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    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 1998 December 15 [1/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S U P D A T E 1998 December 15 http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/1215/ *** Top Stories *** Shuttle Completes First ISS Assembly Mission Mars Climate Orbiter Launched Argentine Extinctions Linked to Impact *** Technology *** Ariane and Pegasus Launches Successful Russian Rocket Launches Navigation, Science Satellites Rotary Rocket Begins Tests of Landing System Cassini Completes Deep Space Maneuver *** Policy *** Australian Parliament Passes Commercial Space Bill ESA Urges More Science Funding from Members *** Science *** Europa Fault Latest Evidence for Underground Ocean Martian Polar Cap Smaller Than Once Thought Astronomers Discover Most Distant Quasar *** CyberSpace *** Shuttle Press Kit International Dark Sky Association UKSPACE Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies *** Space Capsules *** SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News Advertisement ************************************************************* * THE YEAR IN SPACE - 1999 Desk Calendar * * 172 pages - Full Color - A new space image EVERY WEEK * * An INEXPENSIVE HOLIDAY GIFT for any space enthusiast * * $14.95 ppd - 2+ only $11.95 each - MONEY BACK GUARANTEE * * Have it in 3-5 days by Priority Mail for just $3 more * * http://www.YearInSpace.com (800) 736-6836 * ************************************************************* *** Top Stories *** Shuttle Completes First ISS Assembly Mission The first step in the assembly of the International Space Station was completed this month as the crew of the space shuttle Endeavour attached the Unity connecting module to the Zarya control module. Endeavour lifted off on mission STS-88 at 3:35 am EST (0835 UT) Friday, December 4. from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. A launch attempt the previous was scrubbed with only seconds to go before launch because of a hydraulics problem. On December 5, the shuttle lifted the Unity module out of the cargo bay and attached it to a docking port. One day later, the shuttle caught up with the Zarya module, launched last month, and attached it to Unity. A minor problem occurred after the two modules docked, when a docking ring became misaligned as it moved to bring the two modules into a hard lock. Controllers noticed that the misalignment was taking place on the side of Zarya where the robot arm was attached. When the arm was removed, the docking ring aligned again. The ring retracted with no further problems. Astronauts Jerry Ross and Jim Newman conducted three spacewalks on December 7, 9, and 12 to finalize the connections between the modules. On the December 7 spacewalk they connected about 40 cables between the two modules and checked out the status of the two Telerobotically Operated Rendezvous System (TORU) antennae on the Zarya module that failed to deploy properly. On December 9, Ross and Newman attached two S-band antennae on Unity and freed one of the TORU antenna. On December 12 they freed the other TORU antenna while attaching tools and handholds to the exterior of the module, and tested a jet backpack system designed to rescue a spacewalker that floated away from the station. In between the second and third spacewalks, the crew entered the station for the first time December 10, and spent two days outfitting the interior of the modules and placing materials, from communications equipment to spare clothes, in the station. The shuttle then undocked from the station Sunday, December 13. With the undocking, the station will remain unoccupied until May of 1999, when shuttle mission STS-96 arrives to offload cargo onto the station and attach a crane to the exterior of Zarya. On the ground, NASA officials were congratulating the shuttle crew and everyone else involved with the success of the mission, the first of many shuttle missions devoted to space station assembly over the next several years. "I believe this hardware is the foundation for what will put humanity into space forever," said Frank Culbertson, the deputy space station manager. "There will always be people off the face of the planet." The shuttle crew then wrapped up their mission by deploying two secondary payloads. Astronauts deployed the SAC-A satellite for Argentina Sunday night. The satellite carries a number of experiments, including a magnetometer, new solar cells, and a test of whale tracking technologies. On Monday the crew released MightySat 1, an Air Force satellite that will test advanced solar cells, electronics, and other equipment. Endeavour is scheduled to land at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on Tuesday, December 15 at 10:56 pm EST (0356 UT December 16), with a second landing attempt December 16 at 12:32 am EST (0532 UT). Mars Climate Orbiter Launched The first of two of NASA's latest Mars missions got underway with a launch from Cape Canaveral Friday afternoon, December 11. Mars Climate Observer (MCO) lifted off at 1:45:51 pm EST (1845:51 UT) on a Boeing Delta 2 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. No problems were reported with the launch. The Delta 2 placed the spacecraft onto a Mars trajectory, and the spacecraft successfully separated from rocket 47 minutes after launch. The launch was delayed one day when a problem was found with MCO's software. A bug in the software designed to monitor hardware problems could have allowed the spacecraft's batteries to overcharge and fail if a charge regulator failed and a backup not properly activated. MCO is the first of two NASA missions that will be the latest to study the Red Planet. The spacecraft will arrive at Mars in September 1999. It will monitor the Martian atmosphere and surface for one Martian year (687 days), including studying seasonal changes and the transport of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere. The spacecraft will carry out those observations with two instruments. The Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) will provide vertical profiles of temperature, dust, clouds, and water vapor content of the Martian atmosphere. The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) will provide daily wide-angle global views of Mars and medium-angle views of specific surface features. MCO will also server as a communications relay for NASA's second mission, Mars Polar Lander (MPL). MPL, scheduled for launch January 3, will land in the south polar regions of Mars in December 1999. Argentine Extinctions Linked to Impact A comet or asteroid impact in Argentina 3.3 million years ago -- recent in geologic history -- was the cause of the extinction of dozens of species of animals, scientists reported Thursday, December 10. A group of American and Argentine researchers found evidence of an impact in an unusual layer of glassy rock called escoria found on Argentina's southeastern coast. Chemical analysis of the escoria found high concentrations of iridium and chromium, signatures of a previously-unknown impact. The escoria is just below a layer of dusty deposits where fossil evidence shows the extinction of 36 animal species, including ground sloths, a flightless bird, and large armadillo-like creatures. The researches believe climate changes caused by the impact killed off the animals. "Unlike what impacts did to dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures, this was not an event that led to global extinctions," said lead investigator Peter Schultz of Brown University. "This is a threshold event. It may have been small enough to cause regional damage and extinctions and may have triggered a climate change." Additional evidence for climate changes from an impact come from analysis of sediment cores from the nearby ocean floor. Those samples show evidence of a sudden drop in air and water temperatures almost 3.3 million years ago. The age of the escoria samples was also found to be 3.3 million years old, from magnetic and chemical analyses. The impact may have created a cycle of warmer and cooler climates that are still in effect today, Schultz said. "El Nino or a volcanic eruption produces small tweaks to the climate compared to what one of these impacts can do." *** Technology *** Ariane and Pegasus Launches Successful An Ariane 4 booster launched a Mexican communications satellite Saturday evening, December 5, while less than 15 minutes later a Pegasus XL launched a long-delayed NASA astronomy satellite. An Ariane 42L lifted off at 7:43 pm EST (0043 UT December 6) from Kourou, French Guiana. Launch had been delayed one day because of an anomaly with its payload. The Ariane successfully deployed the Satmex 5 communications satellite about 20 minutes after launch. The satellite, operated by the private telecommunications company Satmex, will provide telephone and direct television broadcasts for Mexico and the rest of Latin America. The Hughes-built satellite will replace the existing Morelos II satellite. Meanwhile, off the California coast, an Orbital Sciences Corporation Pegasus XL booster launched NASA's Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) satellite. The booster detached from its L-1011 carrier aircraft at 7:57 pm EST (0057 UT December 6). The satellite detached from the booster 11 1/2 minutes after launch. The SWAS launch was scheduled for December 2, but was pushed back two days because of a technical problem and one additional day due to poor weather. The small satellite was originally scheduled for launch in the mid-1990s but was delayed by problems with the Pegasus XL launcher, and then pushed back because of other NASA payloads. SWAS is designed to study the sky at submillimeter wavelengths -- longer than infrared light but shorter than radio -- to study the composition of interstellar clouds and determine how they collapse to form stars and planets. The 180-kg (397-lb.) satellite will orbit in a 600-km (370-mi.) orbit inclined 70 degrees to the equator and operate for at least one year. Russian Rocket Launches Navigation, Science Satellites A Russian Kosmos booster launched a navigation satellite and a small Swedish science satellite into orbit on Thursday, December 10. The Kosmos-3M booster lifted off at 6:57 am EST (1157 UT) from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Its payload, the Nadezhda navigation satellite the Astrid-2 science microsatellite, successfully reached orbit. The 850-kilogram (1,870-pound) Nadezhda will be used in search-and-rescue operations to relay distress calls from ships and planes. It will be used as part of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) program, an international project that includes contributions from the United States, Canada, and France. Nadezhda will operate from a 1,000-kilometer (620-mile) orbit at an 83-degree inclination. Astrid-2 is a small, 35-kg (77-lb.) microsatellite designed to perform observations of the aurora, including measurements of electrical and magnetic fields and ultraviolet images of aurorae. The spacecraft was built by the Swedish Space Corporation's Science Systems Division. Rotary Rocket Begins Tests of Landing System Rotary Rocket Company has begun tests of the rotors that will be used in the landing system of its unique Roton reusable launch vehicle, the company announced this week. The tests, conducted in early November, were limited to ground tests of the rotor assembly that will be used to land the Roton. The rotors were spun up to 75 revolutions per minute (rpm). Subsequent tests will test the rotor through its full operational range, the company said. The rotor is a key component of the Roton's landing system. Autorotation of the rotor will be used to slow down the vehicle as it returns to Earth. Small hydrogen peroxide thrusters will be used to speed up the rotors just above the ground, permitting a gentle landing. Rotary Rocket and its prime contractor, Scaled Composites, are building the first Roton atmospheric test vehicle (ATV). The ATV is scheduled for its first flight in the second quarter of 1999, when it will conduct low-altitude approach and landing tests. The Roton is scheduled to enter commercial service in 2000. The single-stage to orbit reusable launch vehicle will take off and land horizontally. The vehicle, flown by a two-person crew, will be able to carry up to 3,200 kg (7,000 lbs.) into orbit for $7 million a flight. Cassini Completes Deep Space Maneuver The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft successfully completed a thruster firing in deep space early Thursday, December 3, putting the spacecraft on course for a Venus flyby next year. The main thruster on Cassini fired for 90 minutes starting at 1:06 am EST (0606 UT) December 3. The thruster firing went as planned, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) reported. "The performance of the spacecraft and the team in performing this maneuver was just perfect, we couldn't have asked for anything better," said Bob Mitchell, Cassini program manager. The maneuver slowed Cassini down by 450 meters per second (1,006 mph) to a speed of 66,240 kilometers per hour (41,161 miles per hour). The thruster burn adjusted the flight path so that Cassini will make a planned flyby of Venus in June 1999. That flyby, along with an Earth flyby in August 1999 and a Jupiter flyby in late December 2000 will send Cassini to Saturn, arriving in July 2004. Cassini completed a Venus flyby April 26. Cassini was launched on a Titan 4B booster October 15, 1997. The series of flybys are needed since the booster, the most powerful American unmanned booster, was not powerful enough to send the heavy Cassini spacecraft directly to Saturn. Cassini will spend at least four years in orbit around Saturn, returning data on the planet and its rings and moons. It will also drop Huygens, a separate probe built by the European Space Agency, into the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. *** Policy *** Australian Parliament Passes Commercial Space Bill The Australian Parliament passed legislation this month that will set up a framework for licensing the launch and reentry of commercial spacecraft. The Australian Senate completed debate on a set of amendments to the bill November 20 and pass the Space Activities Bill of 1998. Most of the amendments, put forward by representatives of two smaller political parties, the Democrats and the Greens, were voted down by the Senate. Those amendments included legislation that would have sharply limited the ability to grant licenses to any payload with "toxic material" or having any military applications. Senators also turned down amendments that would have sharply increased penalties for failure to abide by launch safety regulations, as well as one that would have required an annual public report on every contract between a launch services company and its insurer. The Senate did approve minor amendments, including one that explicitly requires the approval of a government minister for any launch carrying fissionable materials, as well as one that requires the Australian Parliament to be notified of instructions to launch safety officers and when launch licenses have been revoked or reinstated. The Australian House of Representatives approved commercial space legislation Thursday, December 3, just one day after it was introduced and three days after it passed the Senate. Unlike the Senate, where debate last month was extended by a number of amendments introduced by senators of smaller political parties, there was essentially no dissension about the bill in the House, where it had broad support from both the ruling Liberal and opposition Labor parties. "This bill sets out a solid foundation for the safe, efficient, and cost-effective regulation of space launch and recovery operations in Australia," said Representative Warren Entsch, who serves as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Industry, Science, and Resources. "It provides a stimulus for the growth of a new Australian industry, based on the rapid global expansion of space activities." The bill, introduced in the Senate in November, would create regulations for securing licenses for commercial launches from Australian sites, as well as licenses for the return of reusable launchers. It also sets insurance requirements for any Australian launches. It is similar to the recently-approved U.S. Commercial Space Act of 1998, but seeks to create a new regulatory structure rather than modify an existing one. With passage of the bill by both houses of the Australian Parliament, only the formality of a Royal Assent by the Governor-General is required for the legislation to become law. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update - 1998 December 15 [2/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ESA Urges More Science Funding from Members European Space Agency (ESA) officials have urged member countries to allocate more money for science programs to hold off a possible cancellation of a popular Mars mission, Space News reported this week. Roger Bonnet, ESA science director, said a three-year freeze on ESA's science budget may make it impossible for the agency to start new programs, such as its planned Mars Express mission. "We are under financial pressures that have brought us to the very limit of what we can bear," Bonnet told Space News. "All our bills are adjusted for inflation, but our budget is not." ESA's science budget has been frozen at 352 million euros (US$412 million) a year since 1996, effectively a 2-3 percent cut in the budget each year because of inflation. ESA members will meet to discuss the 1999 budget in mid-December. Both Bonnet and ESA Director-General Antonio Rodota urged ESA's 14 member nations to approve an increase in the budget, so that ESA can support future missions, such as Mars Express, a 150-million-euro (US$175 million) mission planned for a 2003 launch. In addition to upcoming programs, ESA's existing science programs have needed extra funding to handle various problems, including the recovery of the SOHO solar science satellite after it spun out of control in June and a six-month delay in the launch of the X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, originally planned for a June 1999 launch. ESA officials did not specify the amount of a budget increase they wanted, but hinted that they would be satisfied with enough to keep up with inflation. "All we want is to preserve our buying power at current levels," Bonnet said. *** Science *** Europa Fault Latest Evidence for Underground Ocean A long fault similar to California's San Andreas Fault provides the latest evidence yet that a liquid water ocean exists beneath the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. The fault, named Astypalaea Linea, was first discovered in Galileo images of the moon's south polar region in 1996. However, more recent images have shown that the 810-km (500-mi.) fault has moved as much as 50 km (30 mi.) in the past. The fault is a "strike-slip" variety, where the material on each side moves horizontally in opposite direction. This is similar to California's San Andreas Fault, a strike-slip fault that is the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Bends in strike-slip faults cause one plate to pull apart from the other. On Earth these pull-apart regions, like Death Valley and the Salton Sea in California and the Dead Sea in the Middle East, are filled in with erosional and sedimentary material. On Europa, though, these pull-apart regions allow material from below the surface to well up and fill the gap, as seen in the Galileo images. This material could be warmer, softer ice from below the surface or frozen water from a subsurface ocean. "The data may teach us more about the detailed structure that develops at bends in Earth's faults, including the San Andreas," said researcher Randy Tufts of the University of Arizona. "In addition, Astypalaea Linea is simply a beautiful structure." Martian Polar Cap Smaller Than Once Thought Data from an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft shows that the north polar cap on Mars is smaller than once thought, too small to account for the liquid water once thought to exist on Mars, scientists reported this week. A team of scientists used the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument to obtain a detailed, precise elevation map of the north polar cap. The map provided information about the polar cap to a degree that exceeds knowledge of some regions of Greenland and Antarctica. The map shows that the cap is about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) across and up to 3 km (1.8 mi.) thick, with an average thickness of just over 1 km (0.6 mi.). The volume of the cap is about 1.2 million cubic km (300,000 cubic mi.), or less than half the volume of Greenland's ice cap. That amount of ice is only 10 percent of the amount of water once thought to exist in oceans early in Martian history, when the planet was warm enough to support liquid water. Researchers had thought that the north polar cap, made largely of water ice, was a repository of water from the oceans. To account for the difference between the expected volume of the early Martian oceans and the current volume of the north polar cap, water must be stored elsewhere on the planet -- perhaps in large subterranean deposits and the much-smaller south polar cap -- or else the water was lost to space. In addition to the small size of the polar cap, scientists found that the cap sits in a large depression at the north pole, such that water would tend to flow towards the pole, not away from it as previously thought. The change may have a major impact on how the planet's hydrological cycle works. While the data showed the large areas of the ice cap are very smooth, the elevation map also revealed unusual canyons as deep as 1 km (0.6 mi.) "Similar features do not occur on any glacial or polar terrain on the Earth," explained Maria Zuber of MIT. "They appear to be carved by wind and evaporation of ice." The findings, announced Sunday, December 6 at the American Geophysical Union's Fall meeting in San Francisco, will be published in the December 11 issue of the journal Science. The announcement also came just days before the launch of NASA's next mission to Mars. The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) is scheduled for launch on a Delta 2 at 1:56:38 pm EST (1856:38 UT) Thursday, December 10, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. MCO will arrive at Mars in September 1999. It will monitor the Martian atmosphere and surface for one Martian year (687 days), including studying seasonal changes and the transport of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere. It will also support NASA's other upcoming Mars mission, the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled for launch in January 1999. Astronomers Discover Most Distant Quasar Astronomers using data from a new sky survey still being set up have already made one key discovery: that of the most distant quasar yet seen. The discovery, made by astronomers at Princeton University and announced last week, was based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), an effort to map one-quarter of the sky. Graduate student Xiaohui Fan and his faculty advisor, Michael Strauss, discovered the object in late November after noticing the potential quasar in images taken during the commissioning phase of the SDSS. They took a spectrum of the object using the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5-meter (137.8-inch) telescope in New Mexico. The spectra taken with the APO showed the quasar had a redshift of 5.0. The exact distance is a function of the age of the universe, a value still not well known, but the object is likely at least 10 billion light-years away. That redshift would correspond to a time when the universe was no more than one billion years old. The Princeton astronomers also found two other quasars that are the second and fourth most distant known from the SDSS data. Quasars themselves are something a mystery, as there is no consensus about what powers these compact objects, as bright as 100 galaxies but no larger than our solar system. "We have reason to believe that they are powered by massive black holes whose energy comes from intensely hot material that's rapidly funneling into the hole," said Richard Kron of the University of Chicago and Fermilab. "But we don't understand where the holes came from." The discovery of quasars is a major goal of the SDSS because of their usefulness in other studies of the universe. "As the most powerful beacons in the sky, rare, bright quasars give astronomers an excellent way to examine intervening material that absorbs their light," said Craig Hogan of the University of Washington. The SDSS aims to provide a 3-D view of one-quarter of the sky, using advanced digital instruments mounted on a 2.5-meter telescope located near the APO. Among the goals of the survey are plans to measure the redshifts of 100,000 known quasars and discover at least 500 quasars with redshifts greater than 4.75. The SDSS telescope first collected data earlier this year, and is still in the commissioning phase as instruments are calibrated and data archives created. The project involves eight universities and organizations from the U.S. and Japan and is funded by several government agencies and the Sloan Foundation. *** CyberSpace *** Shuttle Press Kit The shuttle press kit, a document describing in detail an upcoming shuttle mission, was once fairly obscure, available only in the recesses of a NASA Web site. Not any more. The shuttle press kit now has its own Web site, where the contents of the kit -- in this case STS-88, the most recent shuttle mission -- are laid out in a way to make easy to read and easy to find specific topics. This is great resource to learn more about upcoming shuttle missions! http://www.shuttlepresskit.com/< International Dark Sky Association Are you finding that your view of the night sky is becoming increasingly hindered by streetlights and other man-made light sources? If so, check out the Web site of the International Dark Sky Association (IDA), an organization dedicated to keeping the night sky dark. Their Web site has news, information, and other resources to keep people up to date on various efforts to stop the deleterious effects excessive lighting has on astronomy. http://www.darksky.org/ UKSPACE UKSPACE is a comprehensive site about the growing British space industry. The site includes profiles of British firms that are involved with the space industry, and press releases from those companies. There are also listings of upcoming events and notices, industry association information, and a message board. http://www.ukspace.com/ Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies The Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies (CORDS) was created by the Aerospace Corporation last year to understand the dangers posed by "space junk" in orbit as well as reentering satellites. This Web site provides a good introduction to the topics, information about ongoing research, and links to other Web sites with more details. http://www.aero.org/cords/ *** Space Capsules *** SpaceViews Event Horizon December 18 Launch of a Long March 2 carrying two Iridium satellites from Taiyuan, China December 21 Launch of Ariane 4 carrying the PAS-6B comsat from Kourou, French Guiana January 3 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida January 8 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Argos, Sunsat, and Oersted satellites from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California January 14 Launch of an Atlas 2AS carrying the JCSAT-6 satellite from Cape Canaveral, Florida Other News LASRE Tests End: Tests of an aerospike engine similar to one used on the X-33 have come to an early end, NASA and Lockheed Martin officials said at the end of November. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) tested a small-scale aerospike engine mounted on an SR-71 aircraft. The engine was successfully cold-fired in the air and hot-fired on the ground, but officials stopped airborne hot firings, noting that the cost to fix leaking fuel from the engine would have been prohibitive. X-33 project leaders said good data was still collected by engine during its limited tests. Intel Inside: Future NASA spacecraft may use special radiation-hardened versions of Intel's Pentium processor, thanks to a deal announced December 8. Intel will provide a royalty-free license to the Pentium chip designs to the Department of Energy for use in special radiation-hardened versions for space and defense applications. The Pentium chips would be ten times faster than current designs used on spacecraft. Ordinary commercially-available chips cannot be used on spacecraft because the harsh radiation environment in space affects their reliability. Sun News: Scientists are using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission to study small solar flares on the Sun. They hope that the additional data collected on these small flares, which cannot be adequately studied by other spacecraft or ground-based telescopes, will provide a better understanding of the nature and origin of flares in general... The Sun has been exonerated as a source of particles in geomagnetic storms, scientists announced last week. It appears the Earth's own magnetic field accelerates electrons to nearly the speed of light, although the pressure and energy of solar flares can help trigger thousand-fold changes in the Earth's Van Allen Belts of particles in just hours. These changes in the belts may be linked to the failures of spacecraft, such as the Galaxy 4 failure in May that knocked out pager service to millions of Americans. Science News: The discovery of methyl, a product of the breakdown of methane by sunlight, in Neptune's atmosphere may help explain key questions about the composition and dynamics of the gas giant. The discovery may help explain why ethane, formed by the combination of methyl molecules, is found in the same concentrations in all the gas giants even though Neptune receives far less sunlight than Jupiter. It may also help explore turbulence in Neptune's upper atmosphere, above the level of the planet's methane clouds... Life in the universe may be a relatively recent phenomena, according to work by astronomer Mario Livio of the Space Telescope Science Institute. His calculations show that carbon, a key element in the formation of life, didn't exist in sufficient quantities for the formation of life until about a few billion years ago. Carbon is formed in the heart of giant stars and dispersed as the stars enter their final white dwarf stages. In Brief: Russian scientists are working on an unusual way of dealing with cosmonauts' dirty underwear, New Scientist magazine reported this month. Researchers are developing bacteria that can break down the underwear after use, generating methane that could be harnessed by the spacecraft. the research could help deal with the problem of storing soiled clothes during an extended mission, not to mention lend new meaning to the term "eat my shorts"... While the growing emphasis on commercial space efforts is certainly beneficial, we think that someone may be taking it a little too far. A two-page ad in a recent issue of Forbes for the Timkin company showed a lone astronomer peering into the night sky. The caption: "Some people wonder, 'Is there life out there?' We wonder, 'How many bearings do they need?'" This has been the December 15, 1998, issue of SpaceViews Update. SpaceViews Update is also availble on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: /pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/update/981215.txt For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews or Spaceviews Update, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com. For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@spaceviews.com. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Для исследования астероида Hерей будет запущен специальный Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Для исследования астероида Hерей будет запущен специальный космический зонд [SpaceViews] Компания SpaceDev, специализирующаяся на коммерческих космических исследованиях, подписала контракт с JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Лаборатория по исследованию реактивного движения), в соответствии с которым займется исследованием возможности использования сети дальней космической связи Deep Space Network (DSN) агентства NASA для запланированной миссии космического корабля NEar Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP). Этот корабль должен быть запущен в 2001 г. и к середине 2002 г. встретиться с астероидом Hерей (Nereus). Антенны-"тарелки" DSN диаметром 34 м должны будут следить за полетом NEAP в дальнем космосе. NEAP - это первая коммерческая научная космическая миссия. Корабль NEAP будет изучать астероид Hерей в течение двух месяцев. SpaceDev уже заключила соглашение с Университетом Аризоны по установке на NEAP фотокамеры и нейтронного спектрометра. Оборудование будет поставлено университетом бесплатно, но в обмен на данные, которые будут получены с его помощью. Скорее всего аналогичным образом будет происходить комплектация NEAP и другими исследовательскими приборами. Hа снимке: так художник изобразил исследование астероида Hерей космическим кораблем NEAP. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Для исследования астероида Hерей... (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-12171.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-12171.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`"/`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Исследовательский спутник MightySat I, запущенный с "шаттла" Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Исследовательский спутник MightySat I, запущенный с "шаттла" [PRNewswire] Во время недавнего полета "шаттла" Endeavour последним пунктом в его программе после отстыковки от Международной космической станции стоял запуск спутника MightySat I, произведенного компанией Orbital Sciences Corporation. Всю экспедицию спутник находился в грузовом отсеке "шаттла", а 15 декабря он был оттуда извлечен и выведен на круговую орбиту высотой 389 км и наклонением 51,6 градусов. Спутник MightySat I стал первым из серии спутников, которые предполагается создать в исследовательской лаборатории ВВС США для быстрых и недорогих испытаний и внедрения новых космических технологий. MightySat I проведет испытания 5 основных компонентов: композитной платформы спутника, новых солнечных панелей, устройства быстрого отделения элементов космического корабля, новых компактных электронных устройств с малым энергопотреблением и детектора ударов микрочастиц. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Руководитель программы Shuttle обеспокоен количеством аварийных Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Руководитель программы Shuttle обеспокоен количеством аварийных ситуаций с космическими "челноками" [SpaceViews] Руководитель программы Shuttle агентства NASA Томми Холлоуэй (Tommy Holloway) выразил свою озабоченность по поводу большого количества инцидентов с космическими "челноками", произошедшими за последнее время, и напомнил техническому персоналу о необходимости высокой бдительности. За последние 13 месяцев произошло 3 серьезных аварии с "шаттлами". Первая - в ноябре 1997 г., когда "шаттл" Atlantis перевозился для модернизации из Флориды в Калифорнию на Боинге-747. Тогда была потеряна шайба одного из болтов, крепивших "шаттл". По заявлению Холлоуэя, только высокий запас прочности всей конструкции позволил предотвратить аварию, в результате которой был бы разрушен "шаттл" и Боинг и погиб бы экипаж самолета. Вторая авария произошла в июне этого года - датчик давления в одном из основных двигателей "шаттла" Discovery вышел из строя за 20 секунд до старта. Если бы это произошло сразу же после запуска, то выключился бы двигатель и "шаттл" был бы вынужден делать аварийную посадку в Испании или Северной Африке. В октябре 1998 г. за несколько секунд до старта "шаттла" Discovery отвалилась дверца отсека с тормозным парашютом и попала в сопло основного двигателя. Все эти случаи были подробно разобраны в специальном отчете, в котором также содержались и 8 пунктов инструкций для технического персонала, занимающегося обслуживанием "шаттлов", (от рекомендаций обмениваться информацией с коллегами до советов выполнять свою работу надлежащим образом и не торопясь). Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Руководитель программы Shuttle обеспокоен... (картинка) [1/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 2 of file sv-12186.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-12186.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`$L`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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M5MH/!.:Z3P]JNIF06UDT828CS/-7<I`Y[_C7+4P#46[FRQ*DTCT^SU0R6\[D MEMV<<=,UFV>MS"5H9'RN<#)Z5@KJD4DEP;>0QH6.U<\8K+G=BV2>,]:Z/9IP MY3B3M4;/6[0+JD*6NH1`PH0\;#J&!XKHK8;$,>?E!PN3DUY'H^IWT,3*K/(@ MP<=<5Z';W\JV*3W0V<9P37-1IRI5>;MU\NQ5>TUH]'T.@/2N'^*%[<6.EV#P M;F#76'C7^,!2<>_K75:=?QW5GYRY.&VD9R1S7.>/DM9[2V$Y;=!.&`!QU'4# MO6V*JQE!-=;&-*#4[,XAKRY>/]ZT(##D!""0??/%=3\+;:[BL6N)(]D4JL,L M<DG>2,?K7*1>1/>FW`9DQN`8_P`(.*]$T:\M[>&6`@1B`A.H&2<=/SKDG-0G sum -r/size 16576/12423 section (from "begin" to last encoded line) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Руководитель программы Shuttle обеспокоен... (картинка) [2/2] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 2 of 2 of file sv-12186.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > M"2Z,VBI<DEW.E#57U"*2XM'BB(#DC!)P*SKK5[2WD:-I5RJ,Y(<?PD`_CS2V MFNV$]FEY%(TD#D;6"]<N$'!P?O$5TK%QJ>Y/9F'LIQM)(P+C5;#3I98KNPU3 M$<A0RI$KI+A-QVX.>?NCW!KJ4FB-E"\`*QL@8*PY`(SS[^M>-^*M1M))]6_T M?50XN7W[)@$/&W]V-WRMZ=.=WK6YI^O1P^&+!8Y&W",\,>?O'K[USR?LX>ZM MSL=+GZGHEA>).\D38#)COZU4OYK59]LXX.#@=Z\HO_$DZS":*;9(/0]:?:>- MR91]H`+$%2V2:PFZSBH[VZFL</!2YD_D>KSW,2+L5RN%XP.E>;^,]6AF*V\< MA!3[Y!S1KNKI):QW,=X9&<<8X`KR[7=6DDZ-W)/KFHAAISGSR*I\E.]MST;P M?XD@N@VDR3YN(R3%N_B7'2BO+_"=[]F\165T[$#S-IP,DYX_K1775I<KT"$K MG(18R*O(P"\5FQ'&*LAZ^BL>270Y-/7..:J)(!S2^>3P#4M%)EHL`14B3;:I M+)V)IZ@EAD\4FM!IZFC%\WS<8'45VW@]O,M+^%<Y9`H=>2,G!%<9:VRNA;<5 M"\LP_E6I%--8VN85DC29AF7//';BL*D7./*:P?*^8T);J2WGDA(8,&(&X8SS MBK^G7<0<>:20>,&J;W\5S;HKIYA"CECSGUS5<)NY!*GUJ73DT#E%:'I^GZUI MEII[-`G[_MO&<&JLWB:2XPDK#8OH.M<)!=RR0K'Q@>@ZU6FNBLNT$Y]ZRG"\ M=2:<4I7/;=#UF'[`R6D40F'S8+8HU4_VO92B>V%M<;E\N>-P'7_:]#^->0V6 MJ26YW[@#]>M6H?$T^)%(7#C'TKSI8*HI6BSM52D_>:U.HU32;31$6=)'N;5G M`D9B`R_4#W/6J%ZL$EH=\:;^K,3QC=Z_3BLB;7Y/LXWNI4$??&16++XPADBN MK>>\B574QLOD2,"/4<>O%;1H3^T<\YK[)TVCRZ;J>HVOV2SL);<HZC:,`G<N M6Z'FO/\`Q4[6GB;4(H+F6`B=P/*D*XP3CI706?CI;1OW=Q:ME0JQQV<J`G/8 M[Q7*ZYK<FJ:E)+=1`O))G.XGGO\`>R:[:=-=4<ZYD[FC8ZMJD5K>3G4I[EH( M(I$2>0R`,9!V/X_G6@WB,3VZ2%\#H5'&#7'Q75NT<VQ'B250L@'.`#_]85`X MMR6073*H))Y(Q^:_UI5</&70VI57%G637^\-)DC<.,&LR6Y:-5.[G/>L^VFV MP@;A(5X^5U)Q562[D=RTL151T)!QBH5(V]KKH=0NHW+QHCR,4'W1Z5BWER); MMB^25&#FJ`U0NNV%E&.^<U7:Z2/YR&D8GMSCZUK&EV,74ZG=^"/L#ZZGVA5: M7;^YCW8PV"=V._`HKD=*U(6&I17A90RG+.1D#!X/%%9UL/)RNBJ55<NIF+\A MQWJ=0.A.#5=G!`)P??TJPKH8P3C(KU^4\_F'[]IP0?K3`</\O3-*KQE22/QI M'*J`?6DX#4@\P*2&&:M6LBE]SD!1R<U3)P`2.3ZU"T@V\$@BH<2TSJ(KV,J% M5%$?7`'2K,\ZR63A`%9>1\W6N;LI5([9J6:1GDVJ2!CD9X-')=#Y[,OV^H.& M`5N*V8+K(4MCGK7)1*R3+DX4\BM62X\B-3G/;(JXQL9S=SI;:YMDD1GB#IG) M3=U_^M5FW33+[4"\VZWB#9PASQZ9KDX[Q7D4!N1WJ[9W")/NW$M6<Z=]@4FC MK]8T.VCADFM;Q5#DE(FY^7Z^M<D9RF5/!'&*VFN8GAV@@-U7N2:S&T>ZNS<W M"%(Q"`S^:<$D]A67LVEJ5"IT9"]T/)(/)/8UAS6L,KNV75B><G@5'=7CQ,58 M,I'8BJAON,<GGI2Y$:W9<58!>6PN%5D+C=Y9((Z<\TFHSK#?>6T#81F?[N`1 MMX.#]*RGN")2^#N'^US4MW>LP6.6,,=FX,3S]*.6SN-ZEA;B*0`QD!-BY)X. M1U_"JUY*CB1[=P2Q/W>>,TRRQAE=25V9.,<C_&K,,22X6,$%^`#Z>E3.HHVN M73HRG>W0AN?(E:-4.!A<XZ'UJ"X<+;J%D]1\I]ZNWC_9XG7'S=A6*REAOVX[ M]*T5C-H0L[+MW$],Y]*>N0$0A>V:OZ=':S(?-1FP/FQP*J71B$RF+IGCGI33 MUL#CI<L6S3+.!$F]P<JN>O-%%I/Y%XLQP0C[AGZ\T5<D^Q$;#UC3.`.E.$:= M,=:D'(I.1DY/TH9*%\I.A!Q]:7RDQ@Y/XTG3D<9J1/FZU-V4K">5'[_G2&T@ M;D[L^QI925B+*<$>E.A8NH)ZT78U8:EI"IR'<?4U.ML"<K,?^^10O/6G*`?7 M\*5Y=RK)[H/L[''[\\?['_UZ<T,DB;#.",_W?_KTBLRL1DGZ\U.AS4N<^Y7) M'L55L70DI<CGV-6H4GB7"O$3[YS2]*>.M3[22ZCY(OH6$NKJ,C8L)/J6(S^E M7UUB]$!@,$6#W$W_`-:LDD@TX$T.K,7L8/H5]3CN;V3?Y2@@8^^#66UM*F%> M/!4G&1P:W32`G/TI*J^H^1=#F&C<MM(P5QSFI+L>9M(P65"O)KH6B3.[:`?6 M@JCC:R*0>.E-U`4#GXB$!!(^YM_&EMKN6%]UNJ2N!C_=I][`D+G82!GIFF'G MVQZ54HJ6XHS<&TBM*+J63?(CLQ[E:>D<PB?>I)'3"FK5G(6F"LJL,=QUKH;> M.%F3="C8P.<C^1H=HBO?4YJ)2DBJN59EW)@'\12R6<UPR2)!<?,W\,;'T]*] M6L_#FD7,2,UNZ$CJDKC^M6CX5L;>/9#>:@D9;?L%QQGIGIZ5DZZ70-]#R+^S J+LL_^BWA'3;]G;G/X45[C8H]G;_9XKB8QHY`WD,<>F2**P>8-=`]F?_9 ` end sum -r/size 33739/2978 section (from first encoded line to "end") sum -r/size 12808/11157 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Вселенная расширяется, причем, все быстрее и быстрее Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Вселенная расширяется, причем, все быстрее и быстрее [SpaceViews] Журнал Science ("Hаука") в номере от 17 декабря назвал лучшим научным открытием 1998 г. открытие явления ускорения расширения Вселенной. В результате работы, выполненной двумя независимыми международными группами исследователей, было показано, что скорость расширения Вселенной увеличивается. Астрономы измерили доплеровский сдвиг излучения одной дальней сверхновой звезды (на снимке) и сравнили его с аналогичной характеристикой сверхновой звезды, расположенной гораздо ближе. Таким образом было определено, что скорость удаленных объектов возрастает. Раньше большинство астрономов считали, что скорость расширения Вселенной уменьшается с момента Большого Взрыва, произошедшего 15-20 млрд лет назад. Оказалось, что это не так. Отсюда следует еще один вывод - масса Вселенной намного меньше той, которая необходима для прекращения расширения. Ускорение расширения Вселенной означает также наличие какой-то неизвестной пока силы, которая заставляет галактики разгоняться. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Вселенная расширяется, причем, все быстрее и быстрее (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-12187.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-12187.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$!+`$L``#_VP!#``@&!@<&!0@'!P<)"0@*#!0-#`L+ M#!D2$P\4'1H?'AT:'!P@)"XG("(L(QP<*#<I+#`Q-#0T'R<Y/3@R/"XS-#+_ MVP!#`0D)"0P+#!@-#1@R(1PA,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R M,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C+_P``1"`#'`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M&P`!``(#`0$```````````````$"`P0%!@?_Q``Q$``"`@(!`P0!`P(%!0`` M`````0(#!!$A!1(Q!A-!42(4,F$S@0<5%G&1)"5"4J'_Q``7`0$!`0$````` M`````````````0(#_\0`'!$!`0$!`0$!`0$```````````$1`B$Q$@-1_]H` M#`,!``(1`Q$`/P#XB`````%FH]BTWW?*UP5``D@GY"I\$`#0`!```4``$EJX M*=D8RDHIM)R?A%0%C8S:*\;+LJJR(9$(O2L@FE+_`)-<D:$6Y;L006(89Q!! M(*B``$````/0>F:L!PSK\Z%*<(0C3?E4V68]<W+_`,_;Y3:3UPUYX^4'GP?0 M<CTWTZ["SL7]%5B]1R,JM8$ZKY65MNF-D8)OS&SN_'?*;BF_)Y[K.#@8/K6_ M"LQ[8X5=T8RJJGVS2TN$Y)ZY^T!P`?0,#T[T>[U#G=-]C'G_`-ZEA=N1DRK= M./W.*E7^2[Y_Q^3X7#V7Z?Z6Z1U&NJBFJFR$*\6?O59/_4W63NKA9!UN6HQ_ M.7:^U>(O;VPKYX#Z#D="]/3PLG-@JGBK!NG[V![LX*R&15%=L;6I=W9-)[_' M\DUO1RK_`$9"O(Q(5YTIUY3NE"3JTU".-7?%M;\M6)-?&OD#R8`(````$A0# M0"I``4#U\$AZ!B@)(#-0`"L@``&YT_JF;TJR=F%D2I=D>V:6G&:WO33X?*3Y M-,`;F3U;J&9*4LC,NME.WWI.4VVYZTI?[Z21CR\W*SLVS-RK[+LFR7?.V;W* M4OMLUR0KI4]?ZK1+*E5GW1EE3=ETM\RF][EOXER^5SRR/\]ZK^EHQEG71JHE M&52C+3BXMN/*YX;>OK?!S]!A<=7_`%/UIY'OKJ%JG[;J_'2BX-J37:EK3:3? M'/R31ZCZO&RR,NJY-<,BQRNGO;_)=LG_`'CPTM;22.0`CK=?Z!?T+)K3MADX M61'W,3,J_IWP^U]->'%\I\,Y)Z'H'7J,?%LZ-UFN>3T3(EW2C'^IC6>%;4WX MDOE>)+A_QJ]?Z!?T+*K3MADX61'W,3,J_IWU_:^FO#B^4^&!R"1HG1&I$:)+ M:)[0UBFB=%^W^">W_<&,>B=%^UAH+BFN"&9.W@HP*D$_!`8J``&<0`"H``"2 MT8N1"Y9OUPIKPIRDW[GPC/5QU_GQ^FE):X*%F^2I6:`$E0/0]`Z]1CXMG1NL MU3R>B9$NZ4(_U,:SPK:M^)+Y7B2X?QKS^B\8[861U>O=`OZ'DUIV0R</(C[F M)F5?T[X?:^FO#B^4^#EQBV>T]#78_4,A^G.M9./7T3*;G*>3;V?I[$N+*Y/Q M+PM>)+R;'^('I+$].>IU1TR7N=-OIA;C34^_:UVR_+Y_)-_W&-3_`!X=5EU4 M;OZ?3\%W2I?E&':EQH95:/M<#VS?>.];0]@F#0=?\%7#^#>E5I^#%.L*TY(Q MR1L27&F89H(Q:*LLR&&:J"0&50`5D`)`F/DO*;:U\%/@$;W)AOX``0)2!:*V M5J1:*WHSUU[?@55[T;]-&]<%D:5IIY3:1[3T5Z5_U+U>O#>0J:TG)[?_`#I' MG:L=1:X7\G4Z?F7X-\;L:R5=D7M2B]-&^<GU+MGCK^M/2M7IKJ;Q(VQM32DI M?.G]H\OV1@]'5SLO)ZA>[LFR5DY>7)[9IRH>MZ'74M\)+GK2:V^$1KPM:-M5 M<ZT0Z-;9SVM8UG7WQTDNXU9U;;6O!TE7QQY,-E6H]P^I\<>V#CLU)HZ.0DWL MI.FEX3L<TI_1,*YC7)5EF5"54`!E4`%8"4`%B002%`3M=OCG["(N+)&>NM[7 M!CA'9T<:K>ME;C)CT>'HZ=-:@]]NRM%>M:1O54[?@W/$^HKI<C>HPV]<&?%Q MDVN#NXF#O7!EIQXX$FOVD3P9)?M/70Z;^/[3#=@]J\$T>-MPV_C6C![$T]/7 M]STN1B]OP<ZRI=^M$U7(LH<%W)?)K9U79&*U_/!V;-.,M<Z9Q^J6-QUPM:X1 MJ?*GNN)D:VT:%K?*^#<O\LTK&8TK"RC+,JRLU5@,!BJ@`K*?`()"I``5)*7) M",D$VPW&Q1#;.OBU^#3QL>2TVO)V,>M)+@U(K8IKU';1T<6G;7!BIJ[FN#K8 MM6FMH4C>P<1;7!Z[I?3?<U^.SC=+J4I+9]%].X49ZG)<1,6M?/6*OHCC5OVS MC]1P%7W;1]%:7;IZT>+]13A79**?DS;B<7]/!9L%MKZ/.YEB5G;#F3XX.QU? M-C6Y1B]R?PCS'NS5KG9+6R?J7QTG.>LM\_;I<=>#@Y+[FYOR_@W<K(E<VHOC M[.5ERC&/XOP:9KFY+7>],TI^39MEW2;^#5D(S5&RC+,J5FH8`#%5`!64@$K@ M+`D@D-",]/[D84;%2Y#4=BBV4XI/X1V,2MSBI/P<7$CPN3T6'7*-<9=K[9<) MFX.ACP[8>%HZ6/';3-.J.VD_@VJ[.VS6S%;CT?3G&,HGT+H67"J"3?XO@^:8 M>1%:VT>AP^HJN*2EHR?7N^H=1A72W7--H^<==SK+K'+OVUOP;N5U.4Z]*2W\ ML\SU3,BHM<;.5YMNUTYLYF1Q<BM*4K+'W-_9R,J<%)QXD_C1M9>8N5*#;7R< M>ZYREM+7T=.>9&>NK6/)N<9/VVDFM-''R);WMF[9?",V[8=\=/A/7)R+K-M\ M:-6L,-DC7DS).7DPLB:AD,`K-0``RJ`=7IOI[J'5NFY^?BP@Z,&"G<Y6*+2? MTGY*RY9*()#42``TM$V*?)KHV*GX#3K8K7"/3X]W?37%;[8+;Y^3R>/)\'<Q M+&I1:\&Y;EQ,]]=FNY[;3"N??Y.;"YQ;[OMA9'=-Z,?6W>Q\OM:W(Z4>I*,. M6>0>3*/.^#)'.;C^YDH])?U3:>I?V.;?FMIRD]OX.39EM_3-:W-DHZ3X)(6M MO(R(]K;:V_)R;;?YX*VW]V^YK1HWW[X7_P`-6Q%<BY2;Y>C1G+[+63;^3!*6 MS(K)_P`\E`V05FA``9`0P$07C;.$)1C.24O*3X90%92202@U$@$_`:BT?/G1 ME@]&%>2\7\!71HD=?"FE'EG`JEHW\:]Q98KKV=RD]/EK:-7]1*,]/B7AHR1L M3@GLQ715DMMZDODEBRK_`*G>TUIE?>^UR:W<MZDVFOE!VQ7R!FE<WPC%*[[> MW](P2L<GP87/7R07NLV^>#5LL%EFS!*1#42D8^6GP&R-E1!`V`P`$!``%1`` M")"!:+2\KD+!%H]NFFMOX(DTWM+2$9.,E)>5RB-SQ.M$[)MNG?;*R>G*7+TM M%"QJYOC-"6F;-=CXT:47HNI]O('6KR-:7Q\F=W1;XUHXT+6M\F:-SUY+*8Z# ME#?)AG**VTC5=W\E)7-\$M&>=O'DUYS9C=C?R8VR*ERV48;V5;":G94LEW/7 M!4,T``9"&``!`*@``@202%23LJ2%BQ`V`T%DRH3Y6UP#612+=[T4NG7*V3J@ MX0?B+>]?W*;"ZS=Y5R*;&R&I<B&R-D!-20"`FIV"`$#I=,ZI7T^K+A/`Q\IY M%+JC*Z+;J?\`[1_DYH!N#`!40``@``!(`4)````-`````(``@$``">-/[`"( ,``4`!4"````"/__9 ` end sum -r/size 30351/3953 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 63270/2847 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космический зонд исследует вспышки на Солнце Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Космический зонд исследует вспышки на Солнце [SpaceViews] Hовые данные, полученные с помощью специального космического зонда Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), позволили ученым по новому взглянуть на происхождение и природу одного из видов солнечных вспышек. Зонд ACE сейчас располагается в одной из точек воображаемой прямой, соединяющей Землю и Солнце. Следует отметить, что эти относительно слабые вспышки трудно исследовать с Земли. Так же как и при ярких вспышках, при более слабых происходит полный отрыв электронов от атомов, номера которых в таблице Менделеева лежат в диапазоне от 1 (водород) до 14 (кремний), что соответствует температуре в 10 млн градусов Цельсия. Исходя из данных, полученных при исследовании самых разных солнечных вспышек, астрономы надеются лучше понять многие процессы во Вселенной, в частности, почему редкий изотоп гелий-3 в этих вспышках имеет концентрацию в 1000 раз большую, чем где бы то ни было еще во Вселенной. Исследование вспышек поможет понять структуру магнитного поля Солнца, во всяком случае уже ясно, что оно не является однородным. Космический зонд ACE был запущен в августе 1997 г. Он предназначается для определения изотопного и элементного состава солнечного ветра, межпланетной, межзвездной и галактической материи. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hовые данные противоречат теории ускорения расширения Вселенной Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hовые данные противоречат теории ускорения расширения Вселенной [SpaceViews] Через день после публикации в журнале Science об открытии ускорения расширения Вселенной были получены совсем другие данные. Джеффри Петерсон (Jeffrey Peterson), астроном из Университета Карнеги-Меллона, объявил 18 декабря на конференции по астрофизике в Париже о данных, которые он получил с помощью субмиллиметрового телескопа Viper, расположенного в Антарктиде. Петерсон сообщил, что наблюдения газовых облаков в далеком космосе показали, что их угловой размер точно такой же, каким он предсказывался раньше в соответствии с теорией замедления расширения Вселенной. Такой результат противоречит выводам работы, выполненной в начале 1998 г. двумя независимыми группами исследователей, которые измеряли доплеровский сдвиг излучения сверхновых звезд. Согласно их расчетам расширение Вселенной происходит все быстрее и быстрее. Это открытие было названо журналом Science открытием 1998 г. Телескоп Viper диаметром 2 м расположен в Центре астрофизических исследований в Антарктиде на Южном полюсе. Он был создан для исследования неба в субмиллиметровом диапазоне длин волн, а Южный полюс был выбран потому, что здесь сухой воздух и прозрачная атмосфера. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 21 декабря 1998 (1998-12-21) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hовые данные противоречат теории ускорения... (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-12201.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-12201.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`"%`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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