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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 09 октября 1998


    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Омский "Полет" готовится к запуску немецких спутников Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Омский "Полет" готовится к запуску немецких спутников Генеральный директор производственного объединения "Полет" ( г. Омск) Олег Дорофеев заявил сегодня о планах предприятия запустить в апреле и ноябре будущего - 1999 года - телекоммуникационные спутники Германии "Abricas" и "Tchemp". Спутники будут запущены носителями серии "Космос" производства Омского ГПО с заводской стартовой площадки в Плесецке. По словам Дорофеева, макеты спутников в настоящее время прошли таможенный контроль в Москве и находятся по пути в Омск. В случае успешного начала сотрудничества, "Полет" рассчитывает на расширение программы, которая включает в себя запуск по до 10 аппаратов в год. 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Правительство РФ постановило начать реализацию международного Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Правительство РФ постановило начать реализацию международного проекта "Днепр" 5 октября вышло постановление Правительства РФ о создании международной космической компанией "Космотрас" (российско-украинская) на внебюджетной основе и коммерческой эксплуатации космического ракетного комплекса "Днепр" на базе технологий межконтинентальных баллистических ракет РС-20. РКА и Минобороны совместно с компанией "Космотрас" поручено в трехмесячный срок разработать и утвердить положение о создании и использовании комплекса "Днепр". 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Вчера на Байконуре началась предстартовая подготовка к запуску ФГБ Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Вчера на Байконуре началась предстартовая подготовка к запуску ФГБ "Заря" Пресс-служба ГКHПЦ имени Хруничева распространила информацию о начале со вчерашнего дня заправки системы терморегулирования блока "Заря" так называемыми спецкомпонентами, а именно - этиленгликолем. Это значит, что на Байконуре, где накануне завершились повторные электрические испытания ФГБ, стартовала подготовка к запуску "Зари" из расчета дня старта - 20 ноября с.г. 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: MGS Aerobraking Update - October 3, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Saturday, October 3 (DOY 273/19:00:00 to DOY 276/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 594 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 21 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 16612 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 37414 km Periapsis altitude = 116.6 km Current Orbit Period = 10:44:05 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 34:15:28 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft continues excellent performance during Phase 2 aerobraking. No corridor control maneuvers have been required to maintain the average ( 4-orbit running mean) dynamic pressure within the desired corridor of 0.14 to 0.24 N/m2. Over the past 6 orbits 17 minutes and 34 seconds have been trimmed from the orbit period. Periapsis altitudes have been mostly stable, varying only about 1 km every 3-4 orbits. The dynamic pressures have ranged from 0.13 - 0.26 N/m2 over the past six orbits, exhibiting over 100% orbit to orbit variability in some cases. Even though the dynamic pressure 4-orbit running mean has remained in the denser half of the corridor during this period, the deficit in period reduction has not been compensated at the desired rate. A decision to again raise the upper corridor limit may occur on Wednesday. The first dynamic pressure alarm is set at 0.35 N/m2 (which requires Flight Operations Manager notification) and has been avoided thus far by about 0.10 N/m2 margin in peak drag force. The drag force allowed can be increased so long as the S/C remains healthy and the peak drag forces encountered stay below the 0.35 N/m2 limit. The current sequence is P593 and it has performed the S/C activities for orbits 593 and 594. The next sequence, P595, has been loaded and it will take control early this afternoon. All sequences built this period have contained 3 primary and 2 backup orbits. In all cases this period, only 2 of the primary orbit commands have been allowed to execute before a new sequence was prepared and loaded. For P595, all 3 primary orbit commands will execute before being replaced by P598 on Sunday. Operations will continue to use either 2 or 3 of the 3 loaded primary orbits in order to keep drag sequence builds during the prime shift. There continues to be no indication of -Y solar array structural degradation. Attitude control performance has been excellent with no problems in star processing. Peak heating rates have ranged from 0.065 to 0.102 W/cm2 with panel temperatures rising from 24 to 42° C during the drag pass. The minimum MOLA laser temperature has reached about 11°C. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. Battery discharge depths have ranged from 12.5% to 13% each orbit with 14 minutes of battery charger margin. There were 5 Command Change Requests (CCRs) reviewed and approved during this period. Four were attitude control related and called for increasing the Drag'Duration parameter for contingency mode, return the SAP position error threshold to 12 counts from 36, set the SAP azimuth soft stops closer to the surveyed hard stop location, and add rate mode commands to the contingency mode script to aid in recovery efforts in case the gimbals are in powered hold on contingency mode entry. The latter requires STL testing and will be loaded later. The 5th CCR approved raises the PSE telemetry verification time-out threshold from 5 to 15 counts. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 595 DOY276/20:24:33 UTC Periapsis for Orbit 596 DOY277/07:05:38 UTC Periapsis for Orbit 597 DOY277/17:43:32 UTC Periapsis for Orbit 598 DOY278/04:17:51 UTC Periapsis for Orbit 599 DOY278/14:48:42 UTC Periapsis for Orbit 600 DOY279/01:16:17 UTC (Note: MDT = UTC-6 hours DOY276=10/3) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 18 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 2811. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: TES NIPCs Nominal drag pass sequences (P589, P591, P593, P595) Nominal aerobraking maneuver sequences (None) Lower the SAP position error threshold Contingency mode drag duration update PSE verification fault persistence threshold update Update the SAP soft stop KaBLE clock source to VCO 2 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hubble Goes To The Limit In Search Of Farthest Galaxies Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... October 8, 1998 CONTACT: Don Savage NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC (Phone: 202-358-1547) Bill Steigerwald Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301-286-5017) Ray Villard Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (Phone: 410-338-4514) PRESS RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR98-32 HUBBLE GOES TO THE LIMIT IN SEARCH OF FARTHEST GALAXIES Stretching the vision of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope farther across space and further back into time than ever before, astronomers have peered into a previously unseen realm of the universe. A "long exposure" infrared image taken with Hubble_s Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has uncovered the faintest galaxies ever seen. Astronomers believe some of these galaxies could be over 12 billion light-years away (depending on cosmological models) _ making them the farthest objects ever seen. A powerful new generation of telescopes will be needed to confirm the suspected distances. "NICMOS has parted the dark curtain that previously blocked our view of very distant objects and revealed a whole new cast of characters. We now have to study them to find out who, what and where they are. We are still finding new frontiers," says Rodger I. Thompson of the University of Arizona in Tucson. "This is just our first tentative glimpse into the very remote universe," says Alan Dressler of the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, CA. "What we see may be the first stages of galaxy formation. But the objects are so faint that their true nature can only be explored with the advanced telescopes of the future." "This observation is a major step toward fulfilling one of Hubble's key objectives: to search for the faintest and farthest objects in the universe," adds Ed Weiler, NASA's acting Associate Administrator for Space Science. In a separate discovery, Thompson also found that faint red galaxies matched up with compact blue knots of light seen in the earlier visible light image. "This means that some objects that appeared to be separate galaxies in the optical image are really hot star-forming regions in much larger older galaxies," he says. Prior to the NICMOS observation, a ten-day long exposure called the Hubble Deep Field was Space Telescope's benchmark for the "deepest" view into the universe (with the exception of the cosmic microwave background that is farther away than any structures seen in the universe). Astronomers had to wait for the infrared camera to be installed on Hubble to look for unseen galaxies beyond the limits of the visible deep field photograph. Infrared sensitivity was needed because the expansion of the universe is expected to stretch the light of distant galaxies down to infrared wavelengths. Thompson selected a portion of the original Hubble deep field and took long exposures with the Hubble's near infrared camera. When the infrared and visible-light pictures were compared, Thompson found many new objects that were not seen in visible light. In results to be published in the Astronomical Journal, Thompson precisely measured the infrared "colors" of the objects. He found some objects that had the expected color of a galaxy too distant to be detected in the optical HDF. Scheduled for launch in the year 2007, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be used to take infrared spectra of candidate galaxies to confirm their distances, and its higher resolution will help reveal the shapes of these early objects. -- end -- The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). EDITOR'S NOTE: Images and photo captions associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/1998/32 or via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html. GIF and JPEG images are available via anonymous ftp to oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo/gif/9832.gif and /pubinfo/jpeg/9832.jpg. Higher resolution digital versions (300 dpi JPEG) of the release photos are available at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/1998/32. TIFF files are available at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/tiff/1998/9832.tif. ******************************************* PHOTO CAPTIONS EMBARGOED UNTIL: 11:00 A.M. (EDT) October 8, 1998 PHOTO NO.: STScI-PRC98-32a HUBBLE'S DEEPEST VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE [Left] A NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of the faintest galaxies ever seen in the universe, taken in infrared light with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). The picture contains over 300 galaxies having spiral, elliptical and irregular shapes. Though most of these galaxies were first seen in 1995 when Hubble was used to take a visible-light deep exposure of the same field, NICMOS uncovers many new objects. Most of these objects are too small and faint to be apparent in the full field NICMOS view. Some of the reddest and faintest of the newly detected objects may be over 12 billion light-years away, as derived from a standard model of the universe. However, a powerful new generation of telescopes will be needed to confirm the suspected distances of these objects. The field of view is 2 million light-years across, at its maximum. Yet, on a cosmic scale, it represents only a thin pencil beam look across the universe. The area of sky is merely 1/100th the apparent diameter on the full moon. [Right] Two close-up NICMOS views of candidate objects which may be over 12 billion light-years away. Each candidate is centered in the frame. The reddish color may mean all of the starlight has been stretched to infrared wavelengths by the universe's expansion. Alternative explanations are that the objects are closer to us, but the light has been reddened by dust scattering. A new generation of telescopes will be needed to make follow-up observations capable of establishing true distance. The image was taken in January 1998 and required an exposure time of 36 hours to detect objects down to 30th magnitude. Hubble was aimed in the direction of the constellation Ursa Major, in a region just above the handle of the Big Dipper. The color corresponds to blue (0.45 microns), green (1.1 microns) and red (1.6 microns). Credit: Rodger I. Thompson (University of Arizona), and NASA ********************************************************************** EMBARGOED UNTIL: 11:00 A.M. (EDT) October 8, 1998 PHOTO NO.: STScI-PRC98-32b COMPARATIVE VIEW OF GALAXY'S STELLAR POPULATIONS A galaxy can look quite different in visible vs infrared light. This is a comparison view of a spiral galaxy in the Hubble Deep Field -- Hubble Space Telescope's view of the faintest galaxies ever seen in the universe. The galaxy is disk-shaped like our Milky Way and tilted obliquely along our line of sight. It is located in the constellation Ursa Major. The smaller clumps in the picture are likely other galaxies. [Left] In the visible-light picture, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in 1995, the galaxy looks uncharacteristically lumpy. That's because only the bright blue knots of starbirth are detected by the WFPC2. [Right] The underlying disk structure, containing older stars, is seen clearly in this infrared Deep Field image taken with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) in January 1998. These types of comparative observations will help astronomers better understand the evolution of galaxies. Credit: Rodger I. Thompson (University of Arizona), and NASA Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Conference Reviews Progress Of NASA Aeronautics Program Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Michael Braukus Headquarters, Washington, DC October 8, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1979) Lori Rachul Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (Phone: 216/433-8806) RELEASE: 98-180 CONFERENCE REVIEWS PROGRESS OF NASA AERONAUTICS PROGRAM One year ago, NASA set ten bold aeronautics and space transportation goals that will have a dramatic impact on the United States into the 21st Century. On Friday, Oct. 9, 1998, NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, will host the inaugural "Turning Goals Into Reality" conference to present the progress being made toward those goals. NASA representatives, university and industry partners, who developed the ten outcome-based goals, along with airlines, aircraft maintenance companies, air cargo firms and other government organizations, will come together to review and assess NASA's technology programs, partnerships and overall progress. Panel discussions geared to each of the three "Pillars" -- Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space -- will be led by NASA Center Directors: Jerry Creedon, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA; Henry McDonald, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; and Deputy Director Carolyn Griner, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. Panelists will include representatives from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), General Electric, The Boeing Co., Williams International, Pratt & Whitney, Lockheed Martin Corp., Orbital Sciences Corp. and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Some of the innovations and technological breakthroughs achieved over the past year also will be displayed in the Lewis hangar. Researchers from NASA and industry will be on hand to discuss their accomplishments and the benefits people can expect to see as these technologies enter into the marketplace. As part of this inaugural annual conference, NASA will present awards to industry and university and government teams that have made significant contributions or accomplishments in aviation research. This year's NASA Administrator's Award will be presented to the Center-TRACON Automation System Team of NASA's Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center and the FAA for its accomplishments in improving aviation system capacity. The other award recipients include: For accomplishments in aviation safety - The NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program Team, including NASA's Langley Research Center; Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company; Cornell University and the University of Texas. For accomplishments in environmental compatibility/emissions - The High-Speed Research Combustor Configuration Team of NASA's Lewis Research Center, GE Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney. For accomplishments in environmental compatibility/noise - The Advanced Subsonic Transport Engine Systems Noise Reduction Team of NASA's Langley Research Center, and Lewis Research Center; FAA; Allison Engine Company; AlliedSignal Engines; AYT Corporation; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group; Fluidyne; BF Goodrich Aerospace; GE Aircraft Engines; Lockheed Martin; Northrop Grumman; NYMA; Pratt & Whitney; Virginia Consortium of Engineering and Science Universities. For accomplishments in affordable air travel - The Composite Wing Team of NASA's Langley Research Center and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group. For accomplishments in high-speed travel - The PETI-5 Development team of NASA's Langley Research Center. For accomplishments in general aviation - The Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments Consortium (AGATE) of NASA's Langley and Lewis Research Centers, AGATE Alliance and the FAA. For accomplishments in next-generation design tools and experimental aircraft - The APNASA Development Team of NASA's Lewis Research Center; U. S. Army Vehicle Technology Center; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate; Allison Engine Co.; AlliedSignal Engines; GE Aircraft Engines; ASE Technologies; OAI and NYMA. For accomplishments in affordable access to space - The X- 33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Propellant Densification Team of NASA's Lewis Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center; Sierra Lobo Inc.; Gilchrest; The Boeing Co.; Analex; ADF; and Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems. In order to provide an opportunity for the AgencyOs stakeholders, the general public, educators and students to participate, the conference will be cybercast live through NASA's Learning Technologies Channel. To participate visit: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/Itc/lewis/tgir/index.html Additional activities, NASA Facts, educational resources and the Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Annual Progress Report 1997-98, can be found on the conference Web site at: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/aero/conf98/ - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 09 октября 1998 (1998-10-09) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Tune-Up For The Leonids Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Tune-up for the Leonids Marshall Space Flight Center Space Science News http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast07oct98_1.htm This week, comet Giacobini-Zinner could shatter the calm before the storm October 7, 1998: Perhaps the most anticipated event in astronomy this year is the upcoming Leonid meteor storm. Sometime during the early morning hours of November 17th, observers could be treated to a spectacular display of shooting stars as Earth passes through the debris trail of periodic Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Experts are cautiously predicting a repeat of the great meteor storm that broke over the Earth in November 1966 when more than 10,000 meteors per hour were observed in some locations. Despite all the talk about Leonids, a lesser known shower called the Giacobinids could steal the show this week. Every year Earth passes close to the orbit of comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner. Usually not much happens because the comet isn't nearby. This year could be different. On October 9th Earth will pass by the comet's orbit just 49 days before the comet itself arrives. In 1933 Earth sailed by Giacobini's orbital path 80 days after comet passage, and there was a historic meteor storm. In some places over 20,000 meteors per hour were observed. We will be closer to the comet in 1998, but no one is certain what will happen because Earth will reach the vicinity of the orbit before the comet arrives. If there's plenty of debris flying ahead of the comet, then the resulting meteor shower could rival the predicted Leonid storm. If not, it will be another lackluster year for the Draconids with just a few, faint shooting stars per hour. Amateurs can make a difference in 98 One reason for the uncertainty about the 1998 Giacobinids is that scientists still have a lot to learn about meteor streams. When comets visit the inner solar system, they are warmed by the sun, and ablated by the solar wind, which produces the familiar tails that we see. This debris is left in space, and is comprised of particles of ice, dust, and rock. When Earth encounters these particles on its journey around the Sun, they strike the atmosphere with tremendous speed and become shooting stars. Astronomers know that comets leave debris behind them, but does comet debris also precede the comet? This week we have a good chance to find out, because Earth will be passing by Giacobini's orbit in advance of the comet. For this year's Giacobinid meteor storm Science@NASA will be collecting meteor counts from amateurs and lay observers to probe the structure of the meteor stream ahead of comet Giacobini-Zinner. If you would like to participate simply follow the simple instructions (http://www.spaceweather.com/meteordata.html) about how to observe and keep records. Then, after the shower, return here to submit your data (http://www.spaceweather.com/meteordata.html). Even if you don't observe any meteors, your null result is valuable. It tells us how little debris is flying ahead of the comet. Cumulative results will be posted on SpaceWeather.com before the Leonid meteor shower in November. How to View the Giacobinids Normally the best time to view meteors is after midnight when Earth's rotation aligns our line of sight with the direction of Earth's motion around the Sun. Then we're heading directly into the stream of meteors. The Giacobinids are an exception. The best time to see them is during the early evening when the constellation Draco is still high in the sky, well above the horizon. The bright gibbous moon rises around 9 p.m. local time. After moonrise the sky will be bright and it will be difficult to see the fainter meteors. To find the Giacobinids, go outside and face North. The radiant, indicated by a red dot on the sky map, is near two of the most familiar asterisms: the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper. You don't need binoculars or a telescope, the naked eye is usually best for seeing meteors which often streak more than 45o across the sky. The field of view of most binoculars and telescopes is simply too narrow for good meteor observations. Experienced meteor observers suggest the following viewing strategy: Dress warmly as the autumn nights are likely to be cold. Spread a thick blanket over a flat spot of ground. Lie down, look up and somewhat to the north. Meteors can appear in any part of the sky, although their trails will tend to point back toward the radiant. A reclining chair is also handy. Tuning In to the Giacobinids In 1946 the Earth passed through the orbit of comet Giacobini-Zinner just 15 days after the comet. The result was a remarkable meteor shower with hourly rates exceeding 3000 in many locations. It also marked an important event in serious meteor astronomy: the first radar detection of meteors. Just after World War II many countries had sophisticated radar installations, and over 20 were trained on the Giacobinid radiant during the predicted storm. Radar receivers in London, the Soviet Union and the United States all detected echoes. Radar measurements of meteor showers are important because radar is able to detect meteors even when they are very small, or when bright moonlight or sunlight makes visual observing impossible. In 1956 radar was responsible for the detection of a surprisingly strong Giacobinid storm. The Earth passed by the comet's orbit nearly 200 days before the comet, so astronomers weren't expecting much of a shower. However, radio astronomers at Jodrell Bank detected radar echoes from an intense meteor burst during the day on October 9th that lasted nearly 2 hours. Modern amateur astronomers are tuning in to meteors through radio echoes. Radio echoes are not the same as radar echoes, but they are related. When a meteor burns up in the atmosphere it leaves behind a trail of ionized gas. The ionization rapidly dissipates, but transmissions from distant radio stations are briefly reflected from the ionized trail back down to Earth. During an intense meteor shower, a simple shortwave receiver can detect many echoes per minute from stations thousands of kilometers away. Interested amateurs can visit the International Meteor Organization for more information (http://www.imo.net/radio/index.htm). Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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