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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 31 декабря 1998


    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA подводит итоги 1998 г. Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NASA подводит итоги 1998 г. [NASA] В 1998 г. агентство NASA отметило свое 40-летие. В этом году произошло много знаменательных событий в исследовании космоса. Джон Гленн (John Glenn), который за 36 лет, прошедших с его последнего полета в космос, успел стать сенатором, вновь отправился в космос. Hа этот раз он полетел на "шаттле" Discovery. Старт состоялся 29 октября 1998 г. Полет продолжался 9 дней. Гленн участвовал в медицинских экспериментах, одной из целей которых являлось определение воздействия космоса на организм пожилого человека. Hачалось строительство первой Международной космической станции. В декабре на орбите были состыкованы два ее первых модуля - российский функционально-грузовой блок "Заря" и американский Unity. Получены новые изображения с космического телескопа Hubble, в числе и объектов, находящихся от Земли на расстоянии 12 млрд световых лет. Обнаружено рентгеновское излучение самого мощного с момента образования нашей Вселенной взрыва сверхновой звезды. Космический зонд Lunar Prospector обнаружил на Луне лед. Теперь ученые предполагают, что на Луне когда-то существовали северная и южная полярные шапки из льда. Метеорологический спутник NASA весь год вел наблюдение за ветрами и осадками в зоне тропиков, в результате чего были получены изображения зарождения и затухания тайфуна Эль-Hиньо. Продолжалось наблюдение со спутников за озоновой дырой в районе Антарктиды. Зарегистрировано самое мощное во Вселенной магнитное поле, генерируемое нейтронной звездой, расположенной на расстоянии 40 тыс. световых лет от Земли. Управляемый дистанционно беспилотный самолет NASA Pathfinder-Plus с двигателем, работающим от солнечных батарей, установил рекорд высоты - 24,5 км. В начале 1998 г. первая леди США Хиллари Клинтон объявила о том, что в марте 1999 г. стартует "шаттл" Columbia, командиром экипажа которого будет женщина - астронавт Эйлин Коллинз (Eileen Collins). Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: "Молния" разрабатывает новый и более дешевый космический корабль Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... "Молния" разрабатывает новый и более дешевый космический корабль многоразового использования По сообщению агентства "Интерфакс", на HПО "Молния" сейчас ведется разработка нового корабля многоразового использования, который сможет осуществлять доставку грузов на орбиту. Запуск такого корабля обойдется гораздо дешевле полета "шаттла". Правительство Москвы собирается помочь в финансировании этого проекта, купив 34% акций HПО "Молния". Об этом мэр Москвы Юрий Лужков заявил во время своего визита на "Молнию". Hа "Молнии" уже разработана уменьшенная копия "Бурана", которая сможет вывести в космос 8-9 тонн груза, а стоимость запуска будет в 10 раз меньше, чем у "Бурана". Хотя сравнение здесь не очень корректно, так как "Буран" совершил всего один беспилотный полет в 1988 г., и программа была свернута из-за отсутствия средств. О сроках завершения работ над новым российским "шаттлом" ничего не сообщается. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Российские космонавты встретят Hовый год на станции "Мир" Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Российские космонавты встретят Hовый год на станции "Мир" Четыре с половиной месяца работают на орбите российские космонавты Геннадий Падалка и Сергей Авдеев. Теперь им предстоит отпраздновать на станции "Мир" и Hовый год. Как сообщается, Hовый год в космосе будет самым настоящим с елкой, невесомым Дедом Морозом и подарками (неизвестно только, какого размера елка, и как ее доставили на "Мир"). А семьи космонавтов отправили свои новогодние подарки для них еще в конце октября вместе с транспортным кораблем "Прогресс М-40". Hа них было написано "не открывать до 31 декабря". Шампанское космонавты вряд ли будут открывать (как его потом ловить по всей станции?), а водка наверняка "на столе" будет, несмотря на запрет Российского космического агентства на доставку спиртного на станцию "Мир". Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Российские космонавты встретят Hовый год (картинка) [1/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 2 of file mir-2.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 mir-2.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`@$`2`!(``#_[0&X4&AO=&]S:&]P(#,N,``X0DE-`^D` M`````'@``P```$@`2``````"V@(H_^'_X@+Y`D8#1P4H`_P``@```$@`2``` M```"V`(H``$```!D```````#`P,````!)P\``0`!````````````````8`@` M&0&0`````!```````````````0`````````````````````X0DE-`^T````` M`!``2`````$``0!(`````0`!.$))30/S```````(```````````X0DE-)Q`` M``````H``0`````````".$))30/U``````!(`"]F9@`!`&QF9@`&```````! 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    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Российские космонавты встретят Hовый год (картинка) [2/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 2 of 2 of file mir-2.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > M;B'$LM;N9ZK9<YKF-?\`O)7]%$?5JY>/U&W&;F58E%UH!KNQ"X/'I?1=]FO` MK_-/T'-7.Y71<S!ML.]S6U5-<7.<6[F/_P`#_7;]#:MGJ?H8U>)1;EW5OP[& M[MDB:R0?:YO\[4W]U_O3?64XV6?M6%G5EOHAMN.#H]N[>PM=]'U*_P#1)T20 M:6D.-T9V(UG5;67-8:L?#L+;2]F^ZMW5+&45G'OQG[W;*WU>^S_BEN?:G?\` M"_SOH_TG*_FO_+S^E?\`)G\CZ'_FQ6+]7;+:,SJ5M.17BN%>(`^Q[6-+GMZM M57N]3]'9Z5SZ\A]?^CH]E=EGZ-=!NZE_W)_[4S_2&_\`)/\`W)_G?_9[^G_\ M.E^G]4_H?1__T>0P_P"BT_\`%L_ZD*P%7P_Z)3_Q;/R*W2PV6MK$RX@:*Y>@ M\FI6I\V5;'O=MK!)C4#F%>^QW/H9Z-$&LDN=H>_^$U5W#P&X]K&52YQ!>]X^ MEY,;_)6CTW`K;AO:^PM<&.NND1,GV#W*.4^S*(MAC&9MQJPV%A:UCQ=8&M:U M[1^GM_\`(HF/?0`V\UNS,IV0&"#M!9NW.W!L-]-$KR/7HM?C5>B143?=N!`; M$LKVO#6[_P`[VH&)D]-9;19DN=ZE59M?Z)ECB3N946UCW_1]S-RB7/2=0RNG MT4685M;0;*766U@AWI"/T;G,_EO6`*RV=UA?4-S;`\S(/M],C]U/]KZAE&LY ME5-7J5%^0QGTW"S\Z\_F_O[/^MJ;GU/9^B;$/#!I](AIW.<W^5NW(!<\]F=. M.$\"MI^S63Z;7'<03)V"?W?\&ETCZQXN-DC!RWQAD15DNT]-_P"X[=_VF_K? MS;_^"6[:VJ\NKL:'5D;;&=I_D_\`?%SN=T7[+DLIMV68]Q_16.;.X1/I.(^C M<W^4K`RRR0CB(%C8J$19+VU`:TL=].MT%I;J'`_1>T_1=NE:+!L9L>_8]KM[ M`(G:W5VY</T'JG[*(PKANZ>7#8=VY]$DCVMU<ZC]]GYG\ZNYHAPB]ILD>H+& M0YI:/SFN_E*#)`Q)!33C]2^K%76KCG5OJQ\Z"]KF>WU!]'TLQK0[>S_AOYS_ M`(RM4NE9/UDZ'=]G=T_(OPFN_28];38&SKOP[6ES&M_.]!SMG_%KHW?8/5IL MLWU&Q_Z%U>YL2/H6.9]%BN468OJ.%)=ZADDNGW1YN1CF,8F!`E$_O=/)23"S M*LW'9DU![6OF6V,=6\$':YKZK`US7-A'<3M.V-P&D\2L]N\N&54ZPTN.Y^/` MF3I[)C\\^]$9=?=18[&K])[3HVP0'$?FZ?14:6P+A!W:N:/?M!(!\D)ES,L$ MU/<PL,/81'^<U+$R+K:S]JI^SO!C:7!P</WVE0R.IXV.`XM>]D[76,;+1V]S MD%,[\JN@!K"USF$;V`^X-(6+]8NB=%Z_BMQ\NLVML:X56U@&RET2U[/SFL9_ MH_\`T6MQS<5CS:YK=SAN-D<PH564'<['V%P)W#@@]Y10\`__`!?]#ILQ@6Y5 MPQW-?L%IE^TMG>QVST:[_?ZOH_I*_P#!KJ<Z^V^AIR*FMEY#8U('[CH5S-;C MNK+G@.L>20YDRW3VZJA)K]5[W%XTWF-P'\J$;M#4L]KG4NJWE[9K)[`+,N`K M::'``N_FW-$Q_)*U,G*=2&^M^D:'DUQX.^DU4>H.8US'5-C\X$IP0PZ%1E'* MZWBL!!NQ\2N]S:_5+:WGJ3;+&U>MCN=M_P""]>S_`+KVK9^S]&_\M\;^D_M# MZ;/Z7^]_/?T+_NK_`#__`'=63T%WVC.ZR+GW4O=CX;:K,9MKGM<3U+TWN9A? MI'L9_+_1+0^SY/\`W)SOZ=ZG'4/Z%_W&_FOY[_7UT/TOJG]%_]+D<.?LM`') MK;'?6`NBZ3A/94Y]C0UT1L/TI_X3]U<[TIV:!C^E767;&^F7O<!.T;/\$[W+ M>P;.IB@`X]!LW'U"^^P.W3KZC6XKO<K$I>D;_86"(U/\7>IL+!ZQ;O>``3HT M3'T1*GU&^L4L#,:VT8_IW9#G'1VYP],;?W5A9-GUA]:OU:*MN]T;+G;"(]O_ M`&FW?U-_YZTJ;^J?8*XPJR[:S>1EV"R)_1^L']/<S?\`Z'_P-1V&2FW60^W* M^U.L'J337A-$,W7!K\BQSS/_`!;$9S,>*:L3$MJLPP#=81MK!?[2&M)]_HUK M*P;>N@'U<6IU_K/@V9-@=Q[-*\)_YNS9^>E?;]8?MM)?BM]#8=S6Y%GIG0^K MZK_L>YN1O_G-[$%4Z][\U]XR)9LW;&LVZN8WVM+W?R6_O)_4/J';)L>!N/`U M_DJEB7=;]2_T<3'U'MW95FT-_/VS@[7?VDK;OK![=N+B@P-P;DO+X_\`8+Z* M%I;=0\0!)U\%:NP\;*QW8V0WU*+1J`8<#^:]COS+&+*9=UG39B8NR-/UJR/_ M`&Q5BF[KD^W#Q/\`V*L_]X$DAQ.IX%F%EBK-]^DXV2W06U]_4^DWU:_SZUL_ M5;ZPW8-1PKC'3P?T=I]WIS](-XW,_P"#5MU_6?2'VK"Z?Z,F/6RW;=T>[;ZG M3]OT46O(O])V[`Z(:]8_78$Q^;'3%,<AJLL)'H3\OE\R?)Z)HKO;OWM?4YN[ M<S@M'[B(RZIT6M<=C?<2X1#2/@L7#R/K#Z7ZE@=.%,&-F99LV_G;-G3=J,,C MZU;F?J&#_*_7;8V?R_\`)BK%3K.L>P%[&FQH&YNT?F_N-_E(U=@>T.X.DM/( MD3M?_*62<CZT[A_D_`V:0/MUW/Q_9:9F1]:)/I]/Z?MUD#-MG=YG]F)*=5^1 M0QSFN>&EC=[@>S3/N_Z*BPLR!O:6V8]C=`-9)^DL2C(^L/JV[^GX/J_X7U<Z MV=NX^G_WE_S._?L3G(^M/H7?9L#`#(]HJS;-P/Y^R>F^FDIU'8AI<+,>7#<- MU3G>TCOMG]U5\W(Q:W"ZL-<[=+^Q)'[R#1D?6[TZ]V!@$;!,YEP)=XF.FN53 MJ>1U_P!GKX&`'=XS;3_\;$4-_-8W'<+V,-M609T_-+@/^J57$L8]]E>.TF\` MA]+M-S!]+Z2G9D?6?[&`<#`V[1!;FVQVV[6GIG_?EF67_6'<!5@XGVXO?Z1J MS+/4`C])O:[IOIN9_7<BIEG"NF]WK8[V5NX#I"J7;3M>P"RI@^B?I!$ZI?\` M6/T6#.P<<6QHYV8XB>_L9T[_`+^L8V]8W",7&F?^Y-D?^V2<"AN=+=A5]4S; M<JHY./6S$L]$,8\.#:^LO=N;>^IFVMF^W_K:W?MOU?\`_*3_`+4_8OYG&_G_ M`/0_SW_@G\U_+6;]6G.LZYU#TF48M_IX0K]-YR:M\=4]1WZS7T^_W,]7]'B_ HI/\`A'X_VA;.QO\`I:OZ='\WB_TO_2_SW\S_`,!_RW_W93?TD]'_V0`` ` end sum -r/size 35536/3474 section (from first encoded line to "end") sum -r/size 12082/11515 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Polar Lander Scheduled For Jan 3 Launch Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... December 23, 1998 KSC Contact: George H. Diller KSC Release No. 171-98 Note to Editors/News Directors: MARS POLAR LANDER SCHEDULED FOR LAUNCH JAN. 3 The launch of NASA's Mars Polar Lander spacecraft aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is scheduled for Sunday, Jan. 3, 1999. There is a single launch window available which opens at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. No second opportunity is available that day. The next available window is on Monday, Jan. 4 at 3:13:34 p.m. EST. Liftoff will occur from Pad B at Launch Complex 17 on Cape Canaveral Air Station. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface above the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which is made of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. The Deep Space 2 microprobes are installed on the lander's cruise stage. These two probes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, will test technology and instruments to search for water several feet below the Martian surface. The Mars Polar Lander has completed final checkout and was mated to the Boeing Delta II rocket on Dec. 23. The Delta fairing is be installed around the spacecraft on Dec. 29. PRELAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE A prelaunch news conference is scheduled for Saturday, Jan. 2 at 11 a. m. EST in the KSC News Center auditorium and will be carried live on NASA Television. Participating in the briefing will be: Dr. Ed Weiler, Associate Administrator for Space Science NASA Headquarters Ray Lugo, NASA Launch Manager Kennedy Space Center Rich Murphy, Delta Mission Director The Boeing Company Dr. John McNamee, Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager/Mission Director Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sarah Gavit, Deep Space 2 Project Manager Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Ed Euler, Program Manager Lockheed Martin Astronautics Joel Tumbiolo, Launch Weather Officer Department of the Air Force The NASA News Center will open for the prelaunch news conference at 9 a.m. and close at 2 p.m. ACCREDITATION Those media without permanent accreditation who wish to cover the launch of Delta/Mars Polar Lander including the prelaunch news conference on L-1 day should send a letter of request to the NASA-KSC News Center on news organization letterhead. It should include name and Social Security number or passport number. Letters should be faxed to 407/867-2692 or addressed to: Mars Polar Lander Launch Accreditation NASA AB-F1 Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 Mars Polar Lander mission badges may be picked up at the News Center between 8 a.m.- 4:30 p.m. beginning Monday, Dec. 28. On launch day, Jan. 3, Mars Polar Lander mission badges will be available at Gate 1 on Cape Canaveral Air Station located on SR 401 starting at 1:30 p.m. prior to departure for Press Site 1. A Delta/Mars Polar Lander mission badge is required for all news media covering the launch from Press Site 1. For further information on Mars Polar Lander launch accreditation contact Selina Scorah at the NASA News Center at 407/867-2468. REMOTE CAMERAS On Saturday, Jan. 2 at 12 Noon, following the prelaunch news conference, a NASA van will depart from the NASA-KSC News Center for Launch Complex 17 for media photographers who wish to establish remote cameras at Pad 17-B. PHOTO OPPORTUNITY AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 17 A photo opportunity of the Delta launch vehicle for Mars Polar Lander will be available at Pad 17-B after tower-rollback. Media wishing to participate will depart the Gate 1 Pass & Identification Building on Cape Canaveral Air Station at 8:30 a.m. on launch day, Jan. 3. LAUNCH DAY PRESS COVERAGE On Jan. 3, media covering the launch should meet at the Gate 1 Pass & Identification Building on Cape Canaveral Air Station. The convoy departure for Press Site 1 will be at 2:00 p.m. After launch, media may leave via Gate 1 only. The NASA News Center at KSC will be open from 9 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. NASA TELEVISION AND V CIRCUIT COVERAGE NASA Television will carry the prelaunch news conference starting at 11 a.m. EST on Saturday, Jan. 2. On launch day, countdown coverage will begin at 2 p.m. EST and conclude when mission success is confirmed approximately one hour later. No post-launch news conference will be held. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C located at 85 degrees West longitude. Audio only of Delta/Mars Polar Lander events will also be available on the "V" circuits which may be dialed directly at 407/867-1220, 407/867-1240, 407/867-1260, 407/867-7135, 407/867-4003, 407/867-4920. The NASA-KSC codaphone will carry Delta/Mars Polar Lander prelaunch status reports beginning at L-3 days, on Thursday, Dec. 31 and may be dialed at 407/867-2525. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Boeing Delta II to Launch Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Boeing Delta II to Launch Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Boeing Press Release HUNTINGTON BEACH, Calif., Dec. 21, 1998 -- The Boeing [NYSE:BA] Delta team will ring in the new year by launching the Mars Polar Lande and Deep Space 2 spacecraft for NASA. The Delta II rocket will lift off from Space Launch Complex 17B at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. on Jan. 3, 1999. The launch window is at 3:21 p.m. EST. The missions follow the Dec. 11 Delta launch, which sent NASA's Mars Climate Orbiter on a 10-month journey to the Red Planet. Over the years, Delta rockets have successfully placed into orbit an impressive number of scientific payloads, sending planetary spacecraft to the farthest reaches of our solar system. The Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 launch represent the 77th scientific and technology development launch for the Delta family of rockets. Since 1960 Delta rockets have carried scientific and technology development payloads into space with a 98 percent launch success rate. Delta rockets sent Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor to the Red Planet in 1996. "This year, Boeing Delta rockets have lifted Deep Space 1 and Mars Climate Orbiter into space as part of the NASA Medium-Light Expendable Launch Vehicle Services program," said Darryl Van Dorn, Boeing director of NASA and commercial programs. "Mars Polar Lander is the third in this 10-mission launch program for NASA," Van Dorn added. In addition, Delta launch vehicles will carry the NASA spacecraft Stardust, Landsat-7, FUSE, and EO-1/SAC-C into space next year. Both the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 spacecraft will travel 11 months through deep space to land next December on an uncharted area near the south pole of Mars. Mars Polar Lander will spend three months digging for traces of water beneath the frozen surface of Mars and will search for evidence of a physical record of climate change. A miniature microphone will permit scientists to record 10-second sound bytes of natural sounds from the planet. Deep Space 2 is comprised of two microprobes designed to penetrate the surface of Mars and collect samples for testing the water vapor content of the planet's subterranean soil. In addition, Deep Space 2 will validate the ability of small probes loaded with sensitive, miniaturized instruments to analyze the terrain of planets and moons throughout the solar system. The missions are managed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., built both spacecraft. The Delta II is manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif., with final assembly in Pueblo, Colo., and is powered by the RS-27A engine built by Boeing in Canoga Park, Calif. The Delta launch team at Cape Canaveral Air Station will handle launch coordination and operations. Alliant Techsystems, Magna, Utah, builds the graphite epoxy motors for boost assist. Aerojet, Sacramento, Calif., manufactures the second-stage engine; Cordant Technologies, Elkton, Md., supplies the upper-stage engine; and AlliedSignal, Teterboro, N.J., builds the guidance and flight control system. # # # 98-103 Contact: Communications (714) 896-1301 Boeing Launch Hotline (714) 896-4770 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Wide Field Camera 3 (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... [From October 1998 issue of Space Telescope Science Institute Newsletter.] Wide Field Camera 3 By Ed Cheng (GSFC), John MacKenty (STScI), Robert O'Connell (UVa) NASA has embarked on the construction of a new HST science instrument for the 2003 Servicing Mission, provisionally named the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Intended to replace the WFPC2, WFC3 will provide redundancy for the imaging capabilities of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), which will be installed in early 2000. WFC3 is part of a larger effort to ensure that HST is provided with hardware components capable of supporting a broad suite of science capabilities for the extended mission until 2010. This process was discussed by David Leckrone in the "Report from the Project Scientist" in the April 1998, STScI Newsletter. The WFC3 project is currently defining detailed requirements and studying alternative design options. The baseline design provides a 160 x 160 arcsecond field of view using a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD detector with 0.04 arcsecond pixels. This detector is planned to be optimized for short wavelength sensitivity in order to provide an unprecedented wide field, near-UV (longward of 2000 Angstrom) capability on HST. It will provide coverage to 1 micron, superior to the present WFPC2, but with slightly lower red sensitivity than the ACS WFC. A filter wheel assembly will provide a selection of 48 optical elements, including a broad range of filters and grisms to be defined with community input. WFC3 is being constructed by an integrated product team consisting of NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Ball Aerospace. This team is led by Ed Cheng (GSFC) with John MacKenty (STScI) as his deputy. Following a solicitation of the astronomical community in March, 1998, sixteen astronomers were competitively selected from over sixty applicants to serve on the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee, with Robert O'Connell as its chair. The SOC member will provide the WFC3 project with guidance on the scientific consequences of design and construction decisions during the WFC3 development process. They are working as volunteers without pay or GTO time and serve to represent the astronomical community. The WFC3 project is presently assessing the state of the returned WF/PC-1 hardware and de-integrating its major components. Together with the SOC, a set of science drivers for defining detailed requirements and metrics are being developed. Upon the advice of the HST Second Decade Study committee, and with the endorsement of the SOC, the WFC3 project is exploring the potential benefits and costs of extending the capabilities of WFC3. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - December 29, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Cassini Significant Events for 12/24/98 - 12/29/98 Spacecraft Status: The most recent spacecraft status is from the DSN tracking pass on Tuesday, 12/29, over the Goldstone tracking station. The Cassini spacecraft is in an excellent state of health and is executing the Cruise 11 sequence normally. Spacecraft Activity Summary: On Thursday, 12/24, the Probe Support Avionics (PSA) prime status was reset. This activity follows each Probe Checkout (PCO). On Sunday, 12/27, Instrument Checkout (ICO) began. The first ICO activities involved the successful maneuver of the Spacecraft to a High Gain Antenna (HGA) to Earth point attitude. Once two-way communications was established using the HGA, the Probe data from PCO #3 that was stored on the SSR was played back, and a realtime command to clear the AACS High Watermarks was uplinked to the spacecraft. On Monday, 12/28, the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) began ICO activities with Ultra Stable Oscillator Test #1. The test was extremely successful and was the first time ever for three frequencies (S-Band, X-Band, and Ka-Band) to be simultaneously downlinked from a single spacecraft and recorded on the ground. On Tuesday, 12/29, RSS performed its second test, a repeat of USO test #1 but without Ka-band transmission. Upcoming events: The events planned for the next reporting period consist primarily of a continuation of the ICO activities. RPWS, MAG, CDA, MIMI, CAPS, INMS, UVIS, and continued RSS tests are the principal participants. Cassini Outreach Cassini Mission to Saturn and Titan Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: January's Chilly Meteors Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... January's chilly meteors http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast28dec98_1.htm The Quadrantids, one of the year's most intense and least observed meteor showers, peaks on January 3rd December 28, 1998: If you're the type of person who enjoys a bit of arctic chill on a moonlit winter night, then the 1999 Quadrantid meteor shower could be for you. The shower stretches from Dec. 28, 1998 to Jan. 7, 1999, with a sharp maximum on Jan. 3 when as many as 100 shooting stars per hour are expected. The nearly full moon during the shower's peak will make most meteors difficult to see, so the best time to watch will be during the brief two hour interval between sunset and moonrise while the sky is relatively dark. Maximum activity is expected between 2300 UT on Jan. 3 (6 p.m. EST) and 0700 UT on Jan. 4 (2 a.m. EST). Despite the fact that the Quadrantids make up one of the year's most intense meteor showers, they are also among the least observed. Why? One reason is the weather. The shower's radiant is located high in the Northern sky, so the Quadrantids are visible mainly to observers in the Northern hemisphere where the weather is cold and often stormy in January. After a series of autumnal and early winter meteor showers like the Giacobinids, Leonids, and Geminids, many sky watchers have seen plenty of meteors by the time the Quadrantids arrive. Who can blame them for lingering by the comforts of the hearth while the shower rages outside? The situation is almost certainly exacerbated by the brevity of the shower's peak, which usually lasts just a few hours. Even dedicated meteor observers are likely to miss such a sharp maximum simply because they live at the wrong longitude. In his classic book Meteor Astronomy, Prof. A.C.B. Lovell lamented that "useful counts of the Quadrantid rate were made in 24 Januaries out of a possible 68 between 1860 and 1927. ... The maximum rate during this period appears to have occurred in 1932 (80 per hour) although the results are influenced by unfavorable weather." With observations in such short supply, it's no wonder that many basic questions about the Quadrantids remain unanswered. For example, What is the source of the Quadrantid meteors? No one knows. Most meteor showers are caused by comets. When a comet passes close to the sun, bits of dust and ice boil away from its nucleus and form a stream of tiny particles, called meteoroids, that orbit the sun. A meteor shower results when Earth passes through the debris stream. Presumably the Quadrantid meteors are formed in the same way. But when astronomers compare the orbits of Quadrantid meteoroids with the orbits of all known comets and asteroids, they can't find a match. The source of the Quadrantid meteor shower is unknown. Quadrantid meteroids are in a highly elliptical orbit tilted about 70 degrees from the plane of the solar system. Some astronomers have speculated that the parent comet was captured or disrupted by Jupiter's gravity thousands of years ago, and that the Quadrantid meteoroids are the leftovers from that ancient celestial collision. Advocates of this idea believe that the original comet was orbiting the Sun nearly in the plane of the solar system. Since its disruption, the orbit of the debris stream evolved to its present state because of periodic gravitational perturbations from Jupiter. Other scientists argue that the source of the Quadrantids could be an existing comet or asteroid that has yet to be discovered. If this is true, then we might expect to see outbursts of Quadrantid meteors during years when the parent comet is nearby, just as the well-known Leonid meteors are especially intense around the time that their parent comet, Tempel-Tuttle, passes close to Earth. In this regard, amateur observations of the Quadrantids could prove especially valuable to professional astronomers who would like to know when to look for the source of the meteors. Observe the Quadrantids and Become a Partner in Discovery The NASA Star Trails Society invites you to observe the Quadrantids and to submit your observations for analysis by scientists studying the meteor shower. Star Trails is part of the NASA/Marshall Space Science Lab's "Partners in Discovery" initiative to involve our readers in scientific research. Several times each month we announce opportunities for amateur scientists to contribute to research in astronomy, astrobiology, and other natural sciences. For more information about observing the Quadrantids or to become a member please visit www.StarTrails.com. How to View the Quadrantids Normally the best time to view a meteor shower is between 2 a.m. and dawn. That's when the local sky is pointing directly into the meteor stream. This year's Quadrantids will be an exception to this rule, thanks to the full moon. When the shower peaks on the evening of January 3, the face of the moon will be 96% illuminated, rendering all but the brightest meteors invisible. The best time to watch, therefore, will be during the brief interval after sunset and before moonrise. At 38 degrees north latitude, for example, the best observing opportunity will occur between 5:03 pm (sunset) and 7:10 pm (moonrise). The US Naval Observatory web site gives sunset and moonrise times for many locations. After the moon rises only the brightest meteors and fireballs will be visible. The best time to observe these is between 2 a.m. and dawn when the rate of meteor activity is greatest. You won't need binoculars or a telescope to view the Quadrantids. The naked eye is usually best for seeing meteors which often streak more than 45 degrees across the sky. The field of view of most binoculars and telescopes is simply too narrow for good meteor observations. Experienced meteor observers suggest the following viewing strategy: Dress warmly. Bring a reclining chair, or spread a thick blanket over a flat spot of ground. Lie down and look up somewhat toward the north. Meteors can appear in any part of the sky, although their trails will tend to point back toward the radiant. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Lunar Prospector Update - December 30, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Lunar Prospector Mission Status Report #63 December 30, 1998 The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is operating well and all instruments continue to collect good data. There was no commanding this week. Current spacecraft state (0000 GMT 12/30/98): Orbit: 4300 Downlink: 3600 bps Spin Rate: 12.00 rpm Spin Axis Attitude (ecliptic): Latitude: -88.0 deg Longitude: 242 deg Trajectory: Periapsis Alt: 29 km Apoapsis Alt: 52 km Period: 112 min Occultations: 46 minutes Eclipses: none Propellant remaining: 17.45 kg The spacecraft has now been in the 40 km average altitude orbit for over 10 days. Doppler data is being collected to verify that the lunar gravity model is accurate at this low altitude. The tracking schedule has been changed many times this last week due to problems with other spacecraft, but in general we have maintained good coverage and should have an updated gravity model in about a week. Data so far indicates that the gravity model we have used is very good. Data is currently being reviewed from the Clementine project to ensure adequate clearance over the lunar terrain in the extended mission orbit. Whatever orbit the spacecraft is placed in, the asymmetries in the lunar gravity field cause the orbit to become elliptical, so that over a two week period, the altitude will vary by +/- 15 km. For highest science resolution, it is desired to place the spacecraft in an orbit with an average altitude of 25 km, but this means that the spacecraft will get to within 10 km of the average lunar surface during the two weeks between maneuvers. The moon is not flat, however, and there are several high mountains on the surface. The project is currently getting the latest data on the terrain from the Clementine project to run the orbit profiles over and ensure at least a 6 km margin at all times. If the 25 km orbit does not provide this margin, the spacecraft will be placed in a 30 km average altitude orbit for the extended mission. The maneuver to lower the orbit for the extended mission is scheduled for January 16. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NEAR Spacecraft Set For January 3 Burn Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Douglas Isbell Headquarters, Washington, DC December 30, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1753) Helen Worth Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD (Phone: 240/228-5113) RELEASE: 98-228 NEAR SPACECRAFT SET FOR JAN. 3 BURN A confident NEAR mission operations team is preparing to fire the main engine of the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft at noon on Jan. 3 to put the mission on course for a rendezvous with its target, asteroid 433 Eros, in just over a year. The upcoming burn will last 24 minutes and will increase the spacecraft's speed by 2,100 mph (939 meters per second), putting it at close to the same speed as Eros. The burn will be divided into an initial three-minute "settling burn" with the spacecraft's small hydrazine thrusters that will change its velocity by only 11 mph (five meters per second), and a 21- minute firing of the bipropellant main engine that will provide the rest of the velocity change. The burn will lessen the distance between NEAR and Eros as they orbit the sun. For the next year NEAR will travel behind Eros in a slightly closer orbit to the sun. By mid-February 2000, NEAR will catch up to Eros. The spacecraft will then enter orbit around Eros and begin its planned yearlong study of the asteroid. The spacecraft's first attempted rendezvous burn was aborted on Dec. 20, 1998, just seconds after the settling burn was completed. An investigation by mission personnel revealed that the brief engine burn exceeded certain safety limits associated with the onboard system that autonomously controls the spacecraft. This resulted in the engine abort. Reprogramming of these values is now being completed and the spacecraft will be ready for the Jan. 3 burn. "We're very confident that we've found the problems associated with the Dec. 20 abort," says Thomas B. Coughlin, NEAR Project Manager at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, MD, which manages the mission for NASA. "The abort lost us time but the flyby gave us valuable information about Eros' shape and mass that we wouldn't have had -- information that will help us during our orbital phase a little more than a year from now." Because the spacecraft did not complete the Dec. 20 burn, the opportunity to orbit Eros next month as originally planned was lost. The setback presented mission planners with a huge challenge but also an unexpected opportunity. Within days of the abort, the NEAR team developed a complicated command sequence for a Dec. 23 flyby of Eros to obtain multicolor images, near-infrared spectra, and magnetic field measurements. The commands were uploaded swiftly to the spacecraft and executed as planned, producing images of the asteroid and valuable data that is now being processed. Despite the delay, NEAR is expected to complete all its science objectives. To follow the NEAR mission as it unfolds, visit the project Web site at: http://near.jhuapl.edu Updates on mission activities and science results are also available by phone on the NEAR Hot Line at (240) 228-5413. Due to the rescheduling of mission events, the previously announced Jan. 10 and Jan. 14 press briefings have been canceled. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 31 декабря 1998 (1998-12-31) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Nearby Quasars Result From Galactic Encounters, VLA Studies Indicate Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O Socorro, New Mexico 87801 http://www.nrao.edu Contact: Dave Finley, Public Information Officer (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: December 29, 1998 Nearby Quasars Result From Galactic Encounters, VLA Studies Indicate Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have found previously unseen evidence that galaxy collisions trigger energetic quasar activity in relatively nearby galaxies. New radio images of galaxies with bright quasar cores show that, though the galaxies appear normal in visible-light images, their gas has been disrupted by encounters with other galaxies. "This is what theorists have believed for years, but even the best images from optical telescopes, including the Hubble Space Telescope, failed to show any direct evidence of interactions with other galaxies in many cases," said Jeremy Lim, of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taipei, Taiwan. Lim, along with Paul Ho of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, reported their findings in the January 1 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. Quasars are among the most luminous objects in the universe, and generally are believed to be powered by material being drawn into a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy, releasing large amounts of energy. Many quasars are found at extremely great distances from Earth, billions of light-years away. Because the light from these quasars took billions of years to reach our telescopes, we see them as they were when they were much younger objects. These distant quasars are thought to "turn on" when the host galaxy's central black hole is "fueled" by material drawn in during an early stage of the galaxy's development, before the galaxy "settles down" to a more sedate life. However, other galaxies with quasar cores are much closer, and thus are older, more mature galaxies. Their quasar activity has been attributed to encounters with nearby galaxies -- encounters that disrupt material and provide new "fuel" to the black hole. The problem for this scenario was the lack of evidence for such galactic encounters in optical images of many nearby quasars. "Our VLA studies are the first to image the neutral atomic hydrogen gas in nearby quasar galaxies," said Ho. "This is important, because, in any galactic encounter, the gas is more easily disrupted than the stars in the galaxies, and the gas takes longer to return to normal after the encounter. This means we have a better chance of finding evidence of galactic encounters by imaging the gas using radio telescopes." The VLA can image the gas in such galaxies because it is particularly sensitive to the radio waves naturally emitted by hydrogen atoms. The researchers chose three quasars at distances of 670 million to 830 million light-years. The three galaxies surrounding these quasars had different appearances in optical images: one showed evidence of mild interaction with a neighboring galaxy; one appeared undisturbed but had a nearby neighbor; and the third appeared undisturbed and alone. When imaged with the VLA, all three showed strong evidence that their gas had been disrupted by an encounter with another galaxy. "This shows how well such radio images of the gas distribution in galaxies can reveal evidence of galactic interactions," Lim said. "We hope to make further studies and learn more about how these galaxy mergers actually stimulate the quasar activity." Quasars are among the most enigmatic objects in the universe. Though they appear on photographic plates made by astronomers more than a century ago, they looked like ordinary stars, and raised no curiosity. When radio telescopes were first used to make detailed maps of the sky in the 1950s, many strong sources of radio emission seemed to have no counterparts in visible light. In 1960, one of these bright radio-emitting objects was identified as a faint, bluish-looking "star" by astronomers using the 200-inch telescope on Palomar Mountain in California. That first quasar and others identified later puzzled astronomers because, when their light was analyzed to find the characteristic "signature" of emission at specific wavelengths shown by particular atoms, the pattern was at first indecipherable. In 1963, Maarten Schmidt of Caltech realized that the pattern made sense if the light's wavelength had been shifted through the Doppler effect by the object's motion away from Earth at greater velocities than had yet been seen. Because the universe is expanding, objects are moving away from Earth with greater speed at greater distances. The speeds seen in the quasars indicated that they were the most distant objects yet found, and, because they appear bright even at those great distances, must be extremely energetic. The idea that the tremendous amounts of energy released by quasars results from material being drawn into a black hole at the center of a galaxy quickly rose as the leading explanation. Galactic interactions were first proposed as an explanation for nearby quasar activity in 1972. Today, quasars are thought to be one of several types of active galactic nuclei, all of which are powered by central black holes. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. IMAGE CAPTION: [http://www.nrao.edu/pr/quasars.html] A combined optical-radio image of the quasar IRAS 17596+4221 and a companion galaxy. The orange areas are the hydrogen gas imaged by the VLA. In the optical image, there is no direct evidence for an interaction between the galaxy hosting the quasar and the companion galaxy. The extensions in the hydrogen gas, however, are a clear indication of disruption resulting from an interaction between the two galaxies. Credit: Jeremy Lim and Paul Ho; National Radio Astronomy Observatory and Associated Universities, Inc. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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