issue of SpaceViews. SpaceViews is also available on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: ftp://ftp.seds.org/pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/text/19990208.txt To unsubscribe from SpaceViews, send mail to: majordomo@spaceviews.com In the body (not subject) of the message, type: unsubscribe spaceviews For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com. For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@spaceviews.com. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Adopts Princeton Professor's Idea to Mark Wright Brothers'Centenn Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Office of Communications Stanhope Hall Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5264 Telephone 609-258-3601; Fax 609-258-1301 Contact: Justin Harmon 609/258-5732 Date: February 5, 1999 NASA Adopts Princeton Professor's Idea to Mark Wright Brothers' Centennial with Airplane Flight on Mars PRINCETON, N.J. -- NASA announced this week it will pursue a project that will culminate in a flight of an airplane in the thin atmosphere of Mars on December 17, 2003, exactly 100 years after the Wright Brothers' historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The idea for the project was proposed by Princeton University scientists, who said that achieving the feat would have great scientific as well as historic value. "I don't know if your heart pumped as much as mine, but this is going to be an incredible achievement," NASA's Head Administrator Daniel S. Goldin told reporters. The idea was first proposed by Edgar Choueiri, assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University, in a May 1997 document he circulated among the faculty members of his department and some of his colleagues outside the university. Choueiri's idea was to commemorate the centennial of Orville and Wilbur Wright's first powered flight by flying an airplane in the Martian atmosphere around December 2003. His proposal called for a collaborative effort involving NASA, industry and academe to meet the challenge. Princeton's MAE department communicated Choueiri's idea to Goldin. While NASA had previously considered the idea of flying a plane on Mars, the Princeton proposal of linking such a flight to the Wright flight centennial gave a framework, a timeframe and a motive for such a mission. While the driving objective is to commemorate the centennial of one of the most momentous technological achievements in human history -- the realization of the millennia-old dream of sustained flight -- Choueiri stated in his proposal that such a challenging and ambitious mission would be replete with concrete benefits of great scientific, technological, educational and even historical value. The motivation for pursuing this potentially enthralling endeavor, he explained, stems from its capability to generate direct and spin-off benefits. Since the Martian atmosphere is devoid of air (it is mostly carbon dioxide), the term "airplane" is not very suitable. Instead, Choueiri calls the craft an "Aresplane," in reference to Ares, the Greek name for the god Mars. The challenge of flying the Aresplane stems from the fact that the Martian atmosphere is more than 100 to 150 times thinner than that of Earth at sea level. The difficulty of flight is only a little alleviated by the fact that gravity on Mars is about 2.6 times less that on Earth. The project would force researchers to urgently seek solutions for problems related to materials, airfoil design, dynamics and control and propulsion. These problems correspond to research areas in which Princeton's MAE department has made numerous contributions, and a few MAE professors have been discussing technical aspects of the mission since the idea was put forward in 1997. Aside from advances in related technologies, the project could lead to a better understanding of geological processes that shaped the red planet and its vast canyons. Scientific instruments on the Aresplane could examine the planet's surface with a resolution far exceeding that of orbiting spacecraft. The Princeton proposal noted that this would be the first time an airplane is flown outside our planet and as such it would be a felicitous, historic and, literally, a horizon-widening tribute to a century of flight as well as a resonating statement on the continuing vitality and importance of flight to our evolution. [NOTE: Images of the proposed Mars airplane are available at http://ccf.arc.nasa.gov/dx/basket/storiesetc/MARSPLpx.html] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: [MIT] Alumnus/astronaut Chang-Diaz describes missions, new propulsions Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Office Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Mass. WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1999 Alumnus/astronaut Chang-Diaz describes missions, new propulsion system research By John Tylko, Special to Tech Talk NASA astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz (ScD 1977), who has flown more space shuttle missions than any other MIT alumnus, discussed his work on a new propulsion system at a January 25 talk on campus. Dr. Chang-Diaz, a veteran of six shuttle missions, was a mission specialist on last June's STS-91 mission which tested the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), an investigation led by Professor Samuel Ting, a Nobel laureate and researcher at MIT's Laboratory for Nuclear Science. Dr. Chang-Diaz narrated a brief video overview of the flight, which also was the final Shuttle-Mir docking mission. During the mission, the ship's KU band antenna system failed to transmit data necessary for real-time calibration of the AMS experiment. He described the crew's in-flight maintenance procedure, which rerouted the AMS telemetry to the shuttle's S-band antenna system and allowed the AMS detector to be calibrated successfully from the ground. Dr. Chang-Diaz then presented a summary of his research on plasma rocket engines and the VASIMR (variable specific impulse magnetic resonance) propulsion system. This engine uses plentiful hydrogen fuel and ion cyclotron resonance heating to create ionized plasma, which is controlled using a nozzle based on a magnetic field. The three-stage plasma rocket engine can achieve variable specific impulse and thrust at maximum power and can be used to achieve continuous acceleration. This technology could serve as the primary propulsion system for a manned mission to Mars in the next century, perhaps as early as 2018, Dr. Chang-Diaz said. Such a mission could deliver both an unmanned cargo ship and a crew lander to Mars utilizing a fast trajectory made possible by the propulsion technology, reducing the flight time from Earth to Mars to 93 days outbound and 89 days for the return. Chemical rocket systems based on today's technology would require mission times of at least 10 months in each direction. He also presented a technology roadmap for the VASIMR concept which showed two technology paths, one based on ground testing at NASA's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory and the other based on a technology demonstration mission in space utilizing the Radiation Technology Demonstrator (RTD) spacecraft. This spacecraft would test an early version of the ionized plasma rocket engine utilizing helium fuel for flight safety reasons. Dr. Chang-Diaz received a doctorate in applied plasma physics from MIT in 1977 and became a NASA astronaut in 1981. He has accumulated over 1,269 hours in space; his record of six missions is matched by only two other NASA astronauts, Story Musgrave and John Young. His first space flight was STS 61-C in 1986 which was a satellite deployment mission. In 1989 he flew a mission which launched the Galileo spacecraft on its mission to Jupiter. He also flew two missions, one in 1992 and the other in 1996, which deployed the Tethered Satellite System. In 1994 he participated in STS-60, which was the first joint US/Russian space shuttle mission. While maintaining active flight status in the astronaut program, Dr. Chang-Diaz continued his research in rocket propulsion based on magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. From 1983-93, he was a visiting scientist at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center, where he led plasma propulsion research. In 1993, he became director of the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center, where he continues his research on plasma rockets. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Aerogel Rides Again Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Aerogel Rides Again Marshall Space Flight Center http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/msad05feb99_1.htm Launch of Stardust is latest adventure for "Frozen Smoke" February 5, 1999: Everything in the universe, from planets to the particles of your skin, is composed of star dust. But even though star dust is the clay from which all things are formed, actually going into space to capture a pure sample is not an easy task. Yet NASA plans to do just that, using a lightweight insulating material called aerogel. Composed of over 95 percent air, aerogel is the lightest man-made material on earth. And although aerogel will be used in the depths of space to conduct research in astrophysics, it has hundreds of down-to-earth applications, as well. To Catch a Falling Star This Saturday, NASA will launch Stardust, a spacecraft designed to sample and return material from the comet Wild 2. The comet travels a path from just outside Jupiter's orbit to just inside the orbit of Mars. Stardust will sweep through the comet's coma, the ball of gas surrounding the nucleus of the comet, at 136,000 miles per hour. NASA will use an aerogel "catcher's mitt" designed by Dr. Peter Tsou and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Rather than catch fly balls, this "mitt" will catch particles coming off the comet. After a 7-year journey, Stardust will return to Earth, dropping its newly obtained cargo onto the Utah desert. Because the comet originally came from the Oort cloud, which extends beyond the orbit of Pluto, the Stardust mission will bring back matter from the deepest recesses of our solar system. Passing through cometary debris, however, can be more dangerous than standing in front of a machine-gun. The particles coming off the comet will probably be smaller than grains of sand, but they will be hitting the aerogel at an extremely high velocity. This impact is so powerful that, with any substance other than aerogel, the particles would either vaporize upon impact or become so distorted that scientists couldn't study them. "I like to call this NASA's version of collecting bugs on the windshield," says Dr. David Noever, an aerogel researcher at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. "In actuality, aerogel is low enough density to collect the "bugs" without destroying them, even though the satellite will be traveling through the comet debris at 20 times the speed of a bullet. That's a soft touch." When the particles hit the aerogel, they will drill through the material, gradually slowing down, creating furrows that scientists will use to track the paths of the particles. Orange Jello, Lemon Jello, and Aero Jello? Aerogel is the result of a friendly wager between Dr. Steven Kistler and Dr. Charles Learned, two Stanford University scientists. They competed to see if one of them could replace the liquid inside a jelly jar with gas without causing any shrinkage. Kistler won the bet, and published his findings in a 1931 edition of the journal Nature. But the potential of aerogel didn't come to light until the 1960s and 70s, when many in the aerospace industry were trying to develop an extremely lightweight, heat-resistant material to put on airplanes and spacecraft. To illustrate the impossibility of ever developing such a material, some in the aerospace industry dubbed it "unobtainium." Modern silica aerogel starts as a liquid (mainly water, alcohol and silica), and then gels into something that looks like Jello. Just as Kistler replaced the liquid in jelly with gas without causing the jelly to shrink, the trick to making areogel is to dry the "aero-Jello" without collapsing it into a dense slab. This can be accomplished by exchanging the alcohol with liquid carbon dioxide, and then by removing the carbon dioxide at high pressure. "The whole process is not that different from how coffee is decaffeinated," comments Noever. The end result is "frozen smoke," one of the lightest solid materials known. Researchers are currently developing techniques to dry aerogel under normal atmospheric pressure. Although aerogel looks like it could float away, it has very high compression strength for its mass. "But aerogel is not really so much of interest as a structural material," says Noever. "The real clincher is its incredible insulating effects on any kind of energy transfer: thermal, electrical or acoustic. Aerogel can damp out almost any kind of energy." That's the primary reason aerogel was used as insulation on the Sojourner Mars rover in 1997. As night fell on Mars, the temperature dropped down to -67 C (-88 F). Although the temperature outside was colder than Antarctica in winter, it remained a balmy 21 C (70 F) inside the Rover, where sensitive electronics were protected from the hard freeze. The Rover performed spectacularly, gathering information on the surface of Mars for almost three months following the Pathfinder's landing on July 4. A Toast to Jelly Aerogel's superior insulation can be used down here on Earth, as well. Currently, a large portion of a home's heating bill literally goes out the window. A single one-inch thick windowpane of silica aerogel is equivalent to the insulation provided by 20 windowpanes of glass (R-20 insulation factor). Aerogel is such a good insulator that a house with aerogel windows could be kept warm and toasty by using only a fraction of the energy currently needed. Aerogel windows would help people save on their home heating bills,and subsequently would reduce the world-wide production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. So why aren't we currently using aerogel windows? First, because it is expensive to produce. Also, aeorgel is not perfectly transparent. Aerogel's slightly bluish cast presently makes it only practical for use in skylights or bathroom windows. According to Noever, "The holy grail of aerogel applications is transparent, superinsulating household windows." The problem lies in the size of the material's pores. Most of the pores in aerogel are too small to scatter visible light, but once in a while a few of the pores are larger. The larger pores scatter light as it passes through aerogel, and this creates the hazy appearance. It is thought that the elimination of these larger pores would result in an aerogel of better optical quality. NASA is developing techniques to produce a clearer aerogel. There is evidence that the pore irregularities are diminished when the substance is manufactured in the microgravity environment of space. Experiments on suborbital rockets have shown that producing aerogel in space can reduce the number of large pores that form. "But the rocket only offered 7 minutes of reduced gravity and the results are not yet conclusive," says Dr. Laurent Sibille of the Universities Space Research Association, working at NASA/Marshall. "That is why we are repeating these experiments on the Space Shuttle." Aerogel experiments were conducted on the recent STS-95 mission with Senator John Glenn, and are planned for the upcoming STS-93 mission, which will also launch the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. "The goal of our research is to establish the role of gravity in the manufacturing of materials and suggest Earth-based techniques to modulate or counter these effects," states Sibille. By finding out how gravity affects the production of aerogel, researchers can develop better ways to produce it down here on Earth. As progress continues, we can look forward to a future where the use of clear aerogel insulation will better our chances that neither hazy windows nor atmospheric pollution will cloud our view of the stars. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Pluto To Become Most Distant Planet Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Jane Platt (818) 354-0880 PLUTO TO BECOME MOST DISTANT PLANET What's the significance of February 11, 1999 for Pluto? On February 11, Pluto will move farther from the Sun than Neptune, regaining its status as the most distant planet in the solar system. JPL astronomers calculate that it will take place at 2:08 am Pacific Time. Pluto will maintain its title of "most distant planet" for the next 228 years. Neptune has been the farthest planet for the past 20 years (since February 7, 1979). Why is Pluto sometimes the farthest planet from the Sun, and other times the second-farthest planet from the Sun? Unlike the other planets in our solar system, Pluto has a highly elliptical orbit, completing its journey around the Sun every 248 years. Thus, Pluto's distance from the Sun varies. Most of the time, Pluto is the farthest planet from the Sun, but for a short time during its orbit, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. Any chance Pluto and Neptune will collide when their orbits cross on Feb. 11? No chance at all. Pluto goes around the Sun twice for every three times Neptune orbits the Sun. Because of this fact, Pluto and Neptune's positions relative to each other repeat every 497 years. They will never be close to each other when Pluto is crossing the same distance from the Sun as Neptune is, and therefore, a collision can't happen. The high inclination of Pluto's orbit relative to the other planets also contributes to keeping them apart. Why is there controversy about Pluto? In some ways, Pluto is different. It's much smaller than the four inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) and it doesn't fit in with the four gas giant outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). Pluto's diameter is 1, 430 miles, making it less than half the size of any other planet, and only two-thirds as big as Earth's Moon. Pluto's orbit is much more tilted and elliptical than the other planets. Some scientists believe Pluto should not be called a planet at all. They feel it should be put in the same category as Kuiper Disk objects, icy worlds smaller than Pluto that lie in the "same neighborhood" as Pluto and Neptune, and even beyond. These objects may be leftover debris from our solar system's early formation. But Pluto is spherical and it does orbit the Sun. Although this controversy has come up on occasion, Pluto is still classified as a planet. What else do we know about Pluto? Pluto was discovered on February 18, 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh, who studied photographic plates taken of the night sky through a Lowell Observatory telescope. Pluto's moon Charon was first found in 1978. Pluto is made from a mixture of rocky and icy material, and it appears to have seasonal changes, but we don't know much else about it. Does NASA plan further studies of Pluto? Observations from ground and orbiting telescopes will continue to glean some information from 4.5 billion kilometers' distance (about 2.8 billion miles). Detailed study requires a close-up look. A mission called Pluto-Kuiper Express, managed by JPL, would fly past Pluto and its moon Charon, and study Kuiper Disk objects. The mission would launch in 2004, and would take about ten years to reach its destination. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Bacteria Found From Earth Rocks Strongly Resemble Those Found In Marti Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ann Hutchison Johnson Space Center January 8, 1999 Houston, Texas (281) 483-5111 JSC RELEASE: J99-1 SCIENTISTS REPORT BACTERIA FROM EARTH ROCKS STRONGLY RESEMBLE THOSE FOUND IN MARTIAN METEORITE Bacteria grown in chambers that simulated natural growth conditions deep beneath the Earth's surface show remarkable similarities to features seen as signs of possible primitive life in a 4.5-billion-year-old Martian meteorite, according to a paper published by a NASA/Department of Energy/university research team. Some of the bacteria taken from deep underground in Washington state not only grew and reproduced in the laboratory chambers, but also died and became fossilized in only 8 weeks. Some of these terrestrial bacteria, as well as parts of bacteria called filaments, were mineralized (turned into fossils) and were very similar to some of the features previously interpreted as possible fossilized Martian organisms. "Some of the fossilized forms [grown in the laboratory experiments] are strikingly similar in size and shape to features we observed in 1996 in Martian meteorite ALH84001," said Kathie Thomas-Keprta. Keprta, of Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems and Services in Houston, is lead author of the article in the journal Geology. When a Johnson Space Center/Stanford University team reported two years ago that features in the meteorite might indicate ancient primitive life on Mars, the small sizes and shapes of the possible fossilized features drew considerable criticism because none had been reported previously from geologic sites on Earth. "The average sizes of the microorganisms found in the Washington state rocks are well within the range of sizes seen in terrestrial bacteria," said Dr. Everett Gibson, a NASA planetary scientist and member of the original team of investigators. The longest shapes identified as Martian fossils are approximately 1/25 the diameter of a human hair, similar in size to the Washington state bacteria. The authors contend that cell remnants in the 0.1 to 0.2 micron size range, which were produced when cells died and decayed, can be fossilized within rocky pools of water beneath the Earth's surface. A micron is 1-millionth of a meter. Some of these fossilized organisms appear to be hollow, because minerals were deposited on the outermost walls of the organisms. When the cell walls degrade they no longer are detectable, leaving a hollow structure consisting of minerals. The observation of mineralized fossils in underground pools on Earth may be relevant to Mars because early in the red planet's history there appears to have been abundant water on and beneath the surface. The 4.2-pound, potato- sized ALH84001 meteorite was dated to about 4.5 billion years, the period when Mars formed. The meteorite is believed to have originated beneath the Martian surface and to have been extensively fractured by impacts as meteorites bombarded the planets in the early inner solar system. Between 3.6 billion and 4 billion years ago, a time when it is generally thought the planet was warmer and wetter, water is believed to have penetrated fractures in the subsurface rock, possibly forming an underground water system. This underground Martian water system may have been the best location for life during much of Mars history. The Columbia River basalt of Washington state is an Earth example of life thriving at depth in fractured rock where it is isolated from light and protected from any harsh environment at the surface. As such, it may be a good example of possible life on Mars. The paper also reports that about 30 percent of the cells grown in the laboratory had attached appendages. In addition, there were filaments not attached to cells -- most likely bacterial appendages -- that were mineralized. The chemical composition of these unattached mineralized appendages -- much smaller than normal bacteria -- is nearly identical to the mineralized organisms. Johnson Space Center planetary scientist Dr. David McKay said this is the first time such tiny parts of bacteria are shown to become mineralized in a way identical to whole bacteria cells. "These mineralized parts may be found in the Earth's fossil record in the rocks, and should be searched for along with whole bacteria in ancient rocks," McKay said. Identifying biological features altered by the presence of minerals is important in determining whether specific features in terrestrial rocks and in meteorites may have a biological origin. "We believe we have clearly shown that features similar in size and morphology to those in the Martian meteorite do exist within the biological record on Earth," Thomas-Keprta said, although she said this does not prove definitively that the features in the meteorite are biological in origin. The researchers examined four types of bacteria grown on basalt rocks extracted from 1,640 feet (0.5 kilometers) within the Columbia River region in Washington state. Basalt is a type of volcanic rock typically found in lava flows, which means they formed at high temperatures too hot for bacteria to live on when the rocks formed. After extracting the bacteria-containing ground water and small rock chips, scientists cultured and grew bacteria on the rocks in the laboratory for two months or more. Conditions in the growth chambers simulated natural growth conditions far below the Columbia River area, which is a possible terrestrial model for a Martian subsurface ecosystem. "These experiments show that mineralization of biological material can occur in as few as eight weeks, parts or pieces of bacteria can become mineralized, cell walls are not necessarily preserved when bacteria become mineralized, and features too small to be bacteria may be parts of bacteria found in both the terrestrial and Martian rock record," Thomas-Keprta said. The range of sizes and shapes of the biological filaments on the Columbia River Basalt rocks overlaps with that found on the ALH84001 meteorite. "The findings support our belief that the Martian features may be mineralized remains of extremely tiny cells, or the mineralized filaments and appendages are from larger cells." Other scientists included Susan Wentworth and Dr. Carlton Allen, Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems and Services in Houston; Dr. Todd Stevens, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash.; Anne Taunton, University of Wisconsin Department of Geology, Madison; Dr. Annette Coleman, Brown University Biomedical Department, Providence, R.I.; and Dr. Christopher Romanek, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, S.C. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Meteor Impact In Barents Sea Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SINTEF (Foundation of Scientific and Industrial Research of the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Trondheim, Norway Contact at IKU: Atle M=F8rk Tel.: +47 73 59 11 63 E-mail: Atle.Mork@iku.sintef.no January 1999 Meteor impact in the Barents Sea By Christina B. Claussen Illustrations: IKU and SINTEF Graphic Centre Armageddon, the earth's meeting with a giant meteor, has been Hollywood's latest terror scenario and big money earner. But the phenomenon is real. During the summer, geologists from IKU Petroleum Research drilled into the center of a gigantic meteor crater in the Barents Sea. The "hole" is 40km in diameter and is evidence that a giant from the asteroid belt entered the earth's atmosphere and struck right off Norway's northern coast. The severe collision with a meteorite occurred about 150 million years ago and may have led to an extensive environmental catastrophe. Hollywood movies have certainly amply nourished our fantasies, but temperatures of around 10 000 degrees Celsius and flood waves which spread from Canada to Russia are hard to relate to. Mud, rock and materials from the sea floor were flung into the atmosphere in a violent inferno. When the enormous forces finally settled, it became cold and calm. Dust and particles created a carpet that blocked out the sunlight, and what followed is known as an atomic winter. The event had great effect on life on earth. Large parts of the organic life were affected. And the Mj=F8lnir Crater was created. Rare discovery The discovery of the crater in the Barents Sea was a coincidence. Norway's sea area is systematically mapped, using seismic registration in a continuous search for potential oil and gas reservoirs. It was in this way that the enormous formation, north of Hammerfest, was noticed. In the beginning, geologists thought it was an ordinary salt formation or submarine volcano. But certain indications meant that Steinar Gudlauggson, from the Department of Geology at the University of Oslo, had suspicions that this could be a very rare case. Geologists from IKU and the University of Oslo then put their heads together. Could it be a parallel to the often-mentioned Chicxulub Crater in Mexico, by many scientists regarded as responsible for the final extinction of the dinosaurs? A detailed and time-consuming project was implemented. IKU already operated in this very region and could loan a series of core samples from close to the crater to be analysed. After an extensive study of 400 000 quartz grains from the actual area, the work provided the answers. Some of the grains contained traces of shock deformation, a characteristic crackle in the species of rock that evidence that enormous forces had worked their way in. Traces of iridium were found, a rare element in the platina group that is far more common in objects from space than on the earth's surface. With two such clear indicators, the researchers could establish that they had found one of the world's seven marine meteor craters. Geological gem "If we take a look at the moon, all of the holes on the surface are craters of meteor impacts," says project leader Henning Dypvik of the University of Oslo. "That's actually how it is with the earth too, but rivers, mountains and vegetation gradually wipe out traces. "The Mj=F8lnir Crater is extremely well preserved because, to a large extent, the environment in the sea takes care of the layer of sedimentary rock on the sea floor. All the geological layers in and under a submarine meteor crater function as solid documentation on the earth's development over millions of years." At the end of August, the crater was drilled by a team from IKU. The 121m long core sample is described within the subject as a "geological gem". The Mj=F8lnir Crater is one of the few instances where both the crater and the displaced material were found and described. The crater and the sediment, therefore, carry unique information about the process and consequences of such an impact. Researchers from the project team of University of Olso, Vitenskapsmuseet (NTNU) and IKU will continue to uncover the crater's inner most secrets and will hopefully be able to tell us how life on earth survived being hit by a meteor 2km wide at a speed of 30 000 km/per hour. Gemini fakta * A meteor is a relatively large fragment from the asteroid belt. A meteor consists of minerals and metals and are different from comets which come from outer space and mainly consist of ice. * Meteorites fall on the earth daily. According to statistics, a meteorite 250m wide will hit earth creating a crater 5km wide about once every 10 000 years. * In all, man knows of 160 craters on the globe, but just seven of these are submarine. * The drilling of the Mj=F8lnir Crater was supported by Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Philips Petroleum Company (Norway), Saga Petroleum, Seateam and Statoil. IMAGE CAPTION: [http://www.oslo.sintef.no/gemini/1999-01/15.html] The seismic registrations shows the form and size of the crater. The diameter is 40 km and precise situation is 73 40=B4N, 20 40=B4E. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: New Mission Selected To Study Solar Irradiance Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Allen Kenitzer/Lynn Chandler Goddard Space Flight Center Feb. 5, 1999 Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-8955) RELEASE: 99-021 NEW MISSION SELECTED TO STUDY SOLAR IRRADIANCE A small, low-cost mission to study the Sun's solar radiation input to the Earth's atmosphere has been selected as part of the second phase of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The competitively selected science team will have full responsibility and authority to accomplish the mission. The Total Solar Irradiance Mission (TSIM), led by Dr. Gary Rottman, principal investigator, in the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics of the University of Colorado in Boulder, seeks to learn more about global climate change such as global warming. Total Solar irradiance is a basic research objective of NASA's Global Climate Change Program. "This exciting mission will cost-effectively fulfill a key requirement of NASA's Earth Observing System program," said Dr. Ghassem Asrar, Associate Administrator for the Earth Science Enterprise, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. "Monitoring total solar irradiance has been a science goal for more than a century. With TSIM, we'll continue NASA's 20 year research of monitoring solar radiance and further expand our scientific knowledge of global climate. In addition, TSIM will provide spectral measurements that will be used by the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System -- 'NPOESS.' NASA included these requirements in this mission in partnership with NPOESS to reduce development risks and demonstrate technologies that will enable the operational program to provide for the continuation of these measurements in the future," Asrar said. The TSIM team will be responsible for acquiring a mission spacecraft, for integrating the instruments and spacecraft, and for integrating the spacecraft with a government provided launch vehicle. In addition, the principal investigator, will be responsible for operating the spacecraft during the life of the mission. The total mission cost of TSIM to NASA is $22.8 million. The mission will have a design life of five years. TSIM will be launched in Dec. 2001. The spacecraft will be provided by the Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), Fairfax, Va., based on the ORBCOMM design. Responsibility and authority to implement the TSIM mission, with the exception of the launch services, rest with the mission team. The team has a large degree of freedom with limited NASA oversight. NASA, however, has three limitations that will constrain the TSIM design and development in order to meet program goals. The first is a time constraint limiting mission definition and development times. The TSIM is expected to be ready for launch in 36 months. Second, is a budget constraint -- NASA expects the principal investigator to complete the mission, excluding launch costs, for under $22.8 million. The final constraint is that all of the mission objectives must be accomplished. Programmatic oversight is being provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., for the Office of Earth Science enterprise, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The TSIM project is part of NASA's Earth Observing System program -- a key element in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term, coordinated research enterprise designed to study the Earth as a global environmental system. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Vast Stellar Disks Set Stage For Planet Birth In New Hubble Images Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Don Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC February 9, 1999 (Phone: 202/358-1547) Nancy Neal Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-0039) Ray Villard Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (Phone: 410/338-4514) RELEASE: 99-10 VAST STELLAR DISKS SET STAGE FOR PLANET BIRTH IN NEW HUBBLE IMAGES Dramatic pictures of eerie disks of dust encircling young stars are giving astronomers a new look at what may be the early formative stages of planetary systems. Although these pictures from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope don't show planets, the edge-on disks seen by Hubble provide some of the clearest views to date of potential planetary construction zones, say researchers. The images also offer a peek at what happened 4.5 billion years ago when the Earth and other planets in our Solar System began to condense out of a pancake-like disk of dust and gas centered on the young Sun. Although more than a dozen possible extrasolar planets have been discovered (though not imaged) over the past few years, astronomers lack detailed pictures of environments around newborn stars where planets form. Even in nearby star-forming regions, circumstellar disks are hard to see largely because the glare of the central star overpowers the feeble reflected light from the disk. An exception occurs when the disk is close to edge-on, eclipsing the infant sun. "While the existence of these disks has been known from prior infrared and radio observations, the Hubble images reveal important new details such as a disk's size, shape, thickness, and orientation," said Deborah Padgett of Caltech's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA. Padgett's group used Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi- Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) to peer through obscuring dust clouds surrounding six extremely young stars 450 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Evidence for dusty disks was found in all six, in the form of dark bands (dust lanes) crossing bright areas around each star. The presumed disks have sizes 8-16 times the diameter of Neptune's orbit. "The NICMOS images show dark clumps and bright streamers above and below the dust lanes, suggesting that raw material is still falling into these disks and driving outflowing jets of gas from the forming stars," Padgett said. Padgett's results are reported in a paper to appear in the March 1999 issue of The Astronomical Journal. Another group using Hubble has taken extremely sharp visible- light pictures of disks in the same region. John Krist of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, found that the young star Haro 6-5B is actually a small nebula crossed by a dust lane 10 times the size of Neptune's orbit. Karl Stapelfeldt of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, used Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 to spot the first example of an edge-on disk in a young double star system. This disk is centered on the system's faint companion star, and has a diameter of only 3.5 times the diameter of Neptune's orbit. "The Hubble images of this disk offer further evidence that planet formation should be possible in binary star systems," said Stapelfeldt. Theory suggests that gravitational forces in binary star systems tend to tear apart fragile planet-forming disks. Fitting theoretical models to the color and reflectivity of the dust in the disks observed, the team found evidence the dust grains were larger than those found in interstellar space, suggesting that the dust is clumping together and beginning to make larger bodies. Computer modeling of the Hubble images makes it possible to estimate how much material is available in these disks to form planets. These estimates show the disks are about 1/200th to 1/10,000th the mass of the Sun (by comparison, the combined mass of the planets in Earth's Solar System today is about 1/1,000th of the Sun's mass). Only Hubble and the new generation of telescopes with adaptive optics are able to see visible and near-infrared light evidence of objects as small as our solar system around young stars in the nearest stellar nurseries in the constellation Taurus. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) for NASA, under contract with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). - end - EDITOR'S NOTE: Images and photo captions associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/05 or via links in: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html Higher resolution digital versions (300 dpi JPEG) of the release photos are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/05. TIFF image files are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/tiff/1999/9905.tif. * * * Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Iran to test space rocket engine today Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TEHRAN, Feb 7 (AFP) - Iran announced on Sunday that it is to test the motor for a new space rocket, just six months after the successful launch of a medium-range missile sparked concern in the United States and key regional ally Israel. The test will be carried out by the armed forces on Tuesday, just two days before 20th anniversary of the Islamic revolution which overthrew the pro-Western shah, Defence Minister Ali Shamkhani told a news conference here. But he swiftly added that the rocket, dubbed the Shahab-4, "has no military use and will be not be produced on a large scale." Last July Iran successfully launched the Shahab-3 missile, with a range of 1,300 kilometres (800 miles), prompting acute fears in the United States and its main regional ally Israel which lies within the missile's range. "With the Shahab-3 we attained our objectives and have no need to manufacture missiles of similar range," Admiral Shamkhani insisted. "We have the right to have our own satellite and launcher," he said, adding that Iran had achieved its "the deterrent capability it wanted with the Shahab-3 missile and had no need for new missile launchers of greater range." Shamkhani said that the Shahab-3, which is currently on display at an anniversary exhibition of military equipment at the capital's international fair ground, had given Iran a "real deterrent punch." "Thanks to this deterrent punch, Israeli leaders have sharply reduced their threats and hostile language against Iran," he said. But Shamkhani went out of his way to stress that the missile was not meant as a deterrent against any other country in the region. "Our missiles are no threat to any Islamic country -- we made quite clear that the Shahab-3 would never be used against Moslem territory," Shamkhani said. The defence minister said that one test firing of the Shahab-4 rocket motor had already been carried out, but said it had not been a success because of a "mechanical problem." He insisted that the missiles had been developed entirely with Iranian technology, rejecting persistent reports that the programme was dependent on North Korean technology. He did not specify the nature of the satellite Iran intended to put into space although late last month parliament approved a budget appropriation for the launch of telecommunications satellites. MPs authorised up to 300 million dollars of foreign loans during the coming financial year starting March 21 to pay for the purchase and launch of a telecommunications satellite. The borrowing was approved even though most other items of government expenditure were sharply cut as part of an austerity package intended to tackle a mounting economic crisis here sparked by a sharp fall in the price of Iran's main export oil. Throughout the past decade, Iran has been trying to develop its own telecommunications satellite. Work started during the 1990s on a satellite dubbed the Zohreh, but technical and financial problems prevented completion of the project. Israel has expressed great concern over Iran's missile and rocket programme and with US help is currently developing the Arrow-2 anti-missile missile to counter the perceived threat. Both French defence officials and independent analysts had expressed doubt about the progress of Iran's missile programme, questioning whether the Shahab-3 missile was really yet fully operational. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Adopts Idea to Mark Wright Brothers' Centennial With Mars Airplan Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Office of Communications Stanhope Hall Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5264 Telephone 609-258-3601; Fax 609-258-1301 Contact: Justin Harmon 609/258-5732 Date: February 5, 1999 NASA Adopts Princeton Professor's Idea to Mark Wright Brothers' Centennial with Airplane Flight on Mars PRINCETON, N.J. -- NASA announced this week it will pursue a project that will culminate in a flight of an airplane in the thin atmosphere of Mars on December 17, 2003, exactly 100 years after the Wright Brothers' historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The idea for the project was proposed by Princeton University scientists, who said that achieving the feat would have great scientific as well as historic value. "I don't know if your heart pumped as much as mine, but this is going to be an incredible achievement," NASA's Head Administrator Daniel S. Goldin told reporters. The idea was first proposed by Edgar Choueiri, assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University, in a May 1997 document he circulated among the faculty members of his department and some of his colleagues outside the university. Choueiri's idea was to commemorate the centennial of Orville and Wilbur Wright's first powered flight by flying an airplane in the Martian atmosphere around December 2003. His proposal called for a collaborative effort involving NASA, industry and academe to meet the challenge. Princeton's MAE department communicated Choueiri's idea to Goldin. While NASA had previously considered the idea of flying a plane on Mars, the Princeton proposal of linking such a flight to the Wright flight centennial gave a framework, a timeframe and a motive for such a mission. While the driving objective is to commemorate the centennial of one of the most momentous technological achievements in human history -- the realization of the millennia-old dream of sustained flight -- Choueiri stated in his proposal that such a challenging and ambitious mission would be replete with concrete benefits of great scientific, technological, educational and even historical value. The motivation for pursuing this potentially enthralling endeavor, he explained, stems from its capability to generate direct and spin-off benefits. Since the Martian atmosphere is devoid of air (it is mostly carbon dioxide), the term "airplane" is not very suitable. Instead, Choueiri calls the craft an "Aresplane," in reference to Ares, the Greek name for the god Mars. The challenge of flying the Aresplane stems from the fact that the Martian atmosphere is more than 100 to 150 times thinner than that of Earth at sea level. The difficulty of flight is only a little alleviated by the fact that gravity on Mars is about 2.6 times less that on Earth. The project would force researchers to urgently seek solutions for problems related to materials, airfoil design, dynamics and control and propulsion. These problems correspond to research areas in which Princeton's MAE department has made numerous contributions, and a few MAE professors have been discussing technical aspects of the mission since the idea was put forward in 1997. Aside from advances in related technologies, the project could lead to a better understanding of geological processes that shaped the red planet and its vast canyons. Scientific instruments on the Aresplane could examine the planet's surface with a resolution far exceeding that of orbiting spacecraft. The Princeton proposal noted that this would be the first time an airplane is flown outside our planet and as such it would be a felicitous, historic and, literally, a horizon-widening tribute to a century of flight as well as a resonating statement on the continuing vitality and importance of flight to our evolution. [NOTE: Images of the proposed Mars airplane are available at http://ccf.arc.nasa.gov/dx/basket/storiesetc/MARSPLpx.html] Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Первым астронавтом Европейского космического агентства Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Первым астронавтом Европейского космического агентства на Международной космической станции станет Умберто Гуидони Астронавт Европейского космического агентства итальянец Умберто Гуидони (Umberto Guidoni) станет первым европейцем на Международной космической станции (МКС). Гуидони - астрофизик по специальности. Он будет участвовать в миссии STS-102, старт которой намечен на апрель 2000 г. Этот "шаттл" доставит на Международную космическую станцию 10 тонн оборудования. Груз будет впервые доставлен на станцию в специально разработанном Многофункциональном грузовом модуле (Multipurpose Logistics Module, MPLM), монтируемом в грузовом отсеке "шаттла". Этот модуль, получивший название Leonardo, станет первым из трех таких грузовиков, которые планируется отправить на МКС. Когда "шаттл" состыкуется с МКС, модуль Leonardo будет извлечен из его грузового отсека с помощью робота-манипулятора и пристыкован к другому порту МКС, после чего астронавты произведут разгрузку Leonardo. Потом Leonardo будет помещен обратно в грузовой отсек "шаттла" и отправлен на Землю. Это будет второй космический полет Умберто Гуидони, первый он совершил на "шаттле" в феврале-марте 1996 г. (миссия STS-75/TSS-1R). Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Boeing и Lockheed Martin выиграли контракт Пентагона на разработку Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Boeing и Lockheed Martin выиграли контракт Пентагона на разработку космического лазера для новой системы ПРО Три американских аэрокосмических концерна, включая Boeing и Lockheed Martin, выиграли контракт Пентагона стоимостью 125 млн дол. на разработку проекта боевого космического лазера для использования в создаваемой в США новой системе противоракетной обороны. В сообщении, распространенном пресс-службой министерства обороны США, говорится, что контракт рассчитан на период до февраля 2000 года и что к этому времени три аэрокосмических концерна, сформировавших для проекта отдельную совместную компанию, должны будут создать для Пентагона технологический прототип космического лазера, необходимый для "проверки концепции" всего проекта. Согласно опубликованным данным, общая стоимость проекта по созданию размещаемого на космической орбите боевого лазера достигает 3 млрд дол. и объявленный во вторник контракт является лишь его первой очередью, призванной выяснить практическую возможность создания и вероятную эффективность подобного оружия. Размещение в космосе лазерного оружия для поражения баллистических ракет запрещено российско-американским Договором о ПРО от 1972 года, и реализация данного проекта Пентагона за рамками чисто теоретических исследований может считаться нарушением этого документа. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космический телескоп Hubble обнаружил диски из пыли в созвездии Тельца Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Космический телескоп Hubble обнаружил диски из пыли в созвездии Тельца [SpaceViews] Hовые изображения 6 молодых звезд в созвездии Тельца, полученные с помощью космического телескопа Hubble, позволили разглядеть существование в их окрестности пылевых дисков. Это может быть доказательством существования у этих звезд планетных систем. Все эти звезды находятся на расстоянии порядка 450 световых лет от Земли. Съемка производилась с помощью инфракрасной камеры с использованием спектрографа. Hа всех шести снимках видны темные полосы, которые можно интерпретировать как след от пылевого диска, окружающего звезду. Хотя существование таких дисков было подтверждено более ранними наблюдениями, телескоп Hubble позволил определить более подробные характеристики этих пылевых дисков - их размер, форму, толщину и ориентацию. Диаметр всех этих дисков составляет от 80 до 130 млрд км. Из таких дисков могут образовываться планеты, но на изображениях не видно никаких доказательств того, что этот процесс действительно происходит. Массы этих пылевых дисков составляют от 1/200-ой до 1/10000-ой доли массы Солнца. Следует отметить, что масса всех планет Солнечной системы в 1000 раз меньше массы Солнца. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 11 февраля 1999 (1999-02-11) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hubble обнаружил диски из пыли (картинка) [1/3] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 3 of file sv-02101.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-02101.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`@$`9`!D``#__@`F1FEL92!W<FET=&5N(&)Y($%D;V)E M(%!H;W1O<VAO<*@@-2XR_^X`#D%D;V)E`&2``````?_;`(0`"`8&!@8&"`8& M"`P(!P@,#@H("`H.$`T-#@T-$!$,#`P,#`P1#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P, M#`P,#`P,#`P,#`$)"`@)"@D+"0D+#@L-"PX1#@X.#A$1#`P,#`P1$0P,#`P, M#!$,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,#`P,_\``$0@!#`&0`P$B``(1 M`0,1`?_=``0`&?_$`,(````'`0`````````````````!`@,$!08'`0`#`0$! 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