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    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [1/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S Issue 1999.02.01 1999 February 1 http://www.spaceviews.com/1999/02/ *** News *** Russian Government Extends Life of Mir NASA Confirms New Service Module Delay Pluto Classification Debate Heats Up Athena Launches, Delta and Atlas Delayed Agreement Clears Way for Globalstar Launches Astronomers Get Unprecedented Look at Gamma-Ray Burst Five Space Science Missions Selected for Study SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Articles *** Vanguard and Its Legacy *** News *** Russian Government Extends Life of Mir The Russian government issued a decree Friday, January 22, extending the life of the Mir space station from mid-1999 until 2002 if commercial sponsors can be found, the Russian news agency Itar-Tass reported. The decree, signed by Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov, calls for the station to continue operating using private funds, rather than the government funds that currently support station operations. "If Energiya can find non-budgetary money, or putting it bluntly, sponsors, then the Mir station will continue to exist," Alexander Botvinko, deputy head of the Russian Space Agency, told Reuters. "If they don't find the money, then we'll follow the plan [to deorbit the station this summer] that was earlier approved." In December, officials from Energia, the company that operates Mir for the Russian Space Agency, announced that private investors had been found to continue operating the station for three more years. However, the identity of the investors was not revealed then or at any time since then. "We have a preliminary agreement that a contract could be signed but our partner had requested that the government first approve this resolution," an Energia spokesman, who also said the partner was a foreign firm, told Reuters. "Now that the resolution has come out, that question has been removed." Energia president Yuri Semionov said at the time that the identity of the investors would remain secret until the Russian government approved investment guarantees for the station. It's not clear whether Primakov's decree includes such guarantees. Speculation in online discussion groups and mailing lists has focused on China, which is currently developing its own manned space program using some Russian hardware. Access to Mir, some claim, could give the Chinese manned program a jump start and give it experience for a possible later role with the International Space Station. While American reaction to plans to extend Mir's life have been lukewarm, at best, one organization has openly endorsed the move. The Space Frontier Foundation (SFF) issued a press release January 27 calling on NASA and the U.S. government to support the decision. "If Russia finds commercial means to keep Mir in orbit, the U.S. will achieve its originally stated goal for working with them to build the International Space Station," claimed SFF president Rick Tumlinson. "It keeps their space team intact, paid, and in Russia. It will mean fresh cash flow for their hard-pressed high technology sector, and can also act as a test case for commercialization of human space activities -- something NASA says it wants to do with ISS." A replacement Mir crew of Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev and guest cosmonauts Jean-Pierre Heignere of France and Ivan Bella of Slovakia are scheduled to launch February 20. Afanasyev and Heignere will remain on Mir while Bella returns with current Mir commander Gennady Padalka. Afanasyev, Heignere, and current Mir flight engineer Sergei Avdeyev, who will remain on Mir during the crew change, were scheduled to remain on Mir through June if Mir was deorbited in July as planned. However, when the launch date was announced last week, Russian officials said the three-man crew would stay on through August, a six-month mission. While the debate continues, the current Mir crew has been busy on the station working on experiments and station maintainence. February 3 they plan to deploy the Zmanya-2.5 experiment, a 25-meter (82-foot) mylar space mirror that will test the ability to focus sunlight on dark regions of the Earth. NASA Confirms New Service Module Delay A key NASA official confirmed Friday, January 29, that the launch of oft-delayed Service Module for the International Space Station will be delayed an additional two months, despite Russian claims to the contrary. Gretchen McClain, NASA deputy associate administrator for space station, told Reuters that the scheduled July launch date for the Russian-built Service Module will be pushed back until September. "To date, they are behind schedule," she said, noting that the delay impacts current plans, but "that does not mean we cannot make up time to 'assembly complete.'" The statement contradicts states by a Russian Space Agency spokesman, who said there were no plans to delay the Service Module launch. "We have no information that it may be postponed," Konstantin Kreidenko told the Associated Press. Rumors of another service module delay had been growing for several weeks. Earlier in January, the Houston Chronicle reported that the launch of the Service Module might be pushed back because of delays testing the module. The launch of the service module has been postponed by more than a year from its original spring 1998 launch date. Slowdowns in the assembly of the module, caused by funding shortfalls in Russia, pushed back the launch of the module first to December 1998, then again to April and then July of this year. The module is a key component of the space station, providing living quarters, life support, and command and control systems critical for the early stages of the space station, until specialized modules are added later in the assembly. The Service Module also provides a reboost capability to the space station to counteract the delay of the station's orbit caused by atmospheric drag. NASA has discussed building another module, the Interim Control Module, to serve this function on the station if the Service Module continues to be delayed. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [2/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Pluto Classification Debate Heats Up Traveling in an orbit that keeps it several billion kilometers away from the Sun, Pluto is one of the coldest bodies in our solar system. However, the debate on how it should be classified -- planet, Kuiper Belt object, or both -- has generated a lot of heat on Earth. The debate on Pluto's status turned up a notch earlier this week, when the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society issued a statement calling upon the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the arbiter of planetary nomenclature, to not issue a minor planet number to Pluto. "This action would undoubtedly be viewed by the broader scientific community and the general public as a 'reclassification' of Pluto from a major planet to a minor planet," the DPS governing committee said. "We feel that there is little scientific or historical justification for such an action." Media attention in the last few weeks has focused on the possibility that the IAU would issue a minor planet number, the same as those given to asteroids, to Pluto. The number 10,000, due to be assigned in the next few weeks, has been considered as a likely number for Pluto. Most media stories have emphasized that such a move would "demote" Pluto from planet status. However, the move would in fact give Pluto a kind of "dual citizenship" as a major and minor planet, and not revoke its planet status. "There is no plan to 'downgrade' or 'demote' Pluto," said Brian Marsden of the IAU's Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. "It will stay as a planet." "Extensive media reporting on this issue, both print and electronic over the last ten days, has varied from excellent to abysmal," said Michael F. A'Hearn, a University of Maryland astronomer and head of the IAU committee discussing Pluto's classification. Proponents of the move say it would recognize the fact that Pluto more closely resembles a class of outer solar system bodies known as Trans-Neptunian or Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Pluto's small size, its distant, eccentric, inclined orbit, and its icy surface are more like other KBOs than planets. Complicating the matter is that there is no universal definition of a planet. Many ad hoc definitions have been proposed, usually to include or exclude Pluto or some asteroids, but none is accepted by the IAU. "Debating the dividing line between planet and minor planet, or asteroid, is like debating the dividing line between city and town, river and stream," noted David Tholen, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii. Some astronomers believe the debate itself is unhealthy to the field. "This situation is harmful to our profession and will become more so if not put quickly to rest," Don Yeomans, a JPL scientist serving as chairman of the DPS, said in a letter to DPS members. "The public is confused, acrimonious rifts are being created within our community and many of our colleagues are being diverted from productive work to counter what they perceive to be an alarming and unnecessary crisis." To that end, University of Arizona astronomer Mark Sykes created an online petition at http://www.treefort.org/pluto/ calling on the IAU to abandon plans to give Pluto a minor planet number. As of late Friday, January 29, over 150 professional astronomers and members of the general public had signed the petition. An informal, nonscientific poll on the SpaceViews Web site showed that nearly two-thirds of those responding thought that Pluto should retain its classification as solely a planet. The remainder were evenly split between dual status for Pluto or designating Pluto as solely a KBO. The IAU has given no timeline for any decision it will make about Pluto's classification. However, for symbolic purposes a decision may come on or around February 11, the day Pluto regains its status as most distant planet in the solar system, or March 13, the date the discovery of the planet was announced 69 years ago. Athena Launches, Delta and Atlas Delayed A Lockheed Martin Athena 1 rocket launched a Taiwanese satellite in late January while weather and technical problems delayed Atlas and Delta launch attempts. The Athena 1 lifted off at 7:34 pm EST Tuesday, January 26 (0034 UT January 27) from Launch Complex 46, operated by the Spaceport Florida Authority. The launch took place on time, and no problems were reported with the launch, which carried the ROCSAT-1 satellite into orbit. ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1) is the first satellite in Taiwan's fledgling civilian space program. The spacecraft, built in conjunction with TRW, is designed to give the Taiwanese aerospace industry experience with building satellites. The satellite carries several space physics, oceanography, and communications experiments. The launch was the third launch for the Athena 1 (previously known as the Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle and the Lockheed Launch Vehicle.) An Athena 1, then known as the LMLV-1, launched the Lewis satellite for NASA in 1997, but the satellite failed shortly after reaching orbit for reasons unrelated to the launch. An LLV-1 failed in its inaugural launch in 1995. The launch of a Boeing Delta 2 was aborted seconds before liftoff early Thursday, January 28, when the one of the booster's vernier engines failed to ignite. With the weather cooperating for the first time in two weeks, prospects for the Delta launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base at 5:44 am EST (1044 UT) looked good. However, the countdown was aborted with less than two seconds before liftoff when a problem with the rocket prevented one of the vernier engines, used for steering, from starting up. The problem is expected to delay the launch by at least 10 days, and perhaps further, because of conflicts with a Delta 2 launch of NASA's Stardust mission, currently scheduled for February 6 from Cape Canaveral. A Lockheed Martin Atlas 2AS was scheduled to lift off at 7:44 pm EST Sunday, January 31, (0044 UT Feb. 1) carrying the JCSAT-6 communications satellite for Japan. However, clouds, rain, and high winds forced launch controllers to postpone the launch. The launch has been rescheduled for Monday evening, February 1, at the same time. However, Air Force meteorologists are predicting only a 30 percent chance of acceptable launch conditions Monday. Weather conditions are forecast to improve by Tuesday, though. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [3/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Agreement Clears Way for Globalstar Launches A technology safeguards agreement signed in Moscow Tuesday, January 26, has cleared the way for Globalstar to begin an aggressive schedule of launches to complete its constellation of low-Earth orbit communications satellites by the end of the year. Representatives from the United States, Russia, and Kazakhstan, including U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, signed the Technology Safeguards Agreement (TSA) during the secretary's visit to Moscow Tuesday. The agreement enacts safeguards to protect sensitive American technology launched on Russian rockets from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. "The agreement does not replace or circumvent our strict case-by-case approval procedures for Russian launches of American satellites," Albright said, "but it will allow us to resume space launch cooperation that is consistent with our non-proliferation objectives." Albright called the agreement "a plus for all three of our countries." Lack of an agreement had prevented American companies from launching their satellites on Russian boosters. This impacted a number of companies, notably Globalstar, who planned on using several Russian launches to loft its constellation of low-Earth orbit comsats. "We're pleased that the TSA is now in place," said Globalstar chairman and CEO Bernard Schwartz. "This allows us to resume our launch campaign with our first Soyuz launch." Shortly after the agreement was signed, Globalstar announced an ambitious launch schedule designed to launch 44 satellites between February and the end of the year. The first launch, scheduled for no later than mid-February, will launch four Globalstar satellites from Baikonur on a Soyuz booster and Ikar upper stage. Globalstar then plans three more Soyuz-Ikar launches, each carrying four satellites, through April. Three Delta 2 launches, each carrying four satellites, will follow from May through August. Globalstar then plans two more Soyuz-Ikar launches in September and October and two more Delta 2 launches in November and December. The 11 launches, along with the eight existing Globalstar satellites launched on Delta 2's last year, will put 48 operational satellites in orbit plus four on-orbit spares. If all goes as scheduled, Globalstar will have 36 satellites in orbit by the summer, enough to begin limited commercial service. Globalstar announced earlier in January that it had signed a contract for seven Delta 2 launches in 1999 and 2000, two more than announced Tuesday. It's unclear whether the additional launches will not be used, or will be reserved for future launches of replacement spacecraft. Globalstar also has a contract for a September 1999 Ariane 4 launch, capable of placing six Globalstar satellites into orbit. The company says it will use the launch only if it needs the additional capacity. Otherwise, the launch will be given to Loral for another satellite. Globalstar plans to use its satellites to provide a global phone service similar to Iridium, which has been operational since November. Globalstar promises superior signal quality and the capability for fax, data, and messaging services using its system. Astronomers Get Unprecedented Look at Gamma-Ray Burst A network of satellites and telescopes have given astronomers their best look yet at a gamma-ray burst (GRB), including the first look at the visible-light portion of the burst, NASA announced Wednesday, January 27. The frenzy of activity began at approximately 4:47 am EST (0947 UT) Saturday, January 23, when the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory detected a GRB. The data was sent to the Goddard Space Flight Center immediately, triggering an automated alert. Within seconds, a groundbased telescope, the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE), located in Los Alamos, New Mexico, swung into action. Just 22 seconds after the burst was detected the telephoto leses on ROTSE captured a visible-light image of the region of the sky where the burst had been detected. ROTSE continued to capture images as a bright star suddently appeared in the field, peaking at magnitude 8.9, only 15 times dimmer than the naked-eye limit. "I was amazed," said Carl Akerlof of the University of Michigan, who leads the ROTSE team. "At best, we expected something really dim optically, at the limit of our sensitivity. Instead we found a whopper." Followup observations continued at larger telescopes as the optical burst dimmed. Three hours after the burst was detected, Caltech astronomers observed the burst using the 1.5-meter (60-inch) telescope at Palomar Observatory. Their images confirmed the precise location of the burst that was provided by the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite, which also recorded gamma-rays from the burst. The following night, astronomers used the Keck II telescope in Hawaii to obtain spectra of the fading optical burst. From the spectra, they found that the burst had a redshift of 1.6, corresponding to a distance of about 10 billion light-years. "If the burst had occurred somewhere in our galactic neighborhood, it would have been so bright that night would've turned into day," said Chryssa Kouveliotou of Universities Space Research Association at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The source of the GRB is not yet known. The Caltech astronomers located a galaxy near the location of the GRB in pre-burst images, but now believe that the galaxy is closer to the Earth than the burst. Astronomers hailed the coordinated efforts that yielded a treasure trove of data that may help scientists understand what generates GRBs and how. "This discovery demonstrates the power of multiple spacecraft and ground-based instruments working together via the Internet to solve some of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics," said BATSE chief scientist Jerry Fishman. One of the recent finalists for NASA's medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) space science missions is the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer, which would use ultraviolet/visible-light, X-ray, and gamma-ray telescopes to detect GRBs. Gamma-ray bursts may be caused by mergers of two neutron stars or black holes, or the explosion of a class of supernova known as a hypernova. GRBs, whose powerful gamma rays can be lethal at distances of tens of thousands of light years, have been implicated as one reason why extraterrestrial civilizations have not yet been detected. Five Space Science Missions Selected for Study Five proposals for low-cost space science missions that would study everything from the Earth's aurorae to distant gamma-ray bursts have been selected by NASA for future study, the space agency announced Tuesday, January 26. The five mission proposals are part of NASA's medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) program of low-cost space science missions. Each project will receive $350,000 to conduct a four-month feasibility study, after which NASA will select two of the missions for flight in 2003 and 2004. "Once launched, these missions will provide insights into some of the biggest questions in space science," Ed Weiler, NASA associate administrator for space science, said. He also noted that the missions "continue NASA's trend toward greatly lowering mission costs with innovative mission planning and operations." The MIDEX program is similar to the Discovery Program in that it emphasizes low-cost science missions. But while Discovery missions are planetary in nature, MIDEX missions span a wide range of physics and astronomy projects. In addition, MIDEX projects have a strict cost cap of $140 million, while Discovery missions have a development cost cap of $190 million and total mission cost of no more than $299 million. The five mission proposals are: * The Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission (AMM), which would fly four identical spacecraft in polar, elliptical orbits to study the interaction between the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and how that leads to the formation of aurorae; * The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer (ASCE), an orbiting solar observatory that would study the Sun's corona and solar wind with coronagraphs 100 times better that existing instruments. The spacecraft would be launched on the shuttle and retrieved two years later; * The Next Generation Sky Survey (NGSS), an infrared telescope 1,000 times more sensitive than previous missions. The spacecraft would be capable of discovering any brown dwarf stars near the Sun as well as all asteroids more than about three km (two mi.) in diameter in the main asteroid belt; * The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME), which would determine the precise position of 40 million stars in the Milky Way. Such measurements would provide accurate distances to half the objects in the Milky Way, be able to detect planetary systems around stars as far as 1,000 light-years away based on their wobble, and set limits on the amount of dark matter around the galaxy; * The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer, a three-telescope spacecraft that would be able to measure the position, brightness, and physical properties of gamma-ray bursts to a degree not currently possible. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [4/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SpaceViews Event Horizon February TBD Delta 2 launch of the Argos, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites from Vandenberg AFB, California February TBD Proton launch of the Telstar-6 communications satellite from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. February 1 Atlas 2AS launch of the JCSAT-6 communications satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 7:44 pm EST (0044 UT Feb. 1) February 6 Delta 2 launch of NASA's Stardust cometary dust sample return mission at 4:07 pm EST (2107 UT) from Cape Canaveral, Florida February 9-10 FAA Commercial Space Transportation Forecast Conference, Washington, DC February 20 Soyuz launch of Soyuz TM-29 spacecraft with Mir relief crew from Baikonur, Kazakhstan February 26 Ariane 4 launch of the Arabsat-3A and Skynet-4E comsats at from Kourou, French Guiana. Other News Ariane, Proton Delays: Upcoming launches of the Ariane 4 and Proton boosters have been delayed. A problem with a computer on the fourth stage of a Proton booster delayed its planned late-January launch, pushing the launch date back no more than 30 days. It will launch the Telstar 6 satellite for Loral. An Ariane 4 launch of Arab and British satellites, scheduled for early February, was pushed back last week when problems were found with actuators that control the rocket's engine nozzles. The launch of the Arabsat 3A and Skynet 4E satellites has been delayed to February 26. More Chandra Testing: Engineers will spend an additional week testing critical circuit boards on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ("Chandra") spacecraft, NASA announced Wednesday, January 27. The extra time will be used to test potentially-faulty circuit boards to conditions equal to three times the estimated lifetime of Chandra, instead of two times, as previously planned. TRW discovered the problem last week when tests of another spacecraft that used similar circuit boards showed problems related to poor conductivity between layers of the board. The previously-announced one-week delay had already pushed the launch back from early April to at least mid-May, although if no further work is needed no further delays should be needed. SpaceDev Contract: SpaceDev has won a contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study designs for small, versatile Mars spacecraft, the company announced Monday, January 25. The two-month contract, awarded to SpaceDev's Integrated Space Systems (ISS) subsidiary, will study the possible development of a microspacecraft bus that could be used as a science or communications orbiter or as a carrier for landers for possible future Mars missions. The contract award is the second deal in as many months between SpaceDev and JPL. In December the company contracted with JPL to begin work planning to acquire time on NASA's Deep Space Network for SpaceDev's centerpiece project, the Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) spacecraft. Progress for Europa, Mars Express: The European Space Agency (ESA) made decisions last month to continue work on two major planetary science missions, although funding for one of them is not yet certain. A meeting of scientists and engineers January 14 and 15 concluded that ESA's Rosetta mission was making "excellent progress." ESA has given the project approval to enter "Phase C/D", the phase of development where the spacecraft is constructed and readied for launch. Rosetta, one of ESA's most ambitious missions, will fly to the comet Wirtanen and go into orbit around the object, while dropping a lander to the surface of the comet's nucleus, and is scheduled for a 2003 launch. The Mars Express project got funding to support a "Phase B" study of the proposed Mars orbiter and lander mission. The Phase B work will be carried out by Matra Marconi Space. A decision on full funding for the project will not come until a meeting of ministers from ESA's member nations, scheduled for May. Million-Dollar Astronomers: Two astronomers seeking to understand the nature and origin of the universe have received $1 million fellowships from a foundation to continue their work. On Tuesday, January 26, the James S. McDonnell Foundation awarded $1 million fellowships to John Carlstrom of the University of Chicago and Christopher Stubbs of the University of Washington. The awards were two of ten handed out by the foundation's Centennial Fellowship program. Carlstrom will use the funds to support his work looking for objects in the distant universe at microwave wavelengths, while Stubbs will use the money to look for evidence of dark matter. In Brief: Bottoms Up: Large structures in the universe formed from aggregations of smaller galaxies and clusters, and not the other way around, British astronomers reported last month. By studying hot gas at X-ray wavelengths, University of Birmingham astronomers found that galaxies formed first, then clumped together to form the larger structures astronomers see today... Mars Media: Mars is becoming popular again, based on a surge of articles seen in magazines recently. The January/February issue of Technology Review and the February issue of Discover both features stories on the Mars Society's inaugural convention last August, while Popular Science's February cover story discussed NASA's "Mars Semi-Direct" plan for human missions to Mars, based in large part on Robert Zubrin's Mars Direct... If you do go to Mars, though, be careful what you return, a new organization warns. The International Committee Against Mars Sample Return (ICAMSR) warns that planned Mars sample return missions, where the sample-bearing payload returns directly to Earth, could pose a hazard if the sample contains Martian microrganisms. Their solution: bring the sample to a special biohazard module on the International Space Station, to prevent contamination of the Earth. More information online at http://www.networx.on.ca/~gerryc/icamsr/main.htm Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [5/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Articles *** Vanguard and Its Legacy by Andrew J. LePage Introduction A key component of NASA's infant space science program was Project Vanguard. Originally developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as America's first official satellite program (see "Vanguard: America's Answer to Sputnik" in the December 1997 issue of Space Views), Project Vanguard and much of its NRL team were transferred to NASA once it was established in October 1958. Despite a dismal orbital launch record of only one success in seven tries by the time NASA assumed control, it was recognized that Project Vanguard was at the cutting edge of space science and technology. As a result, Project Vanguard had much to offer future NASA programs in the way of experience and technology. But in addition to this, Project Vanguard also arrived with a ready supply of hardware consisting of four flight-ready launch vehicles and an assortment of scientific satellite payloads just waiting to be launched. Vanguard 2 After the string of four failures that followed the launch of Vanguard 1 in March of 1958, the project team and its industrial partners had much work ahead of them to improve the reliability of the Vanguard launch vehicle (see "Vanguard 1: The Little Satellite that Could" in the March 1998 issue of Space Views). After a five month stand down, the former-NRL team was ready to launch their first satellite under NASA management. By early 1959, the components of SLV-4 (Satellite Launch Vehicle 4) had been exhaustively tested and assembled at Launch Complex 18A at the Eastern Test Range in Florida. The payload for this launch vehicle would be one of the project's "standard" satellites consisting of a polished, 51-centimeter (20-inch) magnesium alloy sphere holding a pair of transmitters, recorders, scientific instruments, and mercury batteries to power it all. For this particular mission, the primary instrument was a pair of small photocell-equipped telescopes designed to produce the first images of Earth from orbit for a period of two weeks. Supplied by the Army Signal Corps which was developing a weather satellite under the aegis of ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), these units would use the spin of the satellite to scan a line across the face of the Earth. The forward motion of the satellite would then allow a picture of the scene below to be produced one line at a time. This payload was virtually identical to that carried by the ill fated SLV-3 launched just before NASA assumed control of the project. As before, it was hoped that these first crude images of the Earth from orbit would provide data on the planet's radiation budget as well as guidance in designing more capable imaging systems in the future. On February 17, 1959 SLV-4 smoothly lifted off and headed towards space. Once the third and final stage had burned out, the 10.8-kilogram (23.7-pound) Vanguard 2 was in a 557 by 3,319 kilometer (346 by 2,063 mile) orbit inclined 32.9 degrees to the equator. After a string of three unsuccessful Moon probes, NASA finally had its first successful launch into space. But everything was not totally well with the Earth's newest artificial companion. According to the original plan, a clamp holding Vanguard 2 to its solid propellant third stage was to release once in orbit allowing a spring to cleanly separate the two. While this took place more or less as planned, a residual discharge or "burp" from the free flying third stage rocket motor just after separation resulted in the stage bumping the released satellite. Instead of spinning predictably about a predetermined axis, the minor collision introduced a precession that set Vanguard 2 wobbling as it traveled around the Earth. Without a means of determining exactly where it was pointing, the stream of brightness values returned by Vanguard 2 could not be reassembled into a coherent picture by scientist back on the ground. While certainly a disappointment to the experiment's designers, the data Vanguard 2 returned during its 27 day active life was still quite useful. Detailed analysis of the data yielded statistics on scene structure and illumination as observed from orbit. All this information would aid the development of future weather satellites. More Advances With the successful launch of Vanguard 2, attention turned to the next satellite. Unlike the simple satellites carried earlier, the payload for SLV-5 had an entirely different configuration. Provisionally dubbed "Vanguard 3", this 10.6 kilogram (23.3 pound) payload actually consisted of a pair of satellites. The first, Vanguard 3A, was a 33 centimeter (13 inch) in diameter fiberglass and phenolic resin sphere carrying a precision magnetometer designed to map the Earth's magnetic field. Connected to Vanguard 3A by a 6.4 centimeter (2.5 inch) wide, 44.5 centimeter (17.5 inch) long cylinder was a second satellite designated Vanguard 3B. This passive satellite was a laminated sheet plastic and aluminum foil balloon that would inflate to 0.76 meters (30 inches) across after it separated from Vanguard 3A in orbit. Lacking a transmitter or other active instrumentation, Vanguard 3B would be tracked optically to yield information on the density of the uppermost reaches of Earth's atmosphere. While this multiple satellite technique was an innovative means of making the best use of a rocket's payload capability (one that NRL engineers would put to extensive use in future Navy satellite programs), Vanguard 3 would never have a chance to prove itself. SLV-5 failed on April 13, 1959 when pitch control was lost in the second stage of the launch vehicle after its first stage had separated. After this disappointing failure, NASA canceled the lost payload's "Vanguard 3" designation in an attempt to establish the agency's early practice of saving official satellite designations (like "Vanguard", "Pioneer", and "Explorer") for payloads that survived launch and actually made it into space. The "Vanguard 3" moniker would be reserved for the next Vanguard satellite to reach orbit. The next Vanguard rocket, SLV-6, was earmarked to launch the next "Vanguard 3" contender. Unlike the innovative design of the previous payload, a standard Vanguard satellite would be launched this time. This 10.8 kilogram (23.8 pound) satellite was to be placed into a high inclination, 48 degree orbit in order to measure the Earth's radiation budget over a large fraction of its surface. Instruments on the satellite would measure the amount of incoming light from the Sun, the reflected light from the Earth, as well as the amount of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Such information would be vital in developing more advanced and accurate models of Earth's weather and climate. Because of the high inclination of the intended orbit, SLV-6 would have to perform an untried roll maneuver shortly after launch to set it on the more northerly course required for this mission. On June 22, 1959 SLV-6 lifted off and successfully rolled from its initial azimuth of 48 degrees to 100 degrees before pitching over as planned. But as had happened too often before, things went awry after the second stage took over. Immediately after ignition of the AJ-10 engine, pressure plummeted in the second stage's tanks resulting in a reduced propellant flow. After the AJ-10 sputtered for 40 seconds, the helium pressurant tank exploded because of the heat build up destroying the ascending rocket. Vanguard had failed again. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - 1 February 1999 [6/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... The Last Launch With only one flight-ready launch vehicle left from the original batch of Vanguard rockets ordered by NRL and no commitment from NASA to procure more, Project Vanguard now had only one last chance to orbit a satellite. For this flight, SLV-7 was used. Using TV-4BU (Test Vehicle 4 Back Up) hardware left over from Vanguard test program, the rocket had been returned to the Glenn L. Martin Company facility in Baltimore to be stripped of test instrumentation and refurbished to become SLV-7 after the successful launch of Vanguard 1 on TV-4. Unlike all the other Vanguard rockets which used a conventional, steel-cased solid propellant third stage built by the Grand Central Rocket Company, SLV-7 would use the more advanced, fiberglass-cased unit developed by the Allegheny Ballistic Laboratory. This new rocket motor, called X-248, had been developed in parallel with Vanguard's original third stage motor as a high-performance backup to the latter. Because of its unparalleled performance, the X-248 had already been incorporated in a number of other rockets by the time Project Vanguard was ready to use it. By the summer of 1959, the X-248 had already been flown three times as the third stage of the Thor-Able space carrier rocket. The substitution of the X-248 as Vanguard third stage promised to more than double the rocket's original payload capability. For this last launch, a highly modified version of the standard Vanguard satellite was employed. With a significantly increased payload capability, much more equipment could be crammed into the 23.8 kilogram (52.3 pound) satellite giving it the instrument payload equivalent to two standard Vanguard satellites. Like the ill fated satellite carried by TV-5 in April of 1958, this satellite would carry a suite of instruments to monitor solar X-ray emissions as well as study the radiation and micrometeoroid environment in orbit. A proton magnetometer similar to the one carried by the original "Vanguard 3" would be housed in a special 66 centimeter (26 inch) tall conical fiberglass housing on top of the satellite's spherical 50.8 centimeter (20 inch) main body. The magnetometer, in addition to being able to map the Earth's magnetic field, would also be capable of measuring kilohertz-frequency radio emissions that could probe the Earth's ionosphere from above. All of these data could be recorded for later playback when within range of a ground station. To simplify the design and save further weight, the X-248 third stage would stay attached to the satellite once in orbit yielding a total mass of 43.0 kilograms (94.6 pounds) - almost 30 times larger than the original, grapefruit-sized Vanguard 1. SLV-7 lifted off on September 18, 1959 under the watchful gaze of the public. To the relief of all involved, this last launch was successful and Vanguard 3 was placed into 510 by 3,743 kilometer (317 by 2,326 mile) orbit around the Earth inclined 33.3 degrees to the equator. Until it finally fell silent on December 8, Vanguard 3 returned a wealth of new scientific data. Over two thirds of its 4,200 magnetometer measurements were deemed "prime data" to be used to characterize the Earth's magnetic field. Other instruments performed a comprehensive survey of the inner edge of the Van Allen radiation belt adding significantly to the understanding of this Space Age discovery. The flight of Vanguard 3 proved to be a fitting finale to the nation's first official satellite program. The Legacy While Project Vanguard had been officially "phased out" by NASA's first anniversary, the project left an invaluable legacy whose influence is still seen to this day. Even before the project's first successful launch, Vanguard's upper stages had been modified for use on the Thor-Able which launched the nation's first Moon probes (see "Operation Mona: America's First Moon Program" in the April 1998 issue of Space Views). By the end of the Vanguard program, plans were already well underway to use these same stages with the Atlas-Able to launch NASA's new series of Pioneer probes to the Moon and beyond. The Thor-Able hardware would later be significantly modified to become the famous Delta launch vehicle whose descendants still fly today. The X-248 rocket motor would also be used in NASA's low-cost Scout solid propellant satellite launcher. The Vanguard satellite hardware itself would also prove to be valuable. Much of the hardware (e.g., telemetry systems, tracking beacons, miniature tape recorders, etc.) developed for the program had already been "borrowed" by other satellite programs and future satellite hardware would be based on this newly proven technology. Vanguard's network of tracking facilities would serve as the basis of NASA's worldwide tracking network. Management techniques developed run the project were also adopted by NASA. The list goes on and on. Although Project Vanguard often gets pushed aside because of its poor flight record of only three successes in 11 attempts, it left a powerful legacy that immeasurably aided America's push into space. Bibliography John P. Hagen, "The Viking and the Vanguard", in The History of Rocket Technology, edited by Eugene M. Emme, Wayne State University Press, pp. 122-141, 1964 Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard, A History, NASA SP-4202, 1970 Author Drew LePage is a physicist and freelance writer specializing in astronomy and the history of spaceflight. He can be reached at lepage@visidyne.com. This has been the February 1, 1999, issue of SpaceViews. SpaceViews is also available on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: ftp://ftp.seds.org/pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/text/19990201.txt To unsubscribe from SpaceViews, send mail to: majordomo@spaceviews.com In the body (not subject) of the message, type: unsubscribe spaceviews For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com. For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@spaceviews.com. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Получены первые изображения с помощью ИК-телескопа Subaru Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Получены первые изображения с помощью ИК-телескопа Subaru Получены первые изображения, сделанные с помощью недавно начавшего работу крупнейшего в мире телескопа Subaru, исследующего космос в видимом и ИК-диапазоне длин волн. Этот японский телескоп находится на Гавайских островах на вершине вулкана Мауна-Ки. Его обслуживанием занимается Японская национальная астрономическая обсерватория. Уже получены фотографии Юпитера и Сатурна (на снимке, Сатурн справа), туманности Ориона, самого дальнего из известных квазаров во Вселенной и других объектов. Фотографии можно посмотреть по адресу http://chain.mtk.nao.ac.jp/outreach/press_releases/990128/. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Получены первые изображения с помощью ИК-телескопа Subaru (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file space-02.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 space-02.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!``$`2P!+``#__@`?3$5!1"!496-H;F]L;V=I97,@26YC M+B!6,2XP,0#_VP"$``@%!@<&!0@'!@<)"`@)#!0-#`L+#!D2$P\4'AH?'QT: M'1PA)2\H(2,M(QP=*3@J+3$R-38U("@Z/CHT/B\T-3,!"`D)#`H,&`T-&#,B M'2(S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S,S M,S,S,S,S,__$`:(```$%`0$!`0$!```````````!`@,$!08'"`D*"P$``P$! 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    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Тестирование космического телескопа Chandra будет продолжено Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Тестирование космического телескопа Chandra будет продолжено [SpaceViews] NASA приняло решение о продлении на неделю тестирования оборудования космического телескопа Chandra X-Ray Observatory ("Chandra"). Ранее испытания было решено продолжить из-за возможных проблем с некоторыми электронными системами корабля. Hа основе результатов дополнительных испытаний будут сделаны выводы о необходимости замены некоторых электронных плат. Решение о продлении испытаний было принято после проблем, возникших при тестировании другого космического корабля, в котором используются аналогичные электронных компоненты. Одна неделя задержки при испытаниях означает, что запуск космического телескопа будет отложен как минимум на 5 недель. Сейчас предполагается, что он будет выведен в космос "шаттлом" Columbia в середине мая. Если же в результате испытаний будет сделан вывод о необходимости замены части электронных плат, то запуск будет вновь отложен на пока не определенное время. Ранее планировалось запустить космический телескоп Chandra в августе 1998 г., но проблемы с его сборкой отодвинули старт на декабрь. Однако в октябре после возникновения проблем с электроникой корабля дата старта была вновь передвинута, на этот раз на начало апреля. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Тестирование космического телескопа Chandra (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-01292.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-01292.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#`!`+#`X,"A`.#0X2$1`3&"D;&!86 M&#(D)AXI.S0^/3HT.3A!25Y004591C@Y4F]366%D:6II/T]S>W)F>EYG:67_ MVP!#`1$2$A@5&#`;&S!E0SE#965E965E965E965E965E965E965E965E965E M965E965E965E965E965E965E965E967_P``1"`"``,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 03 февраля 1999 (1999-02-03) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Экипаж станции "Мир" собирается осветить Землю Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Экипаж станции "Мир" собирается осветить Землю Экипаж российской орбитальной станции "Мир" собирается в четверг 4 февраля провести эффектный эксперимент "Знамя" с использованием огромного зеркала, которое должно отразить солнечный свет и направить его на Землю. Зеркало представляет собой очень прочную мембрану диаметром чуть более 25 м, покрытую тонким металлическим слоем. Оно должно как Луна отразить свет Солнца на территорию Европы и Северной Америки. Сейчас эта мембрана в сложенном виде укреплена на грузовом корабле "Прогресс", пристыкованном к станции. 4 февраля в 13 ч 04 мин по московскому времени космонавты Геннадий Падалка и Сергей Авдеев должны будут отстыковать "Прогресс" от "Мира" и отвести его на расстояние порядка 350 м, в 14 ч 34 мин будет дан сигнал на разворачивание зеркала. После того как зеркало полностью раскроется, экипаж должен будет так ориентировать "Прогресс", чтобы пятно света заняло устойчивое положение на земной поверхности. Предполагается освещать земную поверхность в районе между 48 и 51 градусом северной широты. Свет Солнца, отраженный от зеркала, будет иметь яркость как 10 лун. Hа земле будет освещаться круг диаметром 5-7 км. В безоблачную погоду луч должен быть виден на расстоянии до 300 км. Освещение каждого участка будет вестись через 8-10 мин после захода солнца. В 16 ч 12 мин планируется осветить район Караганды и озера Зайсан, далее лучик пойдет на запад и в 17 ч 45 мин будет освещать район Саратова - Актюбинска, в 19 ч 18 мин - Полтаву, в 20 ч 50 мин - район Льежа - Франкфурта. Затем будет сделан перерыв на 3 часа для отдыха экипажа. В 2 ч 54 мин 5 февраля зайчик осветит Виннипег и Квебек, в 4 ч 30 мин - район Калгари. В 5 ч 13 мин произойдет отстрел зеркала от "Прогресса". Затем "Прогресс", на котором сейчас собран накопившийся на станции мусор, сгорит в верхних слоях атмосферы. В 1993 г. уже была сделана попытка проведения аналогичного эксперимента, но зеркало тогда было существенно меньших размеров и зайчик продержался совсем недолго, поэтому его с трудом могли увидеть только те, кто знал его местоположение. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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