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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 08 октября 1998


    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Продолжается полет межпланетной станции "Cassini" Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Продолжается полет межпланетной станции "Cassini" Лаборатория реактивного движения в Пасадене (штат Калифорния, США) распространила очередное сообщение о полете межпланетной станции "Cassini". В настоящее время она совершает полет по траектории, лежащей между орбит Венеры и Земли. Hа 12 часов по Гринвичу 5 октября станция преодолела расстояние в 958,8 миллиона километров, однако ее удаление от Земли составляет только 192,2 миллиона километров. С борта станции на Землю регулярно поступает телеметрическая информация. Ранее на этой неделе проведены ежеквартальные проверки работоспособности аппаратуры, которые показали, что на борту станции все в порядке. 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hа сегодня запланирован старт ракеты "Atlas-2A"с космодрома на мысе Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hа сегодня запланирован старт ракеты "Atlas-2A"с космодрома на мысе Канаверал Hа 8 октября с космодрома на мысе Канаверал запланирован пуск ракеты-носителя "Atlas-2A". Это будет первый пуск с космодрома после происшедших в августе двух подряд аварий. Первая авария произошла 12 августа, когда взорвался носитель "Titan-4" с грузом Hационального разведывательного агентства США. Вторая - 26 августа, когда взорвалась новая ракета-носитель "Delta-3" со спутником связи на борту. Все службы космодрома очень серьезно отнеслись к подготовке ракеты "Atlas-2A" к пуску, чтобы прервать цепь неудач. Ракета-носитель должна стартовать 8 октября в 21 час 55 минут по Гринвичу (9 октября в 1 час 55 минут по московскому времени). Первоначально старт планировался на 6 октября, но был отсрочен из-за урагана Georges, пронесшегося над космодромом. Во время пуска на орбиту должен быть выведен спутник связи "Hot Bird-4". 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космонавт ESA Andre Kuipers (краткая биография) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Космонавт ESA Andre Kuipers (краткая биография) Космонавт ESA Andre KUIPERS родился 5 октября 1958 года в Амстердаме (Hидерланды). В 1977 году закончил Амстердамский лицей ван дер Ваальса. В 1987 году получил докторскую степень по медицине в Амстердамском университете. После окончания университета работал в Академическом медицинском центре в Амстердаме, где занимался исследованиями вестибулярного аппарата. В 1987 - 1988 годах, как офицер Королевского медицинского корпуса ВВС Hидерландов, изучал авиационные происшествия, происходящие из-за пространственной дезориентации летчиков. В 1989 - 1990 годах работал в Космическом медицинском центре в Соестерберге. Занимался проблемами адаптации и реадаптации человека в условиях космического полета. С 1991 года работал в медицинских учреждениях Европейского космического агентства. Участвовал в подготовке медицинских исследований на борту американских кораблей многоразового использования. 6 октября 1998 года зачислен в отряд космонавтов ESA. В течение предстоящих двух лет будет проходить подготовку к космическим полетам. Его полет возможен в 2000 году по программе STS-107, во время которого будут проводиться медицинские исследования и эксперименты, подготовленные европейскими странами. Женат. Имеет двух дочерей. Увлекается плаванием, лыжным спортом, путешествиями. 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hа космодроме на мысе Канаверал может начаться забастовка Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hа космодроме на мысе Канаверал может начаться забастовка Специалисты, обслуживающие фотографическую аппаратуру на наземных станциях слежения в районе космодрома на мысе Канаверал, пригрозили начать забастовку в этом месяце, если компания Computer Science Raytheon, в которой они работают по контракту, не выполнит их требования по оплате труда. Фотонаблюдение из различных точек на начальном участке полета ракет-носителей проводится в соответствии с требониями Правил безопасности для космодромов. Правила требуют непрерывного наблюдения в первые секунды полета, чтобы отслеживать потенциальную угрозу со стороны носителя для жителей близлежащих населенных пунктов. Если разногласия между специалистами и руководством компании Computer Science Raytheon не будут урегулированы, то возможно будут сорваны пуски по двум важным программам NASA - 25 октября в космос должен отправиться межпланетный зонд "Deep Space-1", а 29 октября должен стартовать космический корабль "Discovery". 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: К Земле приближается метеорный рой Леониды Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... К Земле приближается метеорный рой Леониды К Земле приближается метеорный рой Леониды, порожденный кометой 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Максимальная активность роя ожидается 17 ноября с.г., когда ежечасно в атмосферу Земли будут вторгаться до 50 тысяч микрометеоритов. Леониды ежегодно достигают атмосферы Земли, но наибольшая интенсивность наблюдается только один раз в 33 года. Предыдущий раз такое наблюдалось в 1966 году. Следующий максимум ожидался в 1999 году, но расчеты, проведенные сотрудником Лаборатории реактивного движения Don EOMANS, показали, что это произойдет на год раньше. Hаилучшие условия для наблюдения "звездного дождя" будут в Азии, но жители и других районов Земли смогут стать свидетелями редкого зрелища. Большинство метеоритов имеют размеры не более нескольких сантиметров в диаметре, поэтому не станут угрозой для жителей Земли. Однако спутники на околоземной орбите могут пострадать от космических пришельцев, летящих со скоростью в несколько десятков километров в секунду. В связи с этим 5 октября NASA объявила, что в целях безопасности многие спутники будут соориентированы таким образом, чтобы минимизировать ущерб. Так же будет повернуто в сторону Земли зеркало космического телескопа "Hubble". 7.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hа территории Космического центра имени Кеннеди строится наземная Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hа территории Космического центра имени Кеннеди строится наземная лаборатория для биологических исследований Руководство Космического центра имени Кеннеди и Космического порта Флориды объявили о планах строительства нового помещения биологической лаборатории. Строительство обойдется в $ 15 млн. Оборудование лаборатории позволит осуществлять наземную поддержку полетов на борт Международной космической станции, полетов "шаттлов" и перспективных кораблей многоразового использования типа "VenturStar". "Это еще один шаг Космического центра имени Кеннеди в будущее", - заявил директор центра Roy BRIDGES. Финансировать работы намерен Космический порт Флориды. Центр имени Кеннеди предоставит площади для строительства лаборатории. Инициаторы строительства считают, что часть работ будут финансировать ряд правительственных учреждений, заинтересованных в результатах работ. 8.10.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12966: Eutelsat-W2 and Sirius 3 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12966 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT EUTELSAT-W2 1998-056A 25491 05 OCTOBER 1998 SIRIUS 3 1998-056B 25492 05 OCTOBER 1998 [ IN SPACEWARN 12964, THE NAME OF THE SATELLITE 1998-054A IS WRONG; THE RIGHT NAME IS MOLNIYA 1-91] DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 06 OCTOBER 1998, 13:45 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Potential for life in universe reaches far beyond Earth (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Office of Public Relations University of Colorado-Boulder 354 Willard Administrative Center Campus Box 9 Boulder, Colorado 80309-0009 (303) 492-6431 Contact: Bruce Jakosky, (303) 492-8004 Jim Scott, (303) 492-3114 Oct. 2, 1998 POTENTIAL FOR LIFE IN UNIVERSE REACHES FAR BEYOND EARTH, CU PROF SAYS The potential for the evolution of past or present life in the universe reaches beyond Mars and even our own solar system, according to a University of Colorado at Boulder space scientist. Bruce Jakosky, a scientist at CU-Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, said new findings over the past decade indicate life could have been present on Venus in the distant past when the sun was cooler, that life may now be present on Jupiter's moon Europa, and it may have developed on several other planets or moons harboring water. Recent planet discoveries outside the solar system are tantalizing hints that life could have formed elsewhere, he said. Scientists believe the requirements for primitive life forms like bacteria are water or some other type of liquid, a source of energy, and access to elements to construct complex molecules, said Jakosky, a professor in geological sciences. "If life can form as easily as we believe it did on Earth, we should find evidence of it on Mars and perhaps other planets and moons." The implications of studying the earliest history of life on Earth are that microbial life can form relatively easily under the right conditions, said Jakosky. Actual searches for life on these other planets will be used to test the theories. He discusses these issues and the potential for life elsewhere in his new book, "The Search for Life on Other Planets," published this month by Cambridge University Press. "The search for life on other planets has undergone a rebirth in recent years," he said. "Although the scientific impetus has come from significant new discoveries in biology and astronomy, the search itself is driven by the human desire to explore," he said. "I think the most significant aspect of what is happening today in the space sciences is that we are actively looking for life elsewhere. "Exploration is the driver, and I think a lot of people want to understand what it means to be human," said Jakosky. According to Jakosky, three major discoveries in the past 500 years have had huge impacts on space exploration. The discovery by Copernicus in the 1500s that Earth orbited the sun and was not the center of the universe; Charles Darwin's work on evolution in the 1800s, which essentially removed humans from the center of life on Earth; and the discovery of planets elsewhere in the universe. "We are living in a unique time," he said. "In the past three years, we have discovered about a dozen planets outside our solar system, and there will be more to come. The challenge now is to find new techniques to see if Earth-like planets are present out there." To date, the planets discovered outside the solar system are Jupiter-sized or larger, but new techniques are being developed that may be able to detect Earth-sized planets, he said. "There is tremendous interest on Earth about extraterrestrial life," said Jakosky, the new director of LASP's Center for Astrobiology. CU was selected in July as one of NASA's 11 new Astrobiology Institutes that will focus on interdisciplinary research on life in the universe. The CU-Boulder center is funded by a five-year, $3 million NASA grant. Jakosky also is teaching an undergraduate class on extraterrestrial biology this semester that filled quickly with students majoring in a wide variety of topics, from philosophy, physics and music to anthropology and economics. "They all are interested in finding out whether there is life elsewhere," he said. The discovery of strange, primitive forms of bacterial life on Earth in recent years that live in near-boiling hydrothermal vents undersea or in volcanically active areas is a revolution, he said. "There is no reason that organisms like these could not exist in similar environments that occur on other planets," he said. Jakosky's new book is divided into three parts: what we know about the origins of life and evolution on Earth; a look at planets and moons in our own solar system for life potential; and the formation of planets around other stars and assessing their potential for microbial or intelligent life. "Twenty years ago, we thought there was only one planet in the solar system capable of supporting life," said Jakosky. "Now we know there may be as many as a half-dozen. We are the first generation in history with any real chance of discovering life elsewhere. Jakosky's book will be in bookstores in October 1998. - 30 - Note to Editors: Bruce Jakosky will give a free public talk about his new book at the CU Museum on Oct. 7 at 7 p.m. Refreshments will be provided. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hubble Probes Outer Limits At Next Space Science Update Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Don Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC October 6, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1547) Bill Steigerwald Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-5017) Ray Villard Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (Phone: 410/338-4514) NOTE TO EDITORS: N98-63 HUBBLE PROBES OUTER LIMITS AT NEXT SPACE SCIENCE UPDATE The next Space Science Update (SSU), called "The NICMOS Deep Field: Probing the Outer Limits," is scheduled for Thursday, Oct. 8, 1998, at 11 a.m. EDT, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. A "long exposure" infrared image taken with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has uncovered the faintest galaxies ever seen, possibly the farthest objects known in the Universe. Panelists will be: * Dr. Rodger I. Thompson, NICMOS Principal Investigator, University of Arizona * Dr. Alan M. Dressler, Astronomer, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, Pasadena, CA * Dr. Lisa Storrie-Lombardi, post-doctoral research associate, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution * Dr. David S. Leckrone, Hubble Space Telescope Senior Project Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, panel moderator. The SSU will originate from the NASA Headquarters Auditorium, 300 E St., S.W., Washington, DC, and will be carried live on NASA TV with two-way question-and-answer capability for reporters covering the event from participating NASA centers. NASA Television is broadcast on the GE2 satellite, transponder 9C, at 85 degrees West longitude, frequency 3880.0 Mhz, audio 6.8 MHz. Audio of the broadcast will be available on voice circuit at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on 407/867-1220, 407/867-1240 or 407/867-1260. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Douglas Stetson To Manage Solar System Exploration Office Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Mary Beth Murrill FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Oct. 5, 1998 DOUGLAS STETSON TO MANAGE SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION OFFICE Douglas Stetson has been named the manager of the Solar System Exploration Program Office in the Space and Earth Sciences Program Directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He replaces John C. Beckman, who was recently appointed manager of JPL's Systems Division, overseeing space mission development. Stetson, 39, has held a variety of technical and managerial positions since he joined JPL in 1983. He spent about 10 years in JPL's Mission Design section, specializing in orbital mechanics and planetary mission design and engineering. During that time, he served as the lead mission design engineer for the Cassini mission to Saturn early in the project's history, and was the study lead for a large number of advanced planetary concept studies. From 1992 to 1993 Stetson worked at NASA Headquarters, Washington DC, in the agency's Solar System Exploration Division. Since returning to JPL he has been heavily involved in strategic and technology planning for JPL's solar system exploration program and has continued to work closely with the NASA Office of Space Science. Born in Sacramento, CA, Stetson attended Stanford University and received a bachelor's degree in physics in 1981 and a master's degree in aeronautics and astronautics in 1983. He resides in La Canada-Flintridge, CA. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - October 5, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Cassini Mission Status Report October 5, 1998 Cassini, launched flawlessly on its way to Saturn one year ago on October 15, continues to operate in excellent health as it cruises through the inner solar system. Routine spacecraft "housekeeping" duties were conducted over the past month, including a readout of data from Cassini's attitude and articulation control subsystem and regular maintenance of the solid-state data recorder. The quarterly engineering maintenance was also performed, involving exercise and lubrication of moving parts such as the reaction wheel assembly and main engine's gimbal actuator. Today, Cassini is traveling at a speed of 73,900 kilometers per hour (45,920 miles per hour), having flown more than 958.8 million kilometers (595.7 million miles) on its long trajectory through the inner solar system. Today, the spacecraft is 192.2 million kilometers (119.4 million miles) from Earth. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Comet Mission Educator Fellowships Available Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Mary Beth Murrill FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Oct. 5, 1998 STARDUST COMET MISSION EDUCATOR FELLOWSHIPS AVAILABLE Educators are invited to apply for 15 new fellowships offered by NASA's Stardust comet sample return mission, which is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. An announcement of opportunity for the fellowships is being distributed to solicit applications from professional science educators including classroom teachers, curriculum specialists and museum or science center staff, who would be eligible for selection and training in early 1998. Those chosen will join 10 Stardust Educator Fellows who were selected last year to conduct educator training and to field test workshops and materials relating to the Stardust mission and comet science in general. The fellowships are part of Stardust's education and outreach program, which, with the Challenger Center space education organization, is implementing a nationwide teacher training initiative and developing educational modules targeted at grades 5 through 8. Stardust Educator Fellows will receive an expense-paid intensive educator training workshop covering the Stardust mission and science related to the mission; a three-day course on presenting the strategies of mission planning and a complete teacher-training presenter package to use for conducting Stardust workshops; priority updates and mailings on Stardust mission information and materials; materials to help plan and promote Stardust workshops; continued contact with the Stardust science team to answer questions and to facilitate discussion, and access to a 1/25th scale model of the spacecraft on loan from JPL. In return, selected fellows must commit to conduct a minimum of two educator training workshops per year (approved by the Stardust education outreach team) and to share evaluation information from those workshops with Stardust educational partners. To receive the announcement, please contact Kerri Beisser at Challenger Center either by e-mail to kbeisser@challenger.org or phone at (703) 683-9740. When leaving a message, please include a mailing address or FAX number where an application may be sent. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Antarctic Ozone Depletion Sets New Size Record Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... David E. Steitz Headquarters, Washington, DC October 6, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1730) Lynn Chandler Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/614-5562) Stephanie Kenitzer NOAA/NCEP, Silver Spring, MD (Phone: 301/763-8000, ext. 7007) RELEASE: 98-178 ANTARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION SETS NEW SIZE RECORD NASA and NOAA satellites show that the Antarctic ozone thinning covers the largest expanse of territory since the depletion developed in the early 1980s. The measurements were obtained this year between mid-August and early October using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Probe (TOMS-EP) satellite and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) aboard the NOAA-14 satellite. "This is the largest Antarctic ozone hole we've ever observed, and it's nearly the deepest," said Dr. Richard McPeters, Principal Investigator for Earth Probe TOMS. Preliminary data from the satellites show that this year's ozone depletion reached a record size of 10.5 million square miles (27.3 million square kilometers) on Sept. 19, 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set on Sept. 7, 1996. The ozone level fell to 90 Dobson units on Sept. 30, 1998. This nearly equals the lowest value ever recorded of 88 Dobson Units seen on Sept. 28, 1994, over Antarctica. Scientists are not concerned that the hole might be growing because they know it is a direct result of unusually cold stratospheric temperatures, though they do not know why it is colder this year. The decrease in ozone, however, could result in more acute solar or ultraviolet radiation exposure in southern Chile and Argentina if the ozone hole were to pass over that region. One of the primary concerns with an ozone hole of this size is that as the hole "breaks up," the ozone-depleted air will diffuse and reduce the overall ozone levels in the mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere. These ozone losses are caused by chlorine and bromine compounds released by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Year-to-year variations of size and depth of the ozone hole depend on the variations in meteorological conditions. Scientists believe that the decrease in Antarctic ozone is attributed to unusually cold (by 5-9 degrees Fahrenheit) temperatures in the southern middle and polar latitudes. "This year was colder than normal and therefore enables greater activation of reactive chlorine that ultimately causes more ozone loss and lower ozone levels," said Dr. Alvin J. Miller of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). This decrease in ozone was observed earlier than usual with the hole opening in mid-August about two weeks before a typical year. This is consistent with expectations, since chlorine levels have slightly increased since the early 1990s. As a result of international agreements known as the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances (and its amendments), chlorine levels from CFCs already have peaked in the lower atmosphere and should peak in the Antarctic stratosphere within a few years. As we move into the next century, chlorine-catalyzed ozone losses resulting from CFCs and other chlorine-containing species will be reduced. "An ozone hole of substantial depth and size is likely to continue to form for the next few years or until the stratospheric chlorine amount drops to its pre-ozone hole values," said Dr. Paul Newman at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD. "The decrease in chlorine in our atmosphere is analogous to using a small air cleaner to recycle all of the air in a large indoor sports stadium -- it will take a very, very long time." Scientists and others have a keen interest in ozone depletion, given that the increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation that reach the Earth's surface because of ozone loss have the potential to increase the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in humans, harm some crops, and interfere with marine life. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Since the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985, TOMS and SBUV have been key instruments for monitoring ozone levels over the Earth. Analysis of TOMS and SBUV data have traced in detail the annual development of the Antarctic "ozone hole," a large area of intense ozone depletion that occurs between late August and early October. Analysis of the historical data indicated that the hole has existed since at least 1979. A Dobson unit measures the physical thickness of the ozone layer at the pressure of the Earth's surface. The global average ozone layer thickness is 300 Dobson units, which equals three millimeters or 1/8th of an inch, and while not uniform, averages the thickness of two stacked pennies. In contrast during these annual occurrences, the ozone layer thickness in the ozone hole is about 100 Dobson units (1/25th of an inch or 1 millimeter thick), approximately the thickness of a single dime. Ozone shields life on Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. The ozone molecule is made up of three atoms of oxygen; ozone comprises a thin layer of the atmosphere which absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Most atmospheric ozone is found in a thin layer between 6-18 miles up. TOMS ozone data and pictures are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov or through links at URL: http://pao.gsfc.nasa.gov/ TOMS-EP and other ozone-measurement programs are key parts of a global environmental effort of NASA's Earth Science enterprise, a long-term research program designed to study Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. Goddard developed and manages the operation of the TOMS-EP for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - October 5, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT October 5, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch -66 days The Pyro Initiation Unit (PIU) interface reverification was completed successfully. Mars Polar Lander: Launch -90 days Planetary Protection inspection and assay tasks were completed. The lander is on the Pathfinder rotation fixture, however mechanical tear down activities required to replace the Power Distribution and Drive Unit (PDDU) and Command and Data Handling (C&DH) boxes have been slowed due to questions regarding safety procedures. Expect these issues to be worked on October 6. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - October 6, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT October 6, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch -65 days The Deep Space Network (DSN) end-to-end compatibility testing is in progress and should complete as scheduled tommorrow. Based on further review of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) data, the Project has decided to inspect the orbiter Pyro Initiation Unit (PIU) for cracked glass body diodes and rework the box as necessary as was done on the orbiter and lander Power Distribution and Drive Unit (PDDU) and Command and Data Handling (C&DH) boxes. A schedule replan meeting will be held tommorrow. Mars Polar Lander: Launch -89 days The lander cruise stage and backshell were removed as scheduled. The lander PIU was removed for inspection and rework of cracked glass body diodes and excess conformal coating per the FMEA review cited under the orbiter report. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Update - October 2, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... STARDUST Status Report October 2, 1998 Ken Atkins STARDUST Project Manager Note: This report covers progress for week ending September 25 also. Travel requirements precluded posting last week. Assembly, Test, and Launch Operations (ATLO) activities: For the week of Sept. 25, the major event was completion of system thermal vacuum testing, and, after the test, moving the spacecraft and its electronic ground support equipment (EGSE) back to the Multifunction Test Facility (MTF). The very successful system thermal vacuum test series was completed two days early and showed excellent flight system performance through the simulated flight environments. Needless to say, the team was very pleased with the completion of this major test. Another very key milestone was completed this week with the delivery of the flight aerogel collector to Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado. This means it is now ready to install in the Sample Return Capsule. The STARDUST video feed from Lockheed Martin Astronautics is back online after the Thermal Vacuum Test. STARDUST's Outreach and Opportunity Office participated in a JPL Commercialization & Technology Transfer workshop with industry this week. Entertainment, toy and other business and industry representatives were briefed on several missions and the event provided a forum for ideas for possible future ventures involving JPL and commercial interests. Installation of the microchips with everyone's name is scheduled for October 12. Photo coverage is planned so everyone can observe and imagine themselves "boarding the flight." For more information on the STARDUST mission - the first ever comet sample return mission - please visit the STARDUST home page: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 08 октября 1998 (1998-10-08) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Scientists announce plan to guide satellite operators through meteor s Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology Toronto, Ontario Scientists announce plan to guide satellite operators through meteor storm Toronto, October 7, 1998 -- A team of Canadian scientists working with the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology (CRESTech) outlined today a global operation aimed at safeguarding the world's 600-plus satellites as they head into the first serious meteor threat of the modern space age on November 17, 1998. Though the risk of damage from the Leonids meteor storm is considered slight, a number of international satellite operators, including those of the United States Department of Defence, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency, are working with CRESTech to reduce the odds of impact from the natural space debris forming the comet trail into which Earth will soon pass. The Leonids are a swarm of metoroids that intercept Earth's orbit to some degree every year, usually with little more fanfare than a spectacular night of watching shooting stars. This year, however, the storm will reach levels not seen in over thirty years as Earth travels directly into a path of interplanetary flotsam flung by the four-kilometer-wide Comet Tempel-Tuttle. That last peak occurred in 1966, at a time when only a handful of small scientific satellites were in operation. Currently, there are estimated to be well over 600 operational satellites in Earth's orbit, transmitting signals 24 hours a day for services such as search-and-rescue, entertainment broadcasts, telecommunications, as well as the global-positioning system (GPS) used by commerce, transportation industries and military forces, among others. "In the last 30 years, people in technologically advanced countries have developed a strong dependence on a wide variety of satellite services," explains Peter Brown, the University of Western Ontario astronomer leading the CRESTech science team. "Unfortunately, if even one satellite was disabled during the storm, it may not only be a multi-million dollar disaster for its owners but may disrupt services for up to millions of clients." Peter Brown is organizing the Canadian science team providing the hurricane- style forecast of the shower's activities to satellite operators around the world during the peak night. Clients include the United States Space Command, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, Canada's Department of National Defence and several other government and commercial organizations. For more information, please contact: Andre Bellefeuille CRESTech Communications Manager Office: (416) 665-5464, Cell phone: (416) 707-9120 email: andre@admin.crestech.ca Backgrounder CRESTech Observation Campaign for the Leonid Meteor Storm 1998 Statement of Problem Many scientists believe that between 1998-2002 there may be a large, transitory increase in the meteoroid hazard in the near-Earth space environment resulting from the Leonid meteor shower. The Leonid stream, which emanates from the constellation of Leo and orbits around the Sun, has a 33-year travel cycle. It peaks over a three-to-five year time span matching the period during which the parent comet (Comet Tempel-Tuttle) travels closest to the Earth. Historically, there have been observations of over 40 visible meteors per second to ground observer during the climax of these storms. This peak period is normally preceded by a few years of build-up, during which an indication of potential activity can be recorded from the ground. This increase in activity is roughly 10,000 times the norm and results in an accumulation equal to that of several years regular activity in our skies. There is a general consensus within the scientific community that some enhanced activity will be realized due to the next shower, however useful predictions are not possible due to limited historic data. During the last major meteor storm, in 1966, satellites were much smaller and less numerous than today. Today there are estimated to be between 600 and 750 operational satellites in Earth's orbit. While many space-faring nations, predominantly the United States, have devoted considerable resources to measuring and understanding "space weather" phenomena caused by solar activity and other aspects of the space environment, meteoroid activity has not figured prominently in this effort. The hazards to spacecraft result not only from the large number of meteoroids, particularly those of smaller masses, but from the high speed of the Leonid meteoroids (72 kilometres per second). The effects of such impact may range from infrastructure damage to the more serious threat of electro-static discharge generated from such an impact. Such charges could interact directly with a spacecraft's electrical systems and essentially "short-circuit" the satellite. The latter effect has been proposed as the likely explanation for the loss of ESA's Olympus telecommunications platform in 1993. All satellites, both military and civilian, at all orbital altitudes are at risk from this natural threat. Extensive work has been performed by the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, under the funding auspices of the Toronto-based Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology (CRESTech), to model the physical processes resulting in the appearance of this storm. This unique model allows for predictive capabilities so long as appropriate observational data are available to constrain the initial conditions. However, observational data is not yet sufficient to provide accurate forecasts of the shower over the next five years. Observations made in 1997 indicate that, and agree with, the recent discussions at an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/Aerospace Corporation Conference proposing that activity level may reach as high as 10,000 naked-eye observable meteors per hour. The International Program In 1997, the primary participants in the project were NASA, the United States Air Force (USAF), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Canada's Department of National Defence (DND) and CRESTech. With the increasing awareness of the Leonid threat, the participants in the 1998 project are the USAF, CSA, DND, the European Space Agency (ESA), and a major American commercial operator. There is also identified interest from TEKES (Finland), and the Societe Europeene des Satellite (SES). Organization's participating in the operational portion of CRESTech's program will receive real-time data on the storm's build-up rate, peak and general activity. It is expected that these data will be used by some satellite operators to take one of several courses of action in the event that peak activity reach dangerously high levels. Among those actions are: changing a spacecraft's attitude (i.e. pointing direction) to avoid being hit in crucial or delicate areas; powering down an endangered spacecraft so as to avoid a massive electrical discharge; or riding out the storm with enhanced ground- station teams in order to react quickly to storm-generated anomalies. The Observation Campaign Location: The two sites best suited, and thus chosen, for the campaign have been determined as south of Ulaan Baator, Mongolia, near the Gobi Desert, and at the Royal Australian Air Force's Tindal military site in Northern Australia, just south of Darwin. Instruments: The 1998 campaign will employ two methods of data collection: radar and Low-Light-Level Television (LLTV) observations. Both are capable of measuring the smallest meteoroids (which are the population relevant to the space hazard) and each can be used to establish their physical parameters. The Mongolia site will host two LLTV sites (each with approximately five camera), and the Australian site will host one radar site as well as one LLTV site (with two cameras). Science Team: The CRESTech science team includes Dr. Jim Jones, Dr. Alan Webster, Dr. Kerry Ellis, Dr. Wayne Hocking, Dr. Martin Beech, Dr. Robert Hawkes, Ms. Margaret Campbell and Mr. Peter Brown, whom acts as the Project Manager. This represents the largest group of meteor specialists in the world with a most varied list of strengths. Dr. Hawkes (Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB) is the world expert in application of video technology to meteor observations and heads the LLTV component of the program working along with Ms. Campbell (University of Western Ontario). Drs. Jones, Webster, Hocking (UWO) and Ellis (CRC Ottawa) are world leaders in meteor radar systems, observations and analysis. Dr. Beech (University of Regina) and Mr. Brown (UWO) have studied and adapted models of the stream and liaise with the satellite community in an effort to understand satellite effects of the storm. No other single group has the equivalent breadth of scientific expertise in this field. For more information, please contact: Andre Bellefeuille, CRESTech Communications Manager Office: (416) 665-5464, Cell phone: (416) 707-9120, email: andre@admin.crestech.ca Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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