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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 08 февраля 1999


    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo пролетел рядом с Европой Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Galileo пролетел рядом с Европой Космический зонд Galileo пролетел в непосредственной близости от одного из спутников Юпитера - Европы. Маневр был осуществлен успешно, все научные данные записаны для дальнейшей передачи на Землю. Предыдущие исследования показали, что под замерзшей поверхностью на Европе существует жидкий океан. Хотя температура поверхности Европы составляет около -160 град. С, есть вероятность того, что тепло, выделяемое при приливах, обусловленных гравитационным взаимодействием с Юпитером и другими его спутниками, может поддерживать часть океана на Европе в жидком состоянии. Считается, что трение, обусловленное приливами, является причиной вулканической активности на другом спутнике Юпитера - Ио. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo полетел ядом с Евопой (картинка) [1/2] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Астрономы открыли новую "малую" планету Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Астрономы открыли новую "малую" планету [SpaceViews] Астрономы Женевской обсерватории открыли новую планету, размер которой составляет менее половины массы Юпитера. Это самая маленькая планета, найденная до сих пор в окрестности солнце-подобной звезды. Планета вращается вокруг звезды HD 75289. Радиус ее орбиты составляет 6,9 млн км, а один виток она совершает за 3,5 дня. Ранее вокруг звезды HD 75289 было обнаружено 5 планет, которые вращаются по более близким к ней орбитам. Открытие было сделано на телескопе Леонарда Эйлера диаметром 1,2 м, расположенном в Чили. Солнце-подобная звезда HD 75289 расположена на расстоянии 94 световых лет от Земли, она немного тяжелее Солнца и вдвое ярче него. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
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    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космическое зеркало не раскрылось Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Космическое зеркало не раскрылось Эксперимент "Знамя" по развертыванию в космосе гигантского зеркала из пленки, покрытой тонким слоем алюминия, который экипаж орбитальной станции "Мир" должен был провести вчера 4 февраля, пока провести не удалось. Около 13 часов по московскому времени грузовой корабль "Прогресс М-40" с укрепленной на нем конструкцией со свернутой металлизированной пленкой был отстыкован от станции "Мир". В развернутом виде эта пленка имеет вид круга диаметром 25 м. Однако по команде со станции зеркало не развернулось - пленка зацепилась за антенну, которая неожиданно раскрылась после отстыковки "Прогресса". Космонавты пытались сдернуть пленку с антенны, включая двигатели "Прогресса" и двигая антенной. Полотно пленки освободилось, но его перехлест все равно не позволил развернуть его. Очередная попытка проведения эксперимента "Знамя" отложена на пятницу 5 февраля, но в ЦУПе считают, что шансов развернуть космическое зеркало почти нет. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
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    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cluster II launch details released (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ESA Science News http://sci.esa.int 03 Feb 1999 Cluster II launch details released New photographs and details of the dual launches involving the four Cluster II spacecraft have now been posted on the Cluster II web site. The new pages include information on launch preparations, the launch site, the spacecraft orbits and the Soyuz launcher with its newly developed Fregat upper stage which will boost the Cluster spacecraft into their preliminary parking orbit. The ambitious ESA mission to explore near-Earth space will involve two Soyuz rockets, each fitted with the Fregat fourth stage. The Soyuz vehicles will be provided by the Starsem company, a French-Russian company which is marketing the highly reliable booster in the West. The first pair of Cluster II satellites (FM6 and FM7) is currently set for launch in mid June, 2000 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, to be followed by the second pair (FM5 and FM8) in mid-July 2000. They will eventually be inserted into highly elliptical polar orbits which vary from 25,500 to 125,000 km above the Earth. For the next two years, the spacecraft will fly in formation as they provide the first three-dimensional study of the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetic shield -- the magnetosphere. USEFUL LINKS FOR THIS STORY The launches http://sci.esa.int/missions/indexf.cfm?typeID=8&page=main& targetpage=www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/clusterII/launches.html Starsem home page http://www.aerospatiale.fr/groupe/filiales/starsema.htm More about Cluster http://sci.esa.int/cluster Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Knots of evaporating gas in supernova remnant support theory(Forwarded Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Bureau University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 807 S. Wright St., Suite 520 East Champaign, IL 61820-6219 (217) 333-1085 fax (217) 244-0161 e-mail: uinews@uiuc.edu CONTACT: James E. Kloeppel, Physical Sciences Editor (217) 244-1073 E-mail: kloeppel@uiuc.edu February 1999 Knots of evaporating gas in supernova remnant support theory CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- The expanding shock wave of a supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud has provided strong evidence to support a popular model of the interstellar medium, says a University of Illinois astronomer who directed an international team studying the object. "One theory concerning the global structure of the interstellar medium says that supernova shock waves will interact with the cold gas and dust of the interstellar medium, eventually forming three distinct temperature phases," said You-Hua Chu, a U. of I. professor of astronomy. "Although this 'three-phase model' has been popular for the past 20 years, no one had found convincing evidence for one of the model's basic tenets -- a cold cloud evaporating in the hot medium." To study the supernova remnant -- called N63A, Chu and her colleagues obtained optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope and high-resolution X-ray images from the ROSAT X-ray telescope. "The X-ray observations reveal the full extent of this huge supernova remnant," Chu said, "but the optical images show the features we are most interested in." Among those features are three bright clouds of gas and dust, similar in size to the Orion Nebula. Two of the clouds show distinct filamentary structures indicative of shock-wave compression, Chu said. The outward rushing shock wave has not yet reached the third, most distant cloud. Numerous shocked cloudlets -- smaller clumps of gas embedded in the interstellar medium -- also were detected within the supernova remnant. "Swept back by high-velocity shock waves, these evaporating cloudlets provide clear support for the three-phase model," said Chu, who presented the team's findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting, held Jan. 5-9 in Austin, Texas. After a massive star is formed, its stellar wind blows much of the surrounding interstellar medium away, creating a huge shell in space called an interstellar bubble. "Because the interstellar medium is not homogeneous, the denser knots of material [cloudlets] are left behind," Chu said. "The optical emission region of this supernova remnant appears the way it does because the supernova exploded inside an interstellar bubble in a cloudy medium." The supernova remnant lies in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small neighboring galaxy to our own Milky Way, about 160,000 light-years from Earth. In addition to Chu, collaborators on the project included astronomer John Dickel, visiting researcher Adeline Caulet, and graduate students Sean Points and Rosa Williams (all at the U. of I.); astronomer Margarita Rosado and graduate student Lorena Arias-Montano at the Universidad Nacionale Autonoma de Mexico; astronomer Annie Laval and graduate student Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz at the Marseille Observatory; and astronomer Dominik Bomans at the University of Bochum in Germany. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: X-ray structure in supernova remnants linked to age (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Bureau University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 807 S. Wright St., Suite 520 East Champaign, IL 61820-6219 (217) 333-1085 fax (217) 244-0161 e-mail: uinews@uiuc.edu CONTACT: James E. Kloeppel, Physical Sciences Editor (217) 244-1073 E-mail: kloeppel@uiuc.edu February 1999 X-ray structure in supernova remnants linked to age CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- A team of astronomers studying supernova remnants has found direct evidence linking the pattern of their X-ray emission to the size -- and therefore, age -- of the remnants. "As supernova remnants grow in size, we discovered that the X-ray emission from the center of the remnant becomes brighter than that from the edge," said Rosa Williams, a graduate student in astronomy at the University of Illinois. "Our results provide new insight into the distribution of gas shocked by the supernova blast wave, and the nature of material between stars." When a massive star nears the end of its life, the outward pressure of its thermonuclear reactions can no longer counter the inward pull of gravity. The star collapses in on itself and, within a fraction of a second, rebounds in a tremendous explosion called a supernova. Much of the star's material is flung outward, forming an expanding sphere of gas and dust called a supernova remnant. X-rays are produced by supernova remnants when the supersonically expanding shock hits the surrounding material. "Since the shock front is roughly spherical, we normally expect the X-rays to form a spherical shell structure, like a soap bubble," Williams said. "The shell appears brightest at the edge, where our line of sight intersects the most X-ray-emitting material. While the shocked material in the interior of the shell can also produce X-rays, this gas is usually too diffuse to be detected." Nonetheless, it has long been known that some supernova remnants show X-ray emission over the entire face of the remnant, sometimes even brighter toward the center, Williams said. "If this emission is indeed coming from inside the remnant, where the shock has already passed, then something must be raising the density of the material in the interior until the hot gas is dense enough, and therefore bright enough at X-ray wavelengths, to be seen by our instruments." Using X-ray observations from the ROSAT satellite, Williams and her colleagues -- You-Hua Chu and John R. Dickel of the U. of I., Robert Petre of the Goddard Space Flight Center, R. Chris Smith of the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Maritza Tavarez of the University of Michigan -- studied the structure and distribution of gas in supernova remnants within the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our own Milky Way. They classified the objects by their X-ray structures, and determined that these structures vary according to the remnant's size: Smaller remnants have shell-like X-ray emission, while larger remnants appear to have more X-ray emission from inside the shell. "Because supernova remnants are continually expanding, a remnant becomes larger as it gets older," Williams said. "So it looks like what we're seeing is a change in the remnants as they age, with more and more of the X-ray emission coming from the inside of the remnants." If this is indeed the case, said Williams, who presented the team's findings at the January meeting of the American Astronomical Society, theories to explain the presence of detectable X-ray emission from the interior of supernova remnants must also account for the age progression. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Shuttle Managers Reorder Next Two Flights, 1999 Launch Dates Set Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Jennifer McCarter Headquarters, Washington, DC February 5, 1999 (Phone: 202/358-1639) James Hartsfield Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (Phone: 281/483-5111) RELEASE: 99-15 LAUNCH ADVISORY: SPACE SHUTTLE MANAGERS REORDER NEXT TWO FLIGHTS, SET PLANNING LAUNCH DATES FOR OTHER 1999 MISSIONS Space Shuttle managers this week decided to reorder the next two Shuttle missions, targeting a May launch for Discovery on STS- 96, the next International Space Station mission, ahead of a July launch of Columbia on STS-93, carrying the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Planning dates also were set for missions throughout 1999. Official launch dates are announced following the Space Shuttle Flight Readiness Review, approximately two weeks before a launch. The following target dates have been set for planning purposes: *STS-96 DISCOVERY Space Station Assembly Flight 2A.1 May 20, 1999 *STS-93 COLUMBIA Chandra X-Ray Observatory July 9, 1999 *STS-99 ENDEAVOUR Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper Sept. 16, 1999 *STS-101 ATLANTIS Space Station Assembly Flight 2A.2 Oct 14, 1999 *STS-92 DISCOVERY Space Station Assembly Flight 3A Dec. 2, 1999 STS-96 will be carrying interior supplies and logistics to the station in a double Spacehab module and install U.S. and Russian spacewalkers' "cranes" on the station's exterior. STS-93 will be a five-day mission to place Chandra in orbit, the third of NASA's complementary family of space-based "Great Observatories" and the largest and heaviest shuttle cargo ever. STS-99 will be a mission devoted to Earth observations using a three-dimensional imaging radar. STS-101 will carry logistical equipment to the station and assist in outfitting and checkout of the Russian-supplied Service Module, an early station living quarters. It also will be the first flight of the Multifunction Electronic Display System, also called the "glass cockpit," a modification that has replaced many of Atlantis' cockpit instruments with computer screen displays, a technology pioneered by NASA and common aboard commercial airliners. STS-92 will carry the first exterior framework, or truss, to be attached to the station as well as a third mating adapter. The changes in the first two flights are a result of recent delays in shipping the Chandra X-Ray Observatory from the TRW Space and Electronics Group factory in Redondo Beach, CA, to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, FL, to begin launch preparations. Work on Chandra in California has now been completed, and the observatory arrived at Kennedy on Thursday aboard an Air Force C-5 cargo aircraft. The other schedule changes allow flexibility for additional tests and prelaunch preparations for the Service Module launch. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sky & Telescope News Bulletin - February 5, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN FEBRUARY 5, 1999 SOHO'S RETURN The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is back in business, having returned from the brink of failure yet again. On December 21st, SOHO's last attitude-controlling gyroscope failed, forcing the spacecraft to keep itself pointed at the Sun using steering rockets. But this was using too much precious hydrazine fuel, jeopardizing SOHO's operational lifetime. Engineers at the European Space Agency and Matra Marconi Space developed software to control the spacecraft that circumvents the gyroscopes. As of February 2nd, SOHO has returned to regular monitoring of the Sun. This marks the first time that a satellite equipped with gyroscopes has continued to operate without them. Astronomers have announced that data from the spacecraft have led to an explanation of where high-speed solar wind originates. Don Hassler (Southwest Research Institute) and his colleagues explain in the February 5th issue of Science that ultraviolet observations from 1996 show that the solar surface in regions called coronal holes display a honeycomb pattern, which marks the boundaries of subsurface convection cells. "If one thinks of these cells as paving stones in a patio," says Helen Mason (University of Cambridge), "then the solar wind is breaking through like grass around the edges, concentrated in the corners where the paving stones meet." Hot gas is accelerated by magnetic fields at these boundaries to more than one million miles per hour. Now that the astronomers know where the solar wind originates, they can focus on understanding the processes that accelerate the gas. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR READIES FOR MAPPING The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has just completed months of touchy and dangerous "aerobraking" to achieve its final orbit around the red planet. Starting in September 1997, NASA controllers cautiously nudged the spacecraft into many delicate skims through Mars's uppermost atmosphere to shrink its orbit without using fuel to brake. On February 4th jubilant mission controllers announced that they had finally worked the craft down into its planned circular orbit just above the Martian atmosphere. Mars Global Surveyor is scheduled to begin a nearly two-year program of imaging the Martian surface in extremely fine detail starting on April 3rd. Its mapping camera will resolve objects on the ground as small as 1.5 meters (5 feet) across. The camera has already returned numerous panoramic views with resolutions nearly this fine. THIN AIR ON CALLISTO Data from the Galileo spacecraft have revealed that Callisto -- Jupiter's second-largest moon -- has a thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide. The finding by Robert W. Carlson (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) appears in today's issue of Science. It is now known that all four of Jupiter's largest moons have atmospheres -- Europa and Ganymede each have thin envelopes of oxygen, while Io is surrounded by sulfur dioxide. Carlson found Callisto's atmosphere by examining data from Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) made in September 1997. There had been hints that the moon's surface had carbon dioxide, and these new results confirm it. Carlson notes that the molecules can be easily lost -- ionized by solar ultraviolet radiation and then carried away by Jupiter's magnetic field. Thus, there must be some form of replenishment. Imagery suggests areas where gas has escaped through surface fractures. PLUTO RECONSIDERED Can Pluto have "dual citizenship"? Can it remain a "major" planet in spirit even though it's listed in astronomers' master list of "minor" planets? That was the question that kept astronomical email lines sizzling throughout December, January, and early February. The cosmic controversy came about because the count of numbered asteroids (those with reliable orbits) is approaching 10,000, and the search is on for a suitably important name to pair with the entry #10000. Last year Brian Marsden, who heads the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center, had suggested Pluto for this honor. Pluto is not an asteroid, of course, but it is much smaller than the solar system's other planets. In fact, it's widely considered the largest member of the growing collection of trans-Neptunian objects generally known as the Kuiper Belt. However, unhappy with the prospect of Pluto sporting a minor-planet designation, MIT astronomer Richard Binzel offered a counterproposal: create a separate catalog for Kuiper-belt members, and make Pluto the first object in *that* list. Vigorous debate ensued, culminating in a vote of sorts among officials of the IAU at year's end. No clear consensus emerged, and the controversy continued to fester both among astronomers and in the press. Finally, on February 4th the IAU's General Secretary, Johannes Andersen, announced a clarification. The IAU is not proposing to "demote" Pluto from its status as the ninth planet, he states, and it has decided against assigning Pluto a minor-planet number. Where the other trans-Neptunian objects will ultimately be tallied -- in the existing minor-planet list or in a separate list -- remains unresolved. Also after 20 years of being closer to the Sun than Neptune, Pluto once again reclaims the title of "the outermost planet" on February 11th. Pluto will be farther from the Sun than Neptune for about the next 230 years. (And yes, this date for the crossover *is* correct; slightly different dates you may have seen are based not on the position of Pluto itself, but on the center of mass of the Pluto-Charon system. Charon is Pluto's large moon.) COMET MISSION TO LAUNCH The first sample-return mission to a comet is scheduled to begin on Saturday, as NASA's Stardust spacecraft is to launch from Cape Canaveral at 21:07 Universal Time (16:07 Eastern Standard Time). Stardust will fly by Comet Wild 2 in 2004 where it will capture particles of dust from the coma. The spacecraft will return home in January 2006 where it will eject a capsule that will be recovered on Earth's surface. THIS WEEK'S "SKY AT A GLANCE" Some daily events in the changing sky, from the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE. FEB. 7 -- SUNDAY * Vesta, the brightest asteroid, is drifting near the Cancer-Leo border this week. It's shining at magnitude 6.2, bright enough to see easily in binoculars once you identify the correct point. Use the finder chart in the February Sky & Telescope, page 112, or at http://www.skypub.com/sights/skyevents/9902skyevents.html. FEB. 8 -- MONDAY * Last-quarter Moon (exact at 6:58 a.m. Eastern Standard Time). * Skywatchers in eastern North America will find the eclipsing star Algol in Perseus near minimum light at dusk, glowing at magnitude 3.4 instead of its usual 2.1. It takes several more hours to rebrighten. For a complete listing of Algol's predicted minima through the end of this observing season, see http://www.skypub.com/sights/variables/algol.html. FEB. 9 -- TUESDAY * The red long-period variable star T Eridani should be near maximum brightness (8th magnitude) this week. FEB. 10 -- WEDNESDAY * If you've got a telescope, compare Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn in the western twilight this month. One obvious difference among them in a telescope is their different surface brightnesses. All are covered with more-or-less whitish clouds that reflect sunlight about equally well. Their very different surface brightnesses, from dazzling Venus to much dimmer Saturn, are caused entirely by their different distances from the Sun. FEB. 11 -- THURSDAY * After 20 years of being closer to the Sun than Neptune, Pluto once again reclaims the title of "the outermost planet." Pluto will be farther from the Sun than Neptune for about the next 230 years. (And yes, the February 11th date for this crossover IS correct; slightly different dates you may have seen are based not on the position of Pluto itself, but on the center of mass of the Pluto-Charon system. Charon is Pluto's large moon.) FEB. 12 -- FRIDAY * Some doorstep astronomy: This is the time of year when Orion stands highest in the south during early to midevening. Look for the diagonal row of three stars forming Orion's Belt. The brightest stars of Orion are orange-red Betelgeuse (to the Belt's upper left) and white Rigel (the same distance to the Belt's lower right). FEB. 13 -- SATURDAY * More doorstep astronomy: To the lower left of Orion, by about two fist-widths at arm's length, is Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky. It is the nearest star ever visible to the naked eye from midnorthern latitudes, being only 8.6 light-years away. THIS WEEK'S PLANET ROUNDUP MERCURY is hidden in the glare of sunset. VENUS, brilliant at magnitude -3.9, shines low in the west during dusk, to the lower right of Jupiter. Watch Venus and Jupiter grow closer each evening until their spectacular close conjunction on February 23rd. MARS, shining at magnitude +0.3 in Virgo, rises around 11:30 p.m. and is high in the south before dawn. The star to its right or upper right (by about a fist-width at arm's length) is Spica. In a telescope Mars is still only a tiny 8.5 arcseconds in apparent diameter. But it's getting bigger; Mars will reach opposition on April 24th and pass closest to Earth on May 1st, when it will appear 16.2 arcseconds wide. JUPITER, magnitude -2.1, shines in the west-southwest during and after dusk, to the upper left of brighter Venus and farther to the lower right of dimmer Saturn. It sets around 8:30 p.m. SATURN, magnitude +0.3, is the yellowish "star" far to Jupiter's upper left. The two planets appear about 30 degrees apart, on opposite sides of Pisces. URANUS and NEPTUNE are hidden in the glare of sunrise. PLUTO, magnitude 13.8, is in Ophiuchus in the southeast before dawn. (All descriptions that relate to the horizon or zenith are written for the world's midnorthern latitudes. Descriptions that also depend on longitude are for North America. Eastern Standard Time, EST, equals Universal Time minus 5 hours.) More details, sky maps, and news of other celestial events appear each month in SKY & TELESCOPE, the essential magazine of astronomy. See our enormous Web site at http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! SKY & TELESCOPE, P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02478 * 617-864-7360 (voice) Copyright 1999 Sky Publishing Corporation. S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance stargazing calendar are provided as a service to the astronomical community by the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE magazine. Widespread electronic distribution is encouraged as long as these paragraphs are included. But the text of the bulletin and calendar may not be published in any other form without permission from Sky Publishing (contact permissions@skypub.com or phone 617-864-7360). Updates of astronomical news, including active links to related Internet resources, are available via SKY & TELESCOPE's site on the World Wide Web at http://www.skypub.com/. In response to numerous requests, and in cooperation with the Astronomical League (http://www.mcs.net/~bstevens/al/) and the American Association of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.corvus.com/), S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance are available via electronic mailing list too. For a free subscription, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "join" on the first line of the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "unjoin" on the first line of the body of the message. SKY & TELESCOPE, the Essential Magazine of Astronomy, is read by more than 200,000 enthusiasts each month. It is available on newsstands worldwide. For subscription information, or for a free copy of our catalog of fine astronomy books and products, please contact Sky Publishing Corp., 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138-1200, U.S.A. Phone: 800-253-0245 (U.S. and Canada); 617-864-7360 (International). Fax: 617-864-6117. E-mail: custserv@skypub.com. WWW: http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Air Force clears way for Titan rockets to return to flight (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Space Command News Service FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: February 02, 1999 Air Force clears way for Titan rockets to return to flight COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo.(AFSPCNS) -- After a six-month stand down, Air Force Space Command's Titan launch vehicle fleet is ready to begin its return to flight. AFSPC temporarily suspended launch of Titan IVBs and Titan IIs following an Aug. 12, 1998, mishap involving a Titan IVA carrying a National Reconnaissance Office satellite. It was the last scheduled launch for the "A" model. The results of the Accident Investigation Board inquiry indicated electrical shorts in the Vehicle Power Supply wiring harness most likely caused the vehicle to catastrophically fail approximately 41 seconds into powered flight. The shorts originated in the second stage of the core vehicle. After thoroughly reviewing the most likely cause of the mishap, the Air Force, in concert with Lockheed Martin Astronautics, developed a list of corrective actions necessary to ensure the Titan launch vehicles are able to return to flight. All corrective actions must be completed before the rockets are cleared to launch. The commanders of the 30th and 45th Space Wings from Vandenberg and Patrick Air Force Bases, respectively, concurred with a plan which outlines the return to flight criteria. The wing commanders are the launch authorities on the East and West Coasts and are responsible for ensuring that all return to flight criteria are met before they resume launching the Titan IVBs and Titan IIs. Specific to the Titan IVA-20 mishap, steps that have or will be taken to meet the RTF criteria include: * Reinspect all wire harnesses of current Titan launch vehicles. * Redesign or modify systems related to vehicle power and guidance. * Improve inspection, protection and documentation procedures. The Air Force Space Command Commander and Director, National Reconnaissance Office have agreed on the plan to return the Titan to flight. Air Force Space Command, the Space and Missile Systems Center and Lockheed Martin Astronautics have already completed most of the corrective actions for the Titan fleet. A Titan IVB carrying a Defense Support Program satellite is slated to liftoff from Cape Canaveral AS, Fla., in late March or early April and a Titan II is scheduled to be launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif., in late April. The Air Force has a 94 percent success rate for all launch vehicles. The United States operates the safest and most reliable launch fleet in the world. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: S-CAM -- an exciting new instrument sees first light on La Palma(Forwa Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ESA Science News http://sci.esa.int 04 Feb 1999 S-CAM -- an exciting new instrument sees first light on La Palma On 2 February, the Astrophysics Division's S-CAM instrument saw 'first light' at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, observing the pulsar at the centre of the Crab nebula. S-CAM, a totally new instrument concept, is equipped with an array of 'superconducting tunnel junctions' (STJ), small chips of the metal tantalum, cooled with the help of a bath of liquid helium to a temperature within a degree of absolute zero. The Crab Pulsar provides an ideal target for verifying the camera's photon counting and timing capabilities. The figure [http://sci.esa.int/categories/astrophysics/images/00008741.gif] shows the characteristic 'light curve' signature of the pulsar: two beams of light which shine out, like a lighthouse, one weak and long the other bright and short, in each revolution. These data were obtained from just one of the 36 tantalum chips in S-CAM in a four minute exposure. We started research into STJs in 1986, at first with the aim of developing a new detector for future X-ray astronomy missions. However it emerged that STJs were also sensitive at longer wavelengths, that is in the ultra- violet, optical and even infrared parts of the spectrum. Our attention therefore turned to developing an instrument that could be used in optical astronomy, with 'proof-of-concept' at a ground-based telescope. The power of the STJ is that it can detect, with very high efficiency, single photons making up a beam of light and determine precisely both the arrival time and the wavelength, that is the colour, of individual photons -- a unique combination. The STJ has applications, not only in astronomy but in the commercial and industrial fields, where fast measurements to capture transient phenomena in colour at very low light levels are required. Discovered at radio wavelengths in 1968, the Crab pulsar is a neutron star spinning about 30 revolutions per second. The pulsar, together with a surrounding nebula, was left behind when a star, about 5000 light years away in the Taurus constellation, exploded as a supernova, appearing in 1054 AD. The staff of the WHT at the Isaac Newton Group, in particular Peter Moore, are thanked for excellent support for this commissioning run. USEFUL LINKS FOR THIS STORY Astronews 37 http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Astronews/37-html/an37.html#stj STJ Detectors http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Research/Stj/STJ_main.html Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 февраля 1999 (1999-02-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Launch Rescheduled For February 7 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov STARDUST LAUNCH STATUS Saturday, February 6, 1999 The launch of NASA's Stardust spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, FL, has been tentatively rescheduled for Sunday, February 7, at 4:04:15 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST). On the first day of the launch window, Saturday, February 6, the launch was aborted about one minute before liftoff due to a problem with telemetry data from a radar beacon on the Delta launch vehicle used to track the rocket as it ascends. Live coverage on NASA Television will begin at 2:30 p.m. EST Sunday. A post-launch briefing is planned to be broadcast on NASA Television at 6 p.m. Eastern. Stardust will send a spacecraft flying through the cloud of dust that surrounds the nucleus of a comet and, for the first time ever, bring cometary material back to Earth. NASA Television is broadcast on the satellite GE-2, transponder 9C, C band, 85 degrees west longitude, frequency 3880.0 MHz, vertical polarization, audio monaural at 6.8 MHz. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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