Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.


Ru.Space.News:
Декабрь 1998
ПнВтСрЧтПтСбВс
 
123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031
 

год:


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru



  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    0.022


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 16 декабря 1998


    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Web-сайт для слежения за спутниками Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Web-сайт для слежения за спутниками [Newsbytes] Агенство NASA открыло Web-сайт, на котором можно получить доступ к параметрам орбит различных спутников, вращающихся вокруг Земли и определить занимаемое ими в данный момент положение. Здесь можно увидеть орбиты станции "Мир", Международной космической станции, летающего в настоящее время "шаттла" Endeavour, а также различных спутников связи, исследовательских и метеорологических спутников. Самые популярные из запрашиваемых объектов выведены на главную страницу. Адрес: http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/realtime/jtrack/. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Открыт самый дальний из известных квазаров Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Открыт самый дальний из известных квазаров [SpaceViews] Астрономы Принстонского Университета открыли самый дальний из известных на сегодняшний день квазаров. Открытие было сделано с помощью 3,5-метрового телескопа Apache Point Observatory (APO), расположенного в Hью-Мексико. Анализ спектров излучения этого квазара показал, что расстояние до него составляет как минимум 10 млрд световых лет. Hа снимке этот квазар представляет собой небольшое красноватое пятнышко в центре (указан стрелкой). Квазары являются довольно загадочными объектами. До сих пор астрономы не пришли к единому мнению относительно того, что является источником энергии для квазаров, так как их яркость равна суммарной яркости звезд 100 галактик, а размер не превышает размеров нашей Солнечной системы. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Открыт самый дальний из известных квазаров (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-12141.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-12141.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$`2`!(``#_VP!#``@&!@<&!0@'!P<)"0@*#!0-#`L+ M#!D2$P\4'1H?'AT:'!P@)"XG("(L(QP<*#<I+#`Q-#0T'R<Y/3@R/"XS-#+_ MVP!#`0D)"0P+#!@-#1@R(1PA,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R M,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C(R,C+_P``1"`#(`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'````P$``P$!``````````````$"`P0%!@<(_\0`-Q`!``(!`P(#!@4$`04` M`P```0(1`!(A,0-!!")1!1,R87'P0H&AL<$&(Y'1X0<44F+Q%18S_\0`%P$! M`0$!`````````````````0`"`__$`"`1`0$!``("`@,!```````````!$2$Q M`D$240-A<1/_V@`,`P$``A$#$0`_`/A5=.HGNY.S>VUUZY,>JM0E<HM:CURI MS:C#5/2/X?OYF3)>F$!U'(AN9&U4-)+J(N\=BOG^V*,8N@]-D!+R+EJ\U2,N M,VFJ&.]1PP9@6DCU*33LZJK;*AIAJN)+3Y7S=OO]\R",S2-2[6?SG/Z'BNET M>AU8O3)^\AI)#N4>F7=Q;D<$FLMCRC='`9<8ZYGFBEM7Z^GZ8F%7HF@'$BN^ M#7O);$2+=[*8V9P?0DD`EYM1<6WM7_S%=20`*MU=]^:XPZG_`/2>NS4M#C#2 MQ&<9;4;Y8J6FI&F<6*[T57W_`!E[3C(*E(^?)?.9].^=1J+TW\LI9D-R2WQ> M6!,&G<NS>^=_VRAT>:BBPKODQEYM6ED55U>!$8-5&9ON[N_8RQKC")R;X1E6 MERKKIQV>;O\`C)EO)(E[W58S4QY0$V[8\*<&HB@;;+?)],2$H4=]RCC+1BMP M&WLE_OA\1JT]MPV'(;R<HQE*Y6H4\=JQ1G!ZDC3OS%>SB@NK:*2=U"\)`29( M(EZ7*;I[&G?8%BUSPCA.,K=*RB\[565492C*(D'9LY[\Y4(QEI-=MV+OMZ8^ M5^A>$F@B5YJ[5O?W>$Y5$),FRRJ*_+"HO42HERH4XQ=64=;J[%4<F$XY*8Q9 M.Y*2KL893(EU):D0C9WWPRLM6Q(S(ZX[G`?+*+@:Y.UI8U\L2]3I=,-)I=XJ M<_3%&X@:M^::K!F=C23BL4*V/5^>)AJ711MOO^N!**,5-0;)FE/3V(+^'?CE MRVE/E@C+RIPQ7?\`/)C)B&UQW2+Z806+I8\[\[&.0HRF$6MA$Q6+%T/E3IR_ M%LO/K]/IF<I7#2:J>;]?LRXNLC!E4;5EZ[;?Q_G(V=G>FKO>NV96:&;1<;Y- M+][8^K$J,=(+_P"W&9QNF0[]\LI$D7(+9+B*+`:"J[=B\+2>J,[:N_3M@SU_ M$C&)1^UX/E4$]!'(G*>^PZ>6C;"4UBV<-1TXIDH1T2.W;[^]\3&@+MEOZ?+[ M^N/:P[E,61+4[#EQE/76U1V]#)DSTB6GP\X&]+)607$V[_\`&4.J83GTSK+4 M>5#C?%=;;[UI+^?..I2B,GX"HVFSD;O44%B<IWRH5I0E(9`%KZ_3)9OPT\F_ M?*J4KNFH[`]L48ZP>W/Q?/';)RL4144U)1SOSAHN+",=)+\2?F8^G*)3U+;! M#LM]\EC*74WT1C\DVVXJ\-J+ITW&404V<MV:F1E*[MXR=$X]-D,4K;Y9?1Z> MKJ%IJK:][;<K3>(RVEN(&][5AER5N,%LNRN,,U*N"ZL"-=)ZK/3QO_&1$2U$ M.!KODR?*4R^B9<8ZI#&A.*O=S.KUI)(0JE.;S5TK*4_-5*76_P`LB1(A)=Y1 M>?O[WR:\HW5M[X+TN90;>>JJJNN<):J^#9+L*^N3%M8B.][[7]UC9:XLHP-M MU_/&#*)`:=_GQOOV_P`;Y%6RJ&]6.7\56TR+#\\<I<L>8FE:P6)9'FC&-'X: M^_K@"B`V<V;XC20=WGGZ?_<J1%'3U&J7<RM6IBQ"Z7?L5OE2N31'FM1Z/KCZ MCTY-";!5;45DV=.V,MT*E=Y5=F2EM$6ZHKOD2B/#>UUOMEB1GMO)W)=OGMC$ MB"*!85EIM3"3&1(5CR4'.$J:(FU=^?I^N.#%DA9ZM<_?\9?1C<65$N\CTKO^ M^,^Q$4CL`&[&G@_+'T/+J8H`6RISF>)Z7@XRCU.C,FNTCBEYV],X5,(:JW2Q MJJO*&W#ZJ^\U.QM*ZIR-VE[[#>]9K$ULI2),5]+,E"1>DC6Q8[XR[PN8DD08 MW%**$VPW.KO;MO>5QN3X*=7-]ZRI2U17I[1.!WL_/&H_#G1G+^[/2:&@O=[8 M=/K2AXB,S:?,:>#[O)97*`H$>*+QD64=.C:07).?]9FQ=(UUUI6C=_5O#`?< MR82+3X4PRF#E51T\I-[+B&^INZ$-J[.(1\J;#W],&4-%1=T:WXW_`-80;QBG M5*6J-._Q+RX]$91\U[MWZ.9"/]R2-]C9RWJ2Z<[B"50<E>N/]7HI&F:1WD/Z M5DDH>[.3>M^V&NS522:M>,UCID7*,1YXVRTI(MZMWYZ:LQ,"%5)LE5>O?$1T M2)RU1$L0RKC$\HTF]G&9'5Q,9`!IN*<+\\(%3@4MC)/OZ8];MTV(QW[;F.36 MF1(:VOCOCW#43BRAK5M-CO\`_,II#?;5M3QQCEY$W33W3*Z<";$4+W[7DF<N MG(EJ-/'&3^)D\?/OFT2[B3TQY%:2_GF<B16I4];LRY.$-FL0VJN^,=/X7GG[ M,?";#?-ET973C.1(B6UJO1VQ7*9:25<.G8J\HC<-3"6Q=1['S_3'[O2FH\M: MB^2^V1:7TT!P^7TLKNO9_B?!=#V1XCH^(Z)+JR^"5;CN9TTW1(V"42RC;\\J MY:Y1B-SIC;^;BMN6F$A8[AN.QF?'Q^-MC7ES2G"<?-((-V7M]F2K$C8QLY[9 MKU.LSC%ZENDK4<<<9(1B5*[;KOOG3GNCA$=,9R-3Q=GKA&*I&/*`VA65*1I7 M3Y>!T[FW&*5,KVX0LP'H)*321\ORPR@_MC&[?07#-<*<D%WU*`U)]_IBE'5/ M2"ME;;W7?_&$0ZD4251;D\`9OX67A?>L>MK8RXI^7/[YBLY&$=3I1TCPU2I6 MWZW^>&@\VIM'TWCE33I]2+M+GMN9#)VD!=VT\_7,SDG,U7IB-M<;9-L8:4*W MPC(MDW_%X&\'3&3Z=Z_/-8KPJ,+GII:-Z[8O+I>GI`&]5;KEQC+3OU`WOC)G M-NO*AZF[E--IN@C^+7WVVS.&K6',1WLO#R2?AIW6OVR];+IHT;6-;N%_0P2` MC*))0:^MXNEI)C+B,;_/#2L#F4F_A_G*(E]A86*.[]WFO22>:$XCL%WQQA+: M1$J]GCC\\Y3[.G'PGOY)"_PKSG$TW%K?UP^7I6-YPE'J"PN))H]3,8Z:K5(7 MCZ=\9)]UP!&5;%KZY/38\2`V.W;??+(8]M[;]K?T]U/Z,]G>%]G^"#VC!OQ' MB&"$_P!<\7*<NHR%C1QMAJB:BJD[;+ZE&,1-HROU3OAX^'CXS(;;4KY^>"B_ MTQZO-$=4&JOM^60,M4E!E\._9^S+DRIU?%?IQQFAMH8QEL/E6VFJ[82A*G2D M@?P]_P#."V"$:3FJWP9FN[X.3U],E@%C-LA:;V9HC`9.QNV'KD*:M4Z8IOIY MQ&Q4M42MY..;V+#FD.GTR+(>74V885&HRB^IQ][899&I$!&*QF4[-)64S(V* M[2OZF%PJ5AR[&U_.\OI>&ZOB6NC"4].ZG;,<,=D]2*I':/<_7,U*M:D;57^, M>TNI6XFV[@11CL'SO;'&I]!D>4HA56Q7Z??UP(*6=0:>!_;)E,$VNMBMOURI M6R:BZ@M5Q77`EU=3=RH*JL/-.`S%HH:WP9:HNTDN[K=?]81D>0=:EV84*8Q% MDQW3:NV$X:0-JYLE]_=8UZ@@1D0+X_WDQ?,\._&^VV47<.)%18`2=E?NOSR- MBHE5?/?Z.,J+YPVWKOSPX]Y0$*655Z'UR36<M73!E*1N.W?Z9!*"C=)'G@_+ M(?+0MO*ZOE_SA[P]UIO57$=_OUPP;RTU>[J.J.M/,F1&4I+26OI?V8GS7+0Z MMOVQZM$8U6KBCL^N,:#&]256I+TV4^F6)"55O$VHWR"PLE0;:1WXPU5TR(6? MF)?KE)JD&G6HQ?75\\W\\R5H1\TF]N/EVS.,X0$GT]0FXRISZ/[*_P"FO6]L M?T)XG^HH^(A&/3BNA?,G??,>?Y/A9+.SCYQT_+'5&4&MY)M7WODL&8L10;=^ M_P!WFG6CU(]5@ZI%KMRU_P#<SF]-EPQ0W'UO-[:,_9](AO"7EUG?+$J<)5J> M!>^9@B)';TO&Z*/_`"U6?+^?\YK,5ZTY:(],-I2Y=KKY89.Q">U@U:884\IG MY`*@L2[]7.5X'Q\_!]/K'3!>H52;UG"-ETMI\LM&5!4U-WTKTS/]8+3Y&5-O MH8YQ93V;XXV'%*$(G>V.]ETXR3%-5L3>S$G!)F[TR5;"8'3B1E+S,@-K]<74 M/>>://>W=_+TQD:+2M5;_G_K)41ZFJ=1HVOY[=L82=145M-[S*,@4CIL=I5S ME*GE1J/(=\@9%A)9!1ML?+YXZ`E;J/G2W_G%!EO5[MA>3-U%RY>?KEV=HE(U MJ\O(8]F9ND-2#'G'*7]ORIM47?9SN>A_3?C9_P!-]?V[U>D^']F=.1#I=?JN MGWO4?P0_\GEVX(XJ.%U_9W6\)X7P_7ZM$/$#**NX'J9Q9-]18%0HVJK,)]?J M=2!'J=1D!8<K@VQ0B4VZ0&C,^.YR?+-X1)2:QU<7NU7^,1!IER;;YK*)$D'* MG+P;]LQ5B5O2W7;'?M-/=T:MF3P<OUQR)=31(8K6T1IR$/>6:7RZC?&QE!:0 MB]A_3ZXB]\*B1FZI:ACW=\[[H_U;[9\/[&__`!?2\;/_`+3J6SZ1)!^59T%> M0E5*]LH/[,/-52VEMQ]WB53C*$F6[/=4>,4^;G%W;:YOO_C):4\Q*.J]\3-% MC*F(\7RX<ZEK<NZ_";;5ZXFHS2`QO;6Y433TNT5V3N_+]\0TD*=*[$<;:;I2 MZ<V4Y2WEW3L>N&*,?,DJ1&W56^&&TQFK&.H\O8#*DDP)%>C_`,8I"A'Y_?\` M.#1`21*2\8<,*URF7.Y;AOVVS.,ZCOWYRUG`;.%7#2%2*K3Q>]Y8NDE7&*[7 MZ;Y1L$R+0#QMDRKAWHNUQQN(U%4-SMEB_J]6H4B[<&FC?(Z9%HE*F^+K%.+" M6IX;_P`8RAXD_)Y,LQ=A4OBTW`XW]<8,I5IV-Z6\/BEYS2FV^)=%(4I:\]\H M8Y_L[P4?:'5FSE'H^&Z(=3Q'B$\L(7V.Z\!W:^>=G[?_`*J]H^V/8_@O8^N9 M[)\%)_[/H3I8[5<I?B>?E:U1MG3'M#Q$O!G@26CHZWJ,0!E*JMHWVNO2WU<X MMUTPVNS[_4R9L-L9#R\-?Y,(UN_A6E],<+W`%8G/^<G3*)=4=R\BHZERU?AE MS&\K6BD:D2*5,4$EO<G\4CFL<7WO3E0D(C6^2X9D9)0;C6Q@T1E7?<<UZ;>T MCN%Q::=\SAN<<NU<YI",G219@<HEY0ZK=3(.#C'(N,`"(W>GG;#J:KWC9IO; MO@9<[.+[Q(TH\%\<?[RW3IH(L975I9O7I]<B"1@["T=OT_;%<Y=*F42)I,:N MU,)1BH5$-R3OS_MQ1&)JYKN-F6].1&2NJK3;G;-7I%$XR@G>)Y:YS/LS]N,5 M%B,1&WRI;^N&;2B]0=,`J2;7O6&-:R.-&?ET2I;5WWR:C%^/GTS27$IV[RTM M_3)2)$!&G@^^,'+VJ%^[TVDMTOFL3.44BLW<O?#3&0[K,V`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`\3*4(RZ@&ED9Q_+\I9\/;'G,?$?:G]*>/\#*3U(3@_$ZX MHAAGZ#_ZH=+PO_ZW#J]:,(>+_P#7EVW+^^,,[>,\LY'^F<5^22Y'Q[UJ;_;) M?+/1'S?/ZY:'3CYI6W>D*"LFHLF0,3GZ81J7D$Z*D715G\X1L-));*\N&Q*+ M&R^1.3*IC!EN`V=KWXRYIA2TKI(`7R*_?;"KG(*DG>]ORXQ2(V%Q?2KQH%[6 M'X9.YDJ6G5+S<[][PZD4".H:.+<<IW(T].`(51>!<&425$OS'$'/KRE+4:2K MK;C)DI-\P-I3OB8[!M6UG%?=Y6BBY<JF^V^2DJ+=,AJN^:*2W'RU]*:NLS(B M/;?==ZRJ=3%B*??W],$!DE1V!U&^%2(ZI-Q]3]<(Q\S_`.-6XXU&'P[\U]_G M_C+4HUTW&4QX*[<YGK52,`NS;!)%[TG:^/7**E.4HCMO8'&"PH5I):=BR_VQ MQE(+?BBV.40G.!I5.RG&,E%(,0W-XKMS7?':U.>RG_<B3-K*D%!A.+5:!U'( M;?7Y8B3K=,@J]ARY,"ZDZ=O-^*_WS6#"6,XLILINZ[;=_P#>:`THR!N3?WQO MF4F48:#<K9K'$]Y*I-%[;<YG#L\7*\.LNI&4D`_"/.>Z]E?UOXSV+`AX7J^[ M=MA;SY_JD1GY%CQJ8UQE].2=.4F236^;L_C-3CH6?)]`]L_UMXOVKX9?%]9Z M@;TBUVPSP_2EU90C'4EFIMKT_?\`G#,^7G=YKE_G(ZV8R';<WY=SUQ:32RC> M@VY[_P"LUCTNI_V\NN1OI1D%U5_(_3(($IZ--"W64="C!9@]1YJ[XVRHK*5+ MN105V^63&#1)=5\[77;-$8]&.F%E[-;'Y]^,DR@D:)<BECL8>:_+3OS1E29U M213CEVSO_974]@0_I[VA#Q_1D^.:/#,-_FN'E<PX\]H!M?+QJCMOZ8'DEJ$# MU><HI#5$V_\`;G\LEC4I5&]^QE[QGBW%0\T2-QK?=^A@2"%#YKW`YP`),3=[ M68MUE7E/3]S+&K?0E$+OGGX:K%&:T3J]12XW18UL]JXQ4;K:!VH_G%1IU)>] M%@D0E5!F0"D;-5U9Q6$!U2BBWV]>^,=4I+$VW.U9<`$8R$BU1:ISCE&R4J:* MVJO\XE6MPC?Q<?ME,]T5WYENV&2T2-#IX4LI_P!80@,CSZ+-U/\`C&K,N2\? M4^[O)G0>D10*K'T<FG>JA5VW/ESEVSG.*;'Q+W=59$9@):79?H9?5HE>ZU;W MWO$>T]/B4:WWVU56.4MKUQ'_`,5O%[R#U#8V-J,)$J!BGIO9@<U4=-L;E?/# MWRI`.B,QW+K;?(?-U!GZ$:-[P4@HR25#Y>,MRFUMT.J'6OJ$I"Z2G]<,@1W) MN[IVW#_.&9OCXV[1FH>O+W)TR40):J#OB]X0E>JCXMSG)CY=))CPUMB)^<U4 M'I?'YXA7O)1C)-MQK^<73D"W*A[.]OTQQEIA*M*^L;VPZA*5:DXNW"T\4@ME M&PW-KKO\\"$BH.G=H?7`E`Z:;>N_TQ;,:6DN]N,=L4_2B:&TZ_8]-L0ZRY+M MWO\`UB>[>UN]5O6,C'0L=(\?7;#]LX<[#RSDBC:X'DL#4QV<B-QA(K:6U.5. M6XS=36\L=.8O7*74FT1%HC;VR.I(D"*ZC>]])>/=BSD,=[%Q:1D:;TG[9+5Z M@5255>HV1S-%+WW6M7\X]8PE?F["\\X6T$=*G9R"NJRCLZ2-[E;#Z8HP8RHD MOELWH^F2]63N\UN!WO-34$)F\N=VJ/3"YZ+)91G*90OIEPE.?3WB,;N2]O7% M8QMG4KWW7L?\Y<)Q(2J2G'&:YQ)/-%"(7W>Y]F4O]QTZ=W35\9EY9<UQR/'Y M9II(C'?7)'X:LQ*=S4H(-7%V,<(+U)4IY;L=_OG)HGT_[<3AU'IFD`]SY+EU M'Z%%YE1,9:.L>[@Q?K=X*3E9:)O6_;_G*\HE[1E+:P:WPEU*E'JQC5V;<%^F M4%PIJ;#95@;%_+#%".J6G0LNW<PQQ)BV&J<2[H8\8:-/5T\5=U]_3##,H:HQ MF)$8\`Y4I:_B(D8-5?.&&-,C.MU&R^:RY$I1#5O3O7SPPRM9C-LJ-WZF:A"4 MAFD=M(1[889;P>X.J1B2C`2(J6<[YFR\G`G:C##(<K/>0HU+>^TN,<XNDU@* M?%ZN&&720"W*7&WW],4/-,XOG###6FCRWTRGBI8:M00?ANS2</IAACX@2C'I MQ-I$C$:HQ]Y&*=M7.&&5[5O!3*U6;]I::R[%8!LH+$K;UPPS2@8$8>9HII[U MBD5*1&DY#O\`YPPPTP]4)3M$6-:#?`@K",9%=]K!OMAAAN'T<H[7H8ZMQ[4\ (?XPPPR9U_]ET ` end sum -r/size 17342/8909 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 5202/6443 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Экипаж Endeavour готовится к приземлению Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Экипаж Endeavour готовится к приземлению [NASA] Пошел последний день миссии STS-88. Экипаж Endeavour завершает свою экспедицию. Проделан большой объем работ по сборке и подготовке к эксплуатации первых двух блоков Международной космической станции. Два астронавта Джерри Росс (Jerry Ross) и Джеймс Hьюмен (James Newman) провели 3 выхода в открытый космос, каждый из которых длился не менее 7 часов. После отстыковки от станции Endeavour вывел на орбиту спутник связи SAC-A. Теперь члены экипажа готовятся к посадке в космическом центре им. Кеннеди, которая должна состояться сегодня поздно ночью в 3 ч 36 минут по местному времени (16 декабря в 6 ч 36 мин по московскому времени). Сегодня Endeavour должен также произвести еще один "запуск" спутника. Это будет небольшой (весом около 320 кг) спутник MightySat, созданный лабораториями ВВС США и Phillips, который проведет испытания некоторых новых технологий - на нем установлены усовершенствованные солнечные батареи, детектор микрочастиц и другое новейшее оборудование. Центр управления полетом также готовится к посадке. Предварительные прогнозы погоды указывают на возможную облачность и дожди в районе приземления. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Two NASA spacecraft launches involve Cornell astronomers' projects (Fo Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Service Cornell University Contact: Blaine P. Friedlander, Jr. Office: (607) 255-3290 E-Mail: bpf2@cornell.edu FOR RELEASE: Dec. 11, 1998 Two NASA spacecraft launches, one to Mars and the other to research the birth of stars, involve Cornell astronomers' projects ITHACA, N.Y. -- NASA launched the Mars Climate Orbiter today (Dec. 11, 1998) from Cape Canaveral, Fla. On board the spacecraft was the Mars Color Imager -- known as MARCI -- designed with the help of two Cornell University astronomers. Engineering problems had forced postponement of the launch from Dec. 10. The mission marked the second scientific launch in the past week for Cornell researchers. On Saturday, Dec. 5, NASA launched the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) astronomical observatory from the belly of a modifed L-1011 aircraft. Mars Climate Orbiter will monitor Mars' atmosphere and capture color images with MARCI for one Martian year, the equivalent of two Earth years. Mission scientists expect MARCI to capture images of Martian atmospheric dust and water vapor and to record seasonal changes. James F. Bell, Cornell assistant professor of astronomy and a member of the imaging team says, "We will be doing many things with MARCI that haven't yet been done. For example, using high resolution color imaging, we'll be examining how Mars' past climate has been preserved in its rocks and minerals, much like you can learn about the Earth's geologic past by looking at the coloring and stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon or other similar structures. MARCI will fill a big gap between the spectacular black-and-white images being returned now from the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the coarser-resolution color data sent back by the Viking missions more than 20 years ago." Peter Thomas, a Cornell senior research associate, also a member of the MARCI team, will use the camera to study the Martian dunes and other wind-related features on the red planet. These features also provide unique insights into the present and past climate of Mars. Bell and Thomas also will be working with the MARCI science team to focus on detecting and tracking clouds, polar caps and dust storms that are part of the ever-changing planet's current but poorly understood climate. MARCI's wide-angle imaging mode will be used to return daily "weather maps" of Mars, similar to those obtained by Earth weather satellites. Following a 10-month journey to the planet, the spacecraft will be "aerobraked" by low passes into the Martian atmosphere to allow it to get into a circular orbit around Mars. Bell expects the craft to begin sending data in late 1999 or early 2000. A major role for the spacecraft is to support its companion spacecraft, Mars Polar Lander, scheduled for launch early in 1999. In a month-long mission at the end of 1999, Mars Climate Orbiter will explore the Martian south polar cap. In last Saturday's launch, rocket boosters took SWAS from the upper atmosphere into space, where this newest space-based astronomical observatory will study the heavens in a band called "submillimeter radiation," lying between the infrared and radio waves on the electromagnetic spectrum. Astronomers will study the conditions that lead to the birth of stars, a process now hidden deep within obscuring clouds of interstellar dust and gas. "Although stars are the basic building blocks of the universe, little detail is known concerning how stars are formed," says Paul Goldsmith, Cornell astronomer and director of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, managed by Cornell for the National Science Foundation. Goldsmith, who is a project co-investigator with Martin Harwit, Cornell professor emeritus of astronomy, notes that "even today, this vital process is among the least understood steps in cosmic evolution. SWAS will give astronomers critical information about conditions in regions that are, or will likely soon be, forming stars." The SWAS observatory will orbit the Earth every 97 minutes and typically will observe three to five astronomical objects an orbit. The observed data will be stored in the spacecraft memory and relayed to a ground station twice daily and then relayed to SWAS Science Operations Center at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., for analysis. The mission is designed to last two years. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sky & Telescope News Bulletin - December 11, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN DECEMBER 11, 1998 GEMINID METEORS SET TO BLAZE The Geminid meteor shower should peak Sunday night, December 13-14. Start watching the sky as early as 10 p.m.; the shower's radiant point (in Gemini) will already be fairly high in the east by then, so meteors should be appearing. The radiant is highest near the zenith around 2 a.m. You might see one or two meteors per minute if you have a natural, truly black sky packed with stars. In a light-polluted suburb you might see a meteor every several minutes. For more information visit http://www.skypub.com/sights/meteors/geminids/98preview_geminids.html or see the December *Sky & Telescope,* page 117. HEADING TO MARS The next step of the exploration of Mars started today with the launch of NASA's Mars Climate Explorer. The Delta II rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral at 1:49 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. It will arrive at Mars in September 1999. Like Mars Global Surveyor -- currently in service at the planet -- Climate Explorer will use aerobraking to circularize its orbit. Climate Explorer will then spend 2 years studying the planet. Afterward, the spacecraft will be used as a data relay for future missions. Mars missions are happening fast and furious: The next mission on the launch pad is Mars Polar Lander, which is scheduled for liftoff on January 3rd, to arrive at Mars in December 1999. KILLER IMPACT IN ARGENTINA A study that only intended to find out more about a enigmatic type of rock in South America has resulted in the conclusion that the area was rocked by the impact of an asteroid or comet 3.3 million years ago. Along the ocean cliffs of southeastern Argentina is a thin layer of greenish glass and red bricklike rock. A team of American and Argentinean researchers led by Peter Schultz (Brown University) examined this so-called "escoria" and found numerous signs of a violent origin. Furthermore, Schultz and his colleagues explain in the December 11th issue of *Science* that their calculated age of the glass dates to just prior to the disappearance of three dozen animal species. RECORD-BREAKING QUASAR Although still in its commissioning phase, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has discovered three of the four farthest quasars known. The most distant -- with a redshift of 5.0 -- was announced Tuesday at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago, Illinois. This redshift surpasses the 1991 record holder of 4.89. (Several galaxies are known to have redshifts greater than 5.) The Sloan Digital Sky Survey aims to chart the positions, brightnesses, and colors of hundreds of millions of stars and galaxies in the northern sky. It will also measure the spectral redshifts, and thus the distances, of a million galaxies and 100,000 quasars, enabling astronomers to map the large-scale structure of the universe more comprehensively than ever before. The multinational Sloan survey uses a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point, New Mexico, and a giant CCD camera that captures 2.5-degree-wide images in five different colors at once. Over the next 5 years the international project will produce a 10-terabyte "digital encyclopedia" of the sky that reaches some 50 times farther into space than the famed Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. FOCUS ON MARS'S NORTH POLE A processed view of data from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has yielded a never-before-seen perspective of Mars's north polar cap. Imagery from MGS's CCD camera was combined with surface-elevation measurements from the spacecraft's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument. Some 2.6 million altitude measurements were used to produce a topographic view of the north pole with a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer and a vertical accuracy of 5 to 30 meters. According to Maria Zuber (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) and her colleagues, areas of the polar cap -- made primarily of water ice -- are very smooth, but the ice features kilometer-high mounds. The views were first presented earlier this week at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco, California, and will appear in the December 11th issue of *Science.* THE POWER OF EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD Ever since the Van Allen radiation belts were discovered in 1958, scientists have believed that the primary source of energetic electrons came from the solar wind. Recent space-based observations and computer models have indicated otherwise. On Monday at the AGU meeting, a team of researchers from the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program announced that solar storms aren't the source of the particles themselves, but they push and squeeze Earth's magnetic field and pump up particles' energies. Data from two dozen spacecraft revealed the energy level in the belts can vary by a factor of a 1,000 in only a few minutes. It is hoped through further research that the energy in the belts can be accurately mapped and predicted. THIS WEEK'S "SKY AT A GLANCE" Some daily events in the changing sky, from the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE. DEC. 13 -- SUNDAY * The Geminid meteor shower should peak tonight. Start watching the sky as early as 10 p.m.; the shower's radiant point (in Gemini) will already be fairly high by then, so meteors should be appearing. (The radiant is highest near the zenith around 2 a.m.) Find a dark site with a good sky view, lie on the ground or in a reclining beach chair, gaze into the darkest area of your sky, and wait. You might see one or two meteors per minute if you have a natural, truly black sky packed with stars. In a light-polluted suburb you might see a meteor every several minutes. For more information see the December Sky & Telescope, page 117. DEC. 14 -- MONDAY * Seen in a medium-sized telescope, Jupiter's Great Red Spot should cross Jupiter's central meridian (the imaginary line down the center of Jupiter's disk from pole to pole) around 9:37 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Lately the spot has been very pale tan with a darker reddish mark in its south side. For a list of all predicted Red Spot transit times, see http://www.skypub.com/sights/moonplanets/redspot.html. * Spot Mars high in the southeast before the first light of dawn Tuesday or Wednesday morning. Only 1 degree from it you'll see the 3rd-magnitude star Gamma Virginis, also known as Porrima. A telescope shows the star to be a close double. DEC. 15 -- TUESDAY * As dawn begins to brighten on Wednesday morning, look about 6 degrees below the waning crescent Moon in the southeast for Mercury. DEC. 16 -- WEDNESDAY * Jupiter's Red Spot transits around 11:16 p.m. EST. DEC. 17 -- THURSDAY * Jupiter's Red Spot transits around 7:07 p.m. EST. DEC. 18 -- FRIDAY * New Moon (exact at 5:42 p.m. EST). DEC. 19 -- SATURDAY * About a half hour after sunset, look just above the southwest horizon for a very thin crescent Moon with Venus a little to its left. Binoculars will help. * Jupiter's Red Spot transits around 8:47 p.m. EST. THIS WEEK'S PLANET ROUNDUP MERCURY appears very low in the southeast during dawn. Look about 60 to 40 minutes before sunrise. VENUS is just above the southwest horizon in early dusk. Look about 30 minutes after sunset. MARS, magnitude +1.3, shines high in the southeast before and during dawn. Spica is the star to its lower left. Brighter Arcturus shines much farther to Mars's left. JUPITER, magnitude -2.4, is the big, bright "star" high in the south after dusk. You can't miss it! Jupiter moves lower toward the southwest later in the evening and sets before midnight. SATURN, magnitude +0.1, is the yellowish "star" far to Jupiter's left just after dark, and to Jupiter's upper left later in the evening. The two planets appear 38 degrees apart (about 4 fist-widths at arm's length), on opposite ends of Pisces. URANUS and NEPTUNE are disappearing into the sunset. PLUTO is hidden behind the glare of the Sun. (All descriptions that relate to the horizon or zenith are written for the world's midnorthern latitudes. Descriptions that also depend on longitude are for North America. Eastern Standard Time, EST, equals Universal Time minus 5 hours.) More details, sky maps, and news of other celestial events appear each month in SKY & TELESCOPE, the essential magazine of astronomy. See our enormous Web site at http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! SKY & TELESCOPE, P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02478 * 617-864-7360 (voice) Copyright 1998 Sky Publishing Corporation. S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance stargazing calendar are provided as a service to the astronomical community by the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE magazine. Widespread electronic distribution is encouraged as long as these paragraphs are included. But the text of the bulletin and calendar may not be published in any other form without permission from Sky Publishing (contact permissions@skypub.com or phone 617-864-7360). For updates of astronomical news, including active links to related Internet resources, are available via SKY & TELESCOPE's site on the World Wide Web at http://www.skypub.com/. In response to numerous requests, and in cooperation with the Astronomical League (http://www.mcs.net/~bstevens/al/) and the American Association of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.corvus.com/), S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance are available via electronic mailing list too. For a free subscription, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "join" on the first line of the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send e-mail to skyline@corvus.com and put the word "unjoin" on the first line of the body of the message. SKY & TELESCOPE, the Essential Magazine of Astronomy, is read by more than 200,000 enthusiasts each month. It is available on newsstands worldwide. For subscription information, or for a free copy of our catalog of fine astronomy books and products, please contact Sky Publishing Corp., 49 Bay State Rd., Cambridge, MA 02138-1200, U.S.A. Phone: 800-253-0245 (U.S. and Canada); 617-864-7360 (International). Fax: 617-864-6117. E-mail: custserv@skypub.com. WWW: http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - December 11, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT December 11, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Mars Climate Orbiter: The orbiter was launched successfully at 1:45 pm EST on Friday December 11. Mars Polar Lander: Lander launch processing activities are proceeding on schedule in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with launch vehicle 3rd stage mate 6 days away and launch 23 days away. Hydrazine was loaded on the vehicle. Final planetary protection assays were taken. Cruise stage solar arrays and the heat shield were installed. Spin balance was completed. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit our website at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NEAR Spacecraft Closing in on Eros (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Applied Physics Laboratory Johns Hopkins University Laurel, Maryland Media contacts: JHU Applied Physics Laboratory: NASA Headquarters: Helen Worth Doug Isbell Laurel, MD 20723 Washington, DC Phone: 240-228-5113 Phone: 202-358-1753 E-mail: helen.worth@jhuapl.edu E-mail: douglas.isbell@hq.nasa.gov FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: 14 December 1998 NEAR Spacecraft Closing in on Eros The NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) spacecraft is about to make interplanetary history. On Jan. 10, 1999, after traveling more than a billion and a half miles it will reach asteroid 433 Eros and embark on the first close-up and comprehensive study of an asteroid. The NEAR mission, the first launch in NASA's Discovery program, is being managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), in Laurel, Md., which also built the spacecraft. "What we now know about asteroids is very limited," says NEAR Mission Manager Dr. Robert W. Farquhar of APL. "It's come from ground-based observations and quick flybys. But now, for the first time, we're going to go into orbit around an asteroid and study it intensely for a year. We expect to get astounding information." During its yearlong mission to unlock the secrets of asteroid Eros, NEAR will confront the challenge of orbiting a tumbling, irregularly-shaped body from extremely close distances. Never before has any small body been orbited by a spacecraft, but the additional task of maneuvering a spacecraft within 9 miles (15 kilometers) of the asteroid's surface makes the engineering challenge even more complex. A cluster of six instruments will take millions of measurements and images over the entire surface of Eros from various altitudes. From these data scientists will determine the asteroid's physical and geological properties and its elemental and mineralogical composition. NEAR's rendezvous with Eros requires that the spacecraft be sped up with a series of engine burns so that it can catch up with the faster-moving asteroid. At 5 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 20, 1998, when NEAR is nearly 150,000 miles (242,000 kilometers) from Eros, a bi-propellant rocket engine firing (or "burn") will increase the spacecraft's speed by 1,500 mph (650 meters per second). On Dec. 28, a second burn will increase NEAR's speed by 680 mph (294 meters per second) while at a distance of 13,000 miles (21,000 kilometers) from Eros, reducing the spacecraft's speed relative to Eros to less than 70 mph (30 meters per second). On Jan. 3, 1999, a third burn will reduce the relative speed a further 50 mph (22 meters per second) at a distance of 3,000 miles (5,000 kilometers). At 10 a.m., on Jan. 10, 1999, NEAR is scheduled to lock into orbit around Eros with a final burn reducing relative speed to 19 mph (8 meters per second) at a distance of about 630 miles (1,000 kilometers). For the next year NASA's Deep Space Network will transmit data from the spacecraft to NEAR's Science Data Center, at the Applied Physics Laboratory, and commands from the Laboratory's Mission Operations Center back to the spacecraft. Regular tweaking of the spacecraft's orbit will be needed to ensure that spacecraft instruments are used to their full advantage. Dr. Joseph Veverka of Cornell University, Science Team Leader for the mission, says the challenges that face the NEAR mission are significant. "This will be the first characterization in detail, not only of the surface of an asteroid, but of the interior of the asteroid, and the history that this asteroid has gone through based on its surface characteristics and materials composition." The NEAR spacecraft was launched Feb. 17, 1996. Its flyby of asteroid Mathilde on June 27, 1997, provided the program's first science return. By mission's end, Feb. 6, 2000, scientists expect to know much more about Eros and thus near-Earth asteroids in general. From this, they hope to gain insight into the Earth's origin and the formation of the solar system. To follow the NEAR mission as it unfolds, visit the mission's Web site: http://near.jhuapl.edu. Updates of mission activities and science returns will be posted on the Web site and provided to media through press conferences and briefings. The following conferences and briefings are currently scheduled: Dec. 16, 1998 Jan. 10, 1999 Jan. 14, 1999 1 p.m. noon 1 p.m. NASA Headquarters JHU/APL JHU/APL Washington, D.C. Laurel, Maryland Laurel, Maryland Live over NASA TV Live over NASA TV Live over NASA TV For directions to the APL campus and information on hotel accommodations, visit Web site: http://www.jhuapl.edu/public/visit/locat.htm . APL is located on Johns Hopkins Rd., 0.5 mile west of the intersection of Johns Hopkins Rd. and U.S. Rte. 29, just south of Columbia, Md. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: This Week On Galileo - December 14-20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... THIS WEEK ON GALILEO December 14-20, 1998 Galileo spends most of this week processing and transmitting science observations taken last week and stored on the spacecraft's on-board tape recorder. In parallel with playback, the fields and particles instruments continue their survey of Jupiter's magnetosphere. These activities are interrupted on Friday so the spacecraft can perform a flight path correction. First on the playback schedule is the return of a series of images taken by the spacecraft camera. The images capture Saturn's moon Titan, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and will be used by camera engineers to calibrate some of the camera filters. Next on the schedule, the near-infrared mapping spectrometer returns an observation of the star Sirius. The data obtained from the observation will be used to calibrate some of the instruments' detectors. Finally, the fields and particles instruments will start returning data obtained during a five hour recording of Jupiter's magnetosphere. The data were recorded as the spacecraft flew through the center of a region known as the plasma sheet. This region is largely unexplored and is a region of Jupiter's magnetosphere where the solar wind exerts a varying influence on Jupiter's magnetic field and on the plasma therein. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12981: Mars Climate Orbiter Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12981 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT Mars Climate Orbiter 1998-073A 25571 11 DECEMBER 1998 DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 14 DECEMBER 1998 13:35 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12982: SAC-A Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12982 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT SAC-A 1998-069B 25550 04 DECEMBER 1998 [THE DATE IS THE LAUNCH DATE OF 1998-069A (STS 88). THE RELEASE DATE OF SAC-A FROM STS 88 WAS LATER, BUT IS NOT AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME.] DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 14 DECEMBER 1998 16:30 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12983: ISS-Unity Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12983 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT ISS-UNITY 1998-069F 25575 04 DECEMBER 1998 UNITY WAS BOLTED TO ZARYA AND RELEASED FROM STS 88 ON 13 DECEMBER. THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE CAME FROM USSPACECOM: THIS OBJECT WAS CATALOGED WITHOUT AN ELSET. IT IS NOT INDIVIDUALLY TASKED, IT IS THE FIRST AMERICAN PIECE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. IT IS CONNECTED TO THE ISS (25544), AND AS SUCH HAS NO TASKING AT ALL. DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 15 DECEMBER 1998 13:50 UT] Further details will be in a forthcoming SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Update - December 11, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Project Status Report Overview Prepared by Mars Surveyor Operations Project Manager NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Friday 11 December 1998 Mars Global Surveyor aerobraking operations continue in a very satisfactory manner. The orbital period has been reduced to 4 hours and 23 minutes on MGS's 845 orbit of Mars. Propulsive maneuvers have been made during the week to not only adjust the dynamic pressure but also to avoid close passage to the satellite Phobos. Tomorrow morning (12/12/98 at 4:40 am PST) the spacecraft will pass within 200 miles (300 km) of the moon Phobos. It has been determined that the Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer instrument will be able to remain powered on and acquiring data until at least January 28, 1999, when the spacecraft's periapsis reaches its southern most point. Aerobraking operations will continue until early February when the orbit will be nearly circular and have a period of two hours. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Update - December 14, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Monday, December 14 (DOY 343/19:00:00 to DOY 348/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 862 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 289 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 5745 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 48281 km Periapsis altitude = 113.8 km Current Orbit Period = 04:14:14 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 40:45:19 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft maintains excellent performance as Phase 2 aerobraking operations continue. Each periapsis pass reduces the orbit period by about 30 seconds which keeps the period reduction profile even with the planned period reduction for the week. Currently, the period is about 12 minutes ahead of the baseline. The dynamic pressure 7-orbit running mean is now 0.131 N/m2 which is within the desired corridor, 0.11 N/m2 to 0.17 N/m2. A periapsis raise maneuver was executed on orbit 845 to lower the drag force and to assure Phobos avoidance. Phobos was missed by about 300 km on orbit 849 and future encounters will not be any closer since the MGS orbit is now totally within the Phobos orbit. The orbit-to-orbit dynamic pressure variability has been as high as 55% during this period. Currently, sequence P858 is controlling the S/C activities. It will be replaced later this afternoon with P863 which will control activities starting with orbit 863 through orbit 869. No backup orbits were executed this period. All sequences built this period had 6 primary orbits and 3 backups to maintain a primary shift build schedule. Periapsis timing predictions by the Nav team continue to be outstanding enabling prime shift sequence builds. Subsystems continue to report excellent S/C health and performance. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no change in structural performance. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with battery discharge depths ranging from 11.4% to 14.3%. Sun avoidance maneuvers occur about every third orbit and contribute the higher DoD. There are 8 minutes of primary charger margin following the deeper discharges. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 12.0 °C using a 30 minute warming maneuver each orbit. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. The uplink for the P847 sequence failed due to a missing message. This occurred over DSS-34 on 98-345/20:27:31. The sequence was re-radiated in whole and was successful the second time. System Test Lab (STL) validation of 2 am flight software changes continue. Preparations are underway to test the fixed HGA mapping sequence and an aerobraking sequence with eclipse parameters included, featuring the post-periapsis roll-out to Earth-pointed power generation / MOLA warming maneuver. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 863 DOY348/22:33:21 UTC Through Periapsis for Orbit 873 DOY350/16:25:31 UTC (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY348=12/14) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 14 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 3051. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: Nominal drag pass sequences (P836, P841, P847, P852, P858, P863) Nominal corridor control maneuver sequences (A845) Command loss timer resets Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA In The News In 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Beth Schmid Headquarters, Washington, DC December 15, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1760) RELEASE: 98-223 NASA IN THE NEWS IN 1998 Aeronautics and space got noticed in '98 -- with the return of John Glenn to earth orbit, the start of International Space Station construction, and the discovery of ice on the moon. Background information is available to news media to illustrate the top 10 NASA stories of the year via the World Wide Web at the URLs listed. The video to accompany these stories will be available on NASA TV at noon today. John Glenn Returns to Space Senator John Glenn was named as a payload specialist last Jan. 16, and assigned to the crew of the Space Shuttle Discovery, which was launched Oct. 29, 1998, on a nine-day mission. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/glenn-j.html First International Space Station Assembly Phase II -- construction in orbit -- began with the first station elements launched in 1998: Zarya in November and Unity in December. Next, the first wholly Russian contribution, a component called the Service Module, will be launched from Russia in 1999. http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/ Hubble Takes Image of Possible Planet Around Another Star NASA's Hubble Space Telescope gave astronomers their first direct look at what is possibly a planet outside our solar system -- one that apparently has been ejected into deep space by its parent stars. http://oposite.stsci.edu/1998/19 Most Powerful Gamma Ray Burst since Big Bang A cosmic gamma ray burst detected this year released a hundred times more energy than previously theorized, making it the most powerful explosion since the creation of the universe in the Big Bang. http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast06may98_1.htm Lunar Prospector Discovers Ice on Moon There is a high probability that water ice exists at both the north and south poles of the Moon, according to initial scientific data returned by NASA's Lunar Prospector this year. ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1998/98-038.txt NASA Studies La Nina Research scientists using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), SeaWiFS and TOPEX/POSEIDON missions are shedding new light on the phenomenon known as La Nina. The images show changes in sea-surface temperature, and ocean current movement and the dissipation of El Nino. While it is too early to draw definite conclusions, the results to date appear to confirm the onset of La Nina-type conditions. http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/discover/el_nino.html Antarctic Ozone Hole In late 1997, larger levels of ozone depletion were observed over the Arctic than in any previous year on record. In 1998, using climate models, a team of scientists reported why this may be related to greenhouse gases. ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1998/98-058.txt Magnetar A neutron star, located 40,000 light years from Earth, is generating the most intense magnetic field yet observed in the Universe, according to an international team of astronomers led by scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast20may98_1.htm Pathfinder Airplane NASA's remotely piloted, solar-powered Pathfinder-Plus flying wing reached a record altitude of more than 80,000 feet during a developmental test flight Aug. 6 in Hawaii. The altitude is the highest ever achieved by a propeller-driven craft and surpasses the official record altitude of 71,530 feet for a solar-powered aircraft set by an earlier version of the Pathfinder last summer. http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/PAO/PressReleases/1998/98-64.html Eileen Collins Named First Woman Shuttle Commander First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton announced from the White House in early 1998 that astronaut Eileen Collins (Lt. Col., USAF) would become the first woman to command a Space Shuttle when Columbia launches on the STS-93 mission in March 1999. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/collins.html - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: USAF, NASA add National Reconnaissance Office to partnership , agreeme Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Space Command News Service FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: December 15, 1998 AF, NASA add National Reconnaissance Office to partnership agreement PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. (AFSPCNS) -- Air Force Space Command and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently included the National Reconnaissance Office as a full partner on the Partnership Council they established in February 1997. The purpose of the Partnership Council is to find ways to save money, reduce risk, and integrate planning efforts in areas of mutual interest. The Council members, Daniel Goldin, NASA Administrator; Keith Hall, NRO Director, and Gen. Richard B. Myers, commander of Air Force Space Command, signed the agreement in Washington D.C. Nov. 23. At the meeting they reviewed the status of their collaborative efforts and explored opportunities to implement the nation's space program effectively and efficiently. Partnership Council initiatives are already beginning to bear fruit. One example, reviewed at this meeting, is the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) in Florida, which integrates support services at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Patrick AFB, Fla., and NASA's Kennedy Space Center under one contract. The J-BOSC contract, which began operations Oct. 1, will consolidate 18 contracts into one, significantly streamlining support operations at the installations. The Council also reviewed joint efforts during the recent Leonid meteor shower. The cooperation demonstrated during the shower will be used as a model in preparation for next year's peak solar geomagnetic activity known as Solar Max. The partners reviewed and undertook efforts for future collaboration including the search for Earth crossing asteroids, space transportation, launch range modernization, and technology cooperation. Space technology cooperation is largely coordinated through a subgroup, the Space Technology Alliance, which works to integrate technology investment throughout four government agencies. Goldin, Hall and Myers were unanimous in their support of the Council's efforts and the promise it holds for achieving the nation's goals in space. "The Partnership Council offers a unique and superb forum for addressing common space-related issues and concerns while stimulating initiatives that will reap great benefits and great savings for our respective organizations and our nation," said Myers. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Air Force changes way it does space business (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Space Command News Service FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: December 14, 1998 Air Force changes way it does space business By Tech. Sgt. Timothy Hoffman, Air Force Space Command Public Affairs PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. (AFSPCNS) -- The Air Force is in the middle of a fundamental shift in the way it views its role in the nation's space business, said the acting Secretary of the Air Force after attending the Commercial Space Industry Leaders' conference here Dec. 10. "We are in the transitioning out of being a consumer of launch vehicles," said Whit Peters, acting Secretary of the Air Force. "In fact, the very theory behind EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) is to buy launch services, rather than buy launch vehicles. "Lockheed-Martin, Boeing and the Air Force have each put a billion dollars into EELV. It is flexible and will meet our launch needs." Peters said space is an industry that is taking off. Then, as the economic benefits of higher production kick in, it will save the Air Force money. "The better Lockheed-Martin and Boeing do commercially, the better off we are because it will reduce our cost of getting to space." In 1999 and beyond, the Air Force's Eastern Range at Patrick AFB, Fla., and the Western Range at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., will see more commercial launches than military ones. "Realistically they are both national ranges now," said Peters. "We are in an era where the ranges serve a very large commercial base." The key issue, Peters said, is to make sure the Air Force has a robust space force during and after this shift. Air Force Space Command's people will play a critical role in ensuring that happens. "Whatever we do, first we need to make an assessment of what the space career field is, how many people we need, and make sure we retain the assets we need to have a national defense space team," said Peters. "We are going to do this very carefully, very cautiously, to make sure that we don't screw up the space career field." The challenge is "trying to sort out how to take what we have, keep the space career field intact, and transition from a 'consumer' to a 'provider' of services," he said. Currently, both launch ranges provide critical infrastructure, safety and telemetry for both military and commercial launches. "We need to make sure those portions of the space business that can be commercialized are commercialized. We also need to look at shifting the safety and regulatory jurisdiction more to the hands of the Federal Aviation Administration where it is vested by law." State governments are also playing a larger and more important role in space. "California and Florida are very interested in providing the same kinds of assistance for space launch that they do for many of their other industries," said Peters. This assistance often includes tax incentives and infrastructure support. Alaska, Virginia and New Mexico also have a strong interest in space, he said. "These states see commercial launch and commercial space activities as a major economic industry. They are very interested in having a role and we are very interested in giving them a role. " From new roads to providing water, gas and sewer we are very actively involved in shifting from Air Force-owned assets to using state, or public service commission services. This is not just happening in Air Force Space Command, but across the Air Force. " PHOTO CAPTION: [http://www.af.mil:80/news/Dec1998/n19981214_981931.html] "We are transitioning out of being a consumer of launch vehicles," said Whit Peters, acting secretary of the Air Force, after the Commercial Space Industry Leaders' Conference Dec. 10. Photo by Staff Sgt. Alex Lloyd, 21st Communications Squadron. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceDev Places JPL On Contract To Support NEAP Mission Planning Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Tuesday December 15, 9:21 am Eastern Time Company Press Release SpaceDev Places JPL On Contract To Support NEAP Mission Planning Commercial Deep-Space Mission-Support Contract is a First for NASA and JPL SAN DIEGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Dec. 15, 1998--SpaceDev, Inc. (OTC BB:SPDV - news), the world's first commercial space exploration company, has placed NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under contract to provide various analysis and planning services for SpaceDev's first deep-space science mission, the Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP). The NEAP spacecraft is planned to launch in 2001 and by mid-2002 should brendezvous with the asteroid 4660 Nereus for a two-month primary mission. Starting immediately, engineers in JPL's Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD) will initiate the process for allocating its world-wide DSN resources to support tracking, commanding and telemetry reception for NEAP in 2002, principally during the spacecraft's cruise to Nereus and during operations in close proximity to the approximately 1-kilometer-(0.6-mile-) diameter body. ``To meet our NEAP launch readiness date of early 2001 and Nereus rendezvous date of mid-2002, we have to get the DSN tracking pass-allocation process started now,'' said Rex Ridenoure, SpaceDev's Chief Mission Architect. ``The 34-meter DSN dishes we'll need for communicating with NEAP also supports other numerous deep-space missions, so now is the time to make our needs known to JPL and get into the queue,'' he added. The SpaceDev contract marks a first for NASA and JPL; never before in the 40-year history of the DSN has a commercial company requested tracking time and analysis support for a deep-space mission. ``The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has accepted a request by SpaceDev to study the feasibility of tracking NEAP using NASA's Deep Space Network,'' said Gael Squibb, JPL's Assistant Laboratory Director for TMOD. ``This is the first time a commercial enterprise has attempted to build and fly a scientific mission into deep space, and we're looking forward to working with SpaceDev on its NEAP mission,'' he added. In coming months and through fall next year, JPL will also assess NEAP's telecommunication system design for compatibility with the DSN and will assist SpaceDev in defining and pricing selected JPL-supplied mission-operations services, software tools and other engineering support required for the mission. Demands placed by the NEAP mission on JPL's Deep Space Mission System -- comprising the world-wide DSN and JPL-based Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System -- are expected to be quite modest. The JPL work follows a well-defined process applied to all missions using the DSN. SpaceDev is providing the funds for this work to JPL via JPL's Technology Affiliates Program which covers the first of several phases of expected JPL support activity. SpaceDev is also in the process of negotiating with NASA on the possibility of providing radio science data in exchange for certain DSN services, however the parties have not entered into any formal agreement at this time. SpaceDev, the world's first commercial space exploration and development company, intends to launch the first privately financed spacecraft to visit and land on another planetary body. SpaceDev is selling rides for scientific instruments to governments and companies to transport their instruments and experiments through deep space to a near Earth asteroid. SpaceDev intends to sell the data acquired by its instruments as commercial products. Colorado-based SpaceDev has offices in San Diego, CA and Washington, DC. SpaceDev also announced that its consolidated Revenue for the 1998 year will be lower than expected due to the timing of SpaceDev's acquisition of its second wholly owned subsidiary and other delays associated with NASA's funding cycle. Pasadena-based JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. It defines and conducts most deep-space missions for NASA and also manages and operates the Deep Space Network (DSN). The foregoing press release includes numerous forward-looking statements concerning the company's business and future prospects and other similar statements that do not concern matters of historical fact. The federal securities laws provide a limited ``safe harbor'' for certain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this press release relating to product development, business prospects and development of a commercial market for technological advances are based on the company's current expectations. The company's current expectations are subject to all of the uncertainties and risks customarily associated with new business ventures including, but not limited to market conditions, successful product development and acceptance, competition and overall economic conditions, as well as the risk of adverse regulatory actions. The company's actual results may differ materially from current expectations. Readers are cautioned not to put undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The company disclaims any intent or obligation to update publicly these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or for any other reason. NOTE: News releases and other information on SpaceDev can be accessed at http://www.SpaceDev.com. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Climate Orbiter Update - December 13, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MARS CLIMATE ORBITER MISSION STATUS December 13, 1998 4:00 P.M. (PST) Now 53 hours past launch, the Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft is being monitored continuously by ground stations in NASA's Deep Space Network, and is in good health. During the past two days updated estimates of the flight path continue to indicate an accurate injection was achieved by the Delta 7425 launch vehicle. Yesterday, the spacecraft was commanded to slew to its desired attitude and solar array position to begin the cruise to Mars. After successfully completing this maneuver, the flight team observed some anomalies in the onboard attitude determination system, followed by an undesireable increase in the temperatures of some propulsion system components. After some discussion, the team decided to return the spacecraft to its original post-launch attitude and command it to transmit additional telemetry data to Earth, permitting more detailed evaluation of the attitude determination system. After returning to its initial attitude, temperatures of the propulsion components under observation were seen to quickly drop to their previous values. The flight team is now proceeding with the development of navigation data and commands for the spacecraft to perform its first Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM) eight days from now. The magnitude of this maneuver will be just 20 meters per second, 20 percent less than the expected value. After completion of this maneuver, designated TCM-1, an initial checkout of the spacecraft's two science instruments will be conducted. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: ROSAT X-Ray Telescope Mission Comes To An End Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... William Steigerwald Goddard Space Flight Center December 9, 1998 Greenbelt, MD William.A.Steigerwald.1@gsfc.nasa.gov Phone: 301-286-5017 RELEASE NO: 98-215 ROSAT X-RAY TELESCOPE MISSION COMES TO AN END The highly productive and long-lived ROSAT X-ray telescope guest observer mission, which detected a previously little-known world of pulsars, supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, has come to an end with the failure of the telescope's last working detector. Scientists completed the two final days of observations yesterday (Dec. 8) by using reserved gas and a second X-ray detector, called the Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC). The PSPC naturally exhausted its xenon gas supply in 1994 and has been inactive ever since. The two-day reserve gas allowed the PSPC to turn on and make one last observation of a few important astrophysical objects, such as Supernova 1987a, which was ROSAT's very first target in 1990. "ROSAT has provided us with much more scientific data than we ever hoped for," said Dr. Robert Petre, the U.S. ROSAT Project Scientist based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Among astronomy satellites in near earth orbit, ROSAT has had an extraordinarily long life. Clever tinkering by ROSAT engineers kept the satellite operational years beyond its expected life span -- even through these past few months." After eight years in space, the satellite's navigational system had badly deteriorated. In an unavoidable event in September, the satellite's High Resolution Imager (HRI), an X-ray camera built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), suffered irreversible damage to its collecting plate after accidentally scanning too closely to the Sun. ROSAT is short for Rontgen Satellite, named after Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen, the discoverer of X-rays. It was an X-ray observatory developed by Germany, Britain and the United States; launched by NASA in 1990; operated by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) near Munich; and utilized by scientists around the world. Goddard, with collaboration from SAO, served as the U.S. center for data analysis, archiving and distribution. ROSAT's lasting legacy will be its impact on X-ray astronomy. The telescope detected more than 150,000 X-ray sources, 20-times more than were previously known. More than 3,000 scientific papers have been published based on ROSAT observations so far. At least one ROSAT-based publication appears in the scientific literature every day. "The ROSAT mission has been extremely rewarding for many scientists," said Joachim Trumper, MPE Director and ROSAT Scientific Director. "It has brought forth discoveries in almost all fields of astrophysics, ranging from the moon and comets to the most distant quasars -- from the tiny neutron star to clusters of galaxies, the largest physical objects in the universe." ROSAT was the first observatory to detect X-rays from the moon. In the distant universe, ROSAT resolved virtually all of the cosmic X-ray background into discrete quasars and galaxies. ROSAT observations of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters were detailed enough to determine temperature structures of expanding gas clouds and the mass of hot gas and dark matter, respectively. Among ROSAT's highlights: * The detailed exploration of a million-degree, low density halo of gas surrounding the Milky Way galaxy. * The detection of large halos of gas glowing in X-rays from virtually all comets passing near the sun, produced by the interaction the comet's gas and fast-moving subatomic particles in the solar wind. * The detection of clusters of galaxies at a much larger distance than expected, leading scientists to question how such massive objects could form so early in the history of the universe. * The detection of an isolated, nearby neutron star, which, according to previous theories, was a large enough star at one time to collapse into a black hole and has therefore led scientists to question how massive a star can get without its lifecycle ending in a black hole stage. * Revolutionary discoveries about star formation, including the observation that a large fraction of young stars lie far away from "classical" star-forming regions, indicating that star formation is a more ubiquitous process than thought and that the X-ray emission from young stars plays a key role in the regulation of the star formation rate. * The measurement of the total amount and distribution of dark matter in assemblages of galaxies, with X-ray emitting gas tracing the effect of gravity and showing that the distribution of dark matter is different from that of the galaxies as seen in visible light. Analysis of existing ROSAT data is expected to continue for several more years, the results of which will influence the next round of large X-ray observatories: NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, to be launched in spring 1999; the German ABRIXAS (A Broad-band Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey), featuring a CCD camera, to be launched in spring 1999; the Japanese/NASA Astro-E, scheduled for a February 2000 launch; and ESA's X-ray Multimirror Mission, to be launched in spring 2000. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [1/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... This is the December 1998 "SpaceViews" (tm) newsletter, published by the Boston chapter of the National Space Society. For a description of related e-mail lists maintained by the Boston NSS, or to stop receiving this SpaceViews newsletter, see the instructions at the end of this message. The next Boston meeting is Thursday, December 3, 1998, 7:30pm 8th floor, 545 Main Street (Tech Square), Cambridge; see "Upcoming Boston NSS Events" Speaker: Frank White "The Overview Effect" Future meetings are on the first Thursdays of each month: January 7, February 4, March 4 SpaceViews is available on the WWW at http://www.spaceviews.com and by FTP from ftp.seds.org in directory /pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews See the very end for information on membership, reprinting, copyright, etc. Copyright (C) 1998 by Boston Chapter of National Space Society, a non-profit educational 501(c)3 organization. All articles in SpaceViews represent the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor, the National Space Society (NSS), or the Boston chapter of the NSS. S P A C E V I E W S Volume Year 1998, Issue 12 December 1998 http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/12/ *** News *** First Space Station Module Launched Small Workforce Could Hamper Station Assembly DS1 Ion Engine Works Again Leonids Delight Observers, Spare Satellites NASA Releases Plans to Commercialize Space Station Australian Senate Debates Commercial Space Bill Aerospatiale to Build European ISS Vehicle Fourth Time a Charm for Delta Launch European Astronomers Discover Nearby Extrasolar Planet Asteroid "Fossil" May Be Evidence of Dinosaurs' Demise SpaceViews Event Horizon Other News *** Articles *** The Talking Atlas [part 2] Charting the Future of Planetary Science Missions *** Book Reviews *** Dragonfly: NASA and the Crisis aboard Mir The Moon Book Rocket Boys *** NSS News *** Upcoming Boston NSS Events NSS Election Results *** Features *** Jonathan's Space Report No. 380 Space Calendar *** News *** First Space Station Module Launched Assembly of the International Space Station, the most complex space project ever, began early Friday, November 20, with the launch of the Zarya control module. A Russian Proton rocket launched the Zarya ("Sunrise") control module at 1:40 am EST (0640 UT) from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The launch proceeded smoothly. Zarya was launched into an elliptical orbit ranging from 184 km (114 mi.) to 363 km (225 mi.). A 100-second burn by Zarya's maneuvering engine on Saturday, November 21, the first of several planned, raised Zarya's orbit to 252 km by 365 km (156 by 226 mi.). A 1 minute, 56 second burn by one of two of Zarya's large thrusters Tuesday, the fifth and last planned, placed the spacecraft into an orbit of 387 by 405 kilometers (240 by 251 miles). Zarya's orbit will naturally decay into a circular 390-km (242-mi.) orbit by early this month, when the space shuttle Endeavour meets up with Zarya and attaches the Unity docking node to the station. The shuttle is scheduled for launch December 3 with rendezvous three days later. A few minor problems were reported with Zarya shortly after launch, but no "problems of significance," according to a NASA report, that would hinder use of the module. The Zarya control module, previously known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (its Russian acronym) will provide the initial power and propulsion to the station until the Service Module arrives. It will later be used primarily for storage. While the initial efforts of ISS proceed, plans are in the works to add another country to the project. Reuters reported November 24 that the Ukraine would join ISS some time in 1999 by agreeing to build a science module that Russia was originally slated to provide. "Participation in this international project is extremely important for us, for the country, which has a long space tradition," Volodymyr Horbulin, head of Ukraine's Council of Security and Defence, told Reuters. The Ukrainian module would cost an estimated $100-150 million and be completed in 2003 or 2004, Reuters reported. Small Workforce Could Hamper Station Assembly A downsized shuttle workforce -- nearly 50 percent smaller than what it was just five years ago -- could keep NASA from keeping its ambitious space station assembly schedule, according to a Florida Today article published Sunday, November 29. The article quoted a internal NASA report which stated that the shuttle workforce is able to handle the current shuttle flight rate but may run into problems with the increased flight rate planned during the International Space Station (ISS) assembly. "I think you can summarize it by saying, `We're not in trouble now, but boy can we get into trouble,'" Seymour Himmel, a member of the independent Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, told Florida Today. A workforce of 3,800 contractors and 600 NASA civil servants currently handle space shuttle operations at the Kennedy Space Center, under a contract NASA has with United Space Alliance (USA), a joint Boeing-Lockheed Martin venture. That number is about half of the shuttle workforce five years earlier. That workforce has been able to handle a shuttle flight rate of 5-7 launches a year thanks to increased efficiency. However, the NASA report questioned whether further improvements would be able to handle the 8 or more launches a year planned for ISS assembly. To achieve the scheduled flight rate, workers will have to cut the processing time for a shuttle launch to about 367,000 man-hours, 30 percent less than present, according to the report. "The sensitivity to safety is the same here as it always has been and always will be," Robert Sieck, NASA's director of shuttle operations, told Florida Today. "Schedule will not override safety. It hasn't. It doesn't. It won't." The report comes just days before the first space shuttle flight dedicated to ISS. The shuttle Endeavour is scheduled for launch at 3:54 am EST (0854 UT) Thursday, December 3. It will carry the Unity docking module into orbit and attach it to the Zarya control module, launched November 20 on a Russian rocket. The countdown of the mission began Monday morning, November 30. Weather conditions, including clouds and rain, may delay the launch though: Air Force meteorologists are predicting only a 40 percent chance of acceptable weather conditions Thursday morning. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [2/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... DS1 Ion Engine Works Again The ion engine on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) spacecraft is working again after an initial test two weeks ago failed after just a few minutes. The engine, a centerpiece of the technology demonstration mission, was turned on again at 5:53 pm EST (2253 UT) Tuesday, November 24. The engine ran continuously in low-thrust mode overnight. Controllers later turned up the engine into higher-thrust modes Wednesday morning. "We are very pleased that the engine started and continued to thrust," said Marc Rayman, DS1 chief mission engineer. "In fact, it has been running very smoothly over the first day of its operation." The engine was first powered up on November 10, but shut down after just 4 1/2 minutes of use. Efforts to bring the engine back online immediately after the failure were unsuccessful, and later efforts were hampered by other minor problems on the spacecraft. "It's common for new ion engines on the ground or on Earth- orbiting spacecraft to shut themselves off a few times when they are first exercised," said Rayman. "We would not be surprised if the engine shut itself off again over the first few days or weeks that it runs." The ion engine works by using electrons to ionize a stream of xenon gas atoms. The xenon ions are then accelerated by a magnetic field out the rear of the spacecraft, generating thrust. While the thrust is feeble -- comparable to the force a sheet of paper exerts on a hand -- it is constant, and thus can accelerate the spacecraft over time more efficiently then conventional engines. Controllers at JPL plan to keep the engine running throughout the four-day Thanksgiving holiday weekend that starts Thursday, November 26. The ion engine is one of several new technologies being tested on this mission, along with advanced solar cells and autonomous navigation systems. However, it is among the most important, because without it the spacecraft will be unable to perform a flyby of asteroid 1992 KD, scheduled for July 1999. The engine would also be needed for flybys of two comets planned for 2001 if the mission is extended. Leonids Delight Observers, Spare Satellites In a display not nearly as intense as predicted, the Leonid meteor shower lit up night skies around the world on the nights of November 17-18 but did not damage any satellites. The peak of the storm, forecast for the early morning hours of November 18 over eastern Asia, may have taken place hours earlier over Europe and the Atlantic, according to observer reports filtering in via the Internet. Many observers in the Far East were clouded out when the peak of the storm, expected to be around 2pm EST (1900 UT) November 18, occured. Those who were able to observe saw far fewer meteors than expected, and even fewer than the previous night. Two NASA aircraft flying over the Sea of Japan during the predicted peak only recorded 144 meteors in a one-hour period shortly after the predicted peak, far more than typical during the Leonids but considerably less than estimates of up to 2,000 meteors per hour. Other data collected closer to the peak, but yet to be reported, may provide higher rates. "While it wasn't what we anticipated, it was a great opportunity for our science team to further develop our predictive model," said Richard Worsfold, part of a Canadian team observing the Leonids from Australia. However, observers in Europe and the Canary Islands, off the northwest coast of Africa, reported much higher than expected meteor rates, in excess of several hundred per hour. Rates of over 100 meteors an hour were also reported in regions of North America. <P>The UK's Royal Astronomical Society estimated that the peak of the storm took place around 1 am EST (0600 UT) November 17, while the storm was visible over the Atlantic Ocean. Astronomers at an observatory on the Canary Islands reported seeing several meteors a second at the peak. "The number of bright meteors is astounding," Alan Fitzsimmons, an astronomer with Queen's University Belfast, working at La Palma Observatory on the Canaries, reported. "We are approaching one meteor per second and the rate still seems to be increasing," he wrote before twilight obscured the meteors. The storm also did not appear to damage any orbiting spacecraft, according to reports by NASA and other agencies. Most satellites had taken measures to protect themselves from the expected storm, and those efforts, along with the weaker-than-predicted storm, paid off. "Operators took the necessary steps to minimize the risk posed by the Leonid meteor storm and came through with flying colors," said Clayton Mowry, director of the Satellite Industry Association. The Leonids, normally a mild meteor shower than generates 40-60 meteors an hour during its annual peak November 17 and 18, generates a heavy "storm" of meteors about every 33 years. Comet Tempel-Tuttle, the source for the Leonids, orbits the Sun every 33 years and passed through the solar system earlier this year. In the last Leonids storm, in 1966, observers reported seeing up to 144,000 meteors an hour -- 40 per second. No one predicted as heavy a storm for 1998, with most calling for around 2,000 meteors an hour. The Leonids could still produce a heavy storm in 1999 or even 2000, depending on the distribution of meteoroids in the comet's orbit. Future heavy storms after 2000 are unlikely for at least 100 years, however, as the comet's orbit will be altered by a close pass to Jupiter in 2029. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [3/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NASA Releases Plans to Commercialize Space Station NASA released a draft plan this week to promote the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS) as a way to reduce NASA's costs and encourage other commercial space development. The long term of the plan is "to establish the foundation for a marketplace and stimulate a national economy for space products and services in low-Earth orbit, where both demand and supply are dominated by the private sector." In the short term, NASA should work with private industry to establish several "pathfinder" commercial projects that involve the ISS, ranging from sponsorship and advertising opportunities to selling imagery and other proprietary proposals. The plan divides commercial opportunities into three sections: known commercial users, such as material science and remote sensing; operations, including flight control and logistics; and adding new resources, such as free flyers and modules. Several specific proposals cited in a portion of the draft report include commercial sponsorship of portions of the station, in a model similar to that used by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) to help fund its programming. In a similar vein, the report also suggests flying commercial memorabilia to and from ISS for later sale. Other proposals include the sale of imagery of the Earth from ISS, auctions of payload space, and setting up a commercial service to fly educational payloads on the station. Several other proprietary proposals, currently in negotation in private industry, were briefly outlined. They include providing an on-orbit research facility and supporting ground operations. The report also outlined a number of other follow-up studies that should be carried out. The plans suggests that a non-governmental organization be created to ovsersee the American utilization and development of the space station. The plan was warmly received by those who have normally been critical of NASA's efforts. "The old plan for running ISS was a disaster for opening space to the people and exploring the solar system," said Rick Tumlinson, president of the Space Frontier Foundation. "We are glad to see they decided to bring in the private sector to do what it does best, so NASA can go do what it does best, science and exploration. This is great news." Australian Senate Debates Commercial Space Bill The Australian Senate continued debate late last week on legislation that would establish regulations for commercial space activities in the country. Senators considered a number of potential amendments to the Space Activities Bill of 1998 during debate Thursday, November 26, but defeated most of the amendments, including one that would have greatly increased the liability period for Australian-launched spacecraft. The amendment, proposed by Senaor Natasha Stott Despoja of the Australian Democrats party, would have extended the liability period for a satellite launch from 30 days after launch to the lifetime of the satellite. Senator Nicholas Minchin, the Minister for Industry, Science, and Resources, noted that the 30-day period was a standard in other countries, including the United States. "There is a real risk that an amendment like this would render the space industry stillborn," he said, "and that we would be so unattractive a place to engage in launches that people would simply go elsewhere." The proposed amendment was voted down, along with another amendment that would have explicitly specified that any launch facility would have to meet with approval with existing Aboriginal laws. Minchin noted that the second amendment was unnecessary since existing laws are sufficient. Senators did approve an amendment that would require any launch facility to abide by existing environmental laws. They also approved an amendment that requires anyone seeking a license to build and operate a launch facility have sufficient funding to carry out the plan, and that the proposed facility would not be a threat to public health and safety. Senators from Australia's smaller political parties criticized Minchin's ruling Liberal party and the opposition Labor party for trying to push through the bill quickly, without giving them time to review all the proposed amendments, although they said they were in principle not opposed to the bill. "I remind the space cadets here that what the Greens and Democrats are saying is that, if we have space activities, we want well-regulated and safe space activities," said Sen. Dee Margetts, a member of the Greens of Western Australia party. "We do regard this bill as urgent," Minchin said. "One of the reasons we regard this as urgent legislation is to enable the Kistler project to proceed within the framework of the legislation." The American firm Kistler Aerospace is building a launch site at Woomera in South Australia for its K-1 reusable launch vehicle. Without existing laws regarding commercial space projects, the Australian government reached a separate agreement with Kistler. The agreement would remain in effect even if the bill is approved, but some provisions of the bill, including accident investigations and penalty provisions, would affect Kistler. The bill, introduced in the Senate earlier in November, would create regulations for securing licenses for commercial launches from Australian sites, as well as licenses for the return of reusable launchers. It also sets insurance requirements for any Australian launches. It is similar to the recently-approved U.S. Commercial Space Act of 1998, but seeks to create a new regulatory stucture rather than modify an existing one. More action on the bill is expected this week. If approved by the Senate, the bill would then go to the House of Representatives, the other branch of the Australian Parliament, for consideration. Aerospatiale to Build European ISS Vehicle The French aerospace firm Aerospatiale has signed a contract with the European Space Agency to build an unmanned resupply and reboost vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS), the company announced Wednesday, November 25. Aerospatiale signed the $470 million contract with ESA to develop the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), an unmanned vehicle that will be able to send supplies to the ISS and help raise the station's orbit. The ATV is designed to be launched on an Ariane 5 heavy-lift booster. It will be able to carry 5.5 metric tons of dry cargo, including food and other supplies, and nearly 1 metric ton of water and gas. It would dock with the Russian Service Module, and from there could fire its engines to help raise the station's orbit, counteracting the drag from the very tenuous atmosphere. Like the existing Russian Progress cargo spacecraft, who provide a similar service to the Mir space station, the ATV would also be used to remove trash from the station. The trash would burn up with the rest of the spacecraft when it reenters the Earth's atmosphere. The first ATV flight is planned for 2003, with eight total planned for 2003 through 2013. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [4/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Fourth Time a Charm for Delta Launch A Delta 2 booster launched a Russian television satellite Sunday evening, November 22, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, after three previous launch attempts were scrubbed. The Delta 2 lifted off at 6:54 pm EST (2354 UT), after a more than 30-minute delay caused by high upper altitude winds. The booster carried the Bonum-1 satellite into orbit with no problems reported. The launch was originally scheduled for Thursday, November 19, but delayed when a safety rail accidently left in place hindered the motion of the nozzle of the Delta's main engine. Communication problems between ground control and the satellite canceled a Friday night launch attempt, and a faulty fuel sensor postponed a Saturday night launch. The rocket launched Bonum-1, a Russian satellite that will provide 50 channels of direct TV broadcasting to western Russia. The satellite, built by Hughes and funded by the Russian company Media Most, is the first private Russian satellite; all previous satellites had been government efforts. European Astronomers Discover Nearby Extrasolar Planet A team of European astronomers, using a new telescope dedicated to extrasolar planet searches, has discovered a planet orbiting a nearby double star system, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) announced Tuesday, November 24. The planet was discovered around Gliese 86, a star system 35 light-years from the Earth. The planet orbits in a nearly-circular orbit about 0.11 astronomical units (16.5 million km, 10.2 million miles) from the star. Astronomers estimate the planet's mass to be at least 4.9 times that of Jupiter, our solar system's heaviest planet. The planet's surface temperature would be about 380 degrees C (715 degrees F). The main star is about 80% as massive and 40% as bright as the Sun. Previous observations of Gliese 86 show that it is a binary star, with an unseen companion inferred to exist by spectroscopic analysis at least 10 AU away. The discovery of a planet in a binary system like Gliese 86 may provide new data on the stability of planets in such star systems. The new extrasolar planet is the second-closest to our solar system. In June astronomers Geoffrey Marcy and Paul Butler announced the discovery of a star around Gliese 876, only 15 light-years from the Earth. The discovery was made by a team of Swiss astronomers that includes Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz, who discovered the first extrasolar planet around a Sun-like star in October 1995, when they found a planet orbiting 51 Pegasi. The astronomers used a new telescope, the 1.2-meter (47-inch) Leonhard Euler telescope, located at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile. The telescope, along with a high-resolution spectrograph, will be used primarily to search for extrasolar planets. Asteroid "Fossil" May Be Evidence of Dinosaurs' Demise A tiny piece of rock may be the strongest evidence to date that an asteroid collided with the Earth 65 million years ago and wiped out the dinosaurs, a geochemist reported November 19. In the cover story of the November 19 issue of the journal Nature, UCLA geochemist Frank Kyte reports that a tiny fragment of rock buried in meters of sediment under the Pacific Ocean is a "fossil meteorite" from 65 million years ago. The meteorite, Kyte said, is likely the remnant of an asteroid that hit the present-day Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. That impact, also known as the Chicxulub event, is the leading cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs and countless other species at the end of the Cretaceous period. "That was one of the worst days the Earth had in the last billion years, and it is important to understand what happened," Kyte said. While the meteorite is tiny -- just 2.5 millimeters (0.1 inches) across -- it stood out in the iridium-rich clay in which it was buried. Like the clay, the meteorite was enriched in iridium. As the clay layer, known as the K/T boundary, has been seen in other sites around the world and linked with an impact, Kyte believes the meteorite is a fragment of Chicxulub impactor. The meteorite may also settle a debate whether the Chicxulub impact was caused by am asteroid or a comet. The fragment appears similar to carbonaceous chrondites, a common class of asteroids, and less like the porous, fluffy dust thought to exist in comets. "The fossil meteorite strongly supports the idea that the impactor was an asteroid and not a comet," Kyte said. The fact that the fragment exists means the impact took place at the slower speeds expected from asteroid impacts, and not a comet impact, which can take place at higher speeds because of the differences in orbits between asteroids and comets. Some scientists had advocated a comet impact, since the higher speed would require a smaller impacting body. A slower asteroid impact means that the impacting object would likely have been 10-16 km (6-10 mi.) in diameter, although the discovery of the fossil meteorite will not help pin down the size of the impactor. SpaceViews Event Horizon December 2 NSS's "Property Rights and Commercial Space Development" meeting, Washington, DC December 3 Launch of Starsem/Soyuz carrying 4 Globalstar satellites from Baikonur, Kazakhstan December 3 Launch of space shuttle Endeavour on STS-88, launch of the Unity space station module, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida December 3 Launch of a Pegasus XL carrying the SWAS astronomy satellite off the coast from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. December 5 Launch of Ariane 4 carrying the Satmex 5 comsat from Kourou, French Guiana December 10 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida December 15 Athena 2 launch of the Ikonos-1 remote sensing satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California January 3 Launch of a Delta 2 carrying the Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, from Cape Canaveral, Florida Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [5/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Other News Galileo, Voyager problems: Two veteran spacecraft suffered glitches last month. For the second time this year, a problem prevented the Galileo spacecraft from collecting images and other data during a close flyby of the Jovian moon Europa, when the spacecraft entered a "safing mode" twice, on November 21 and 22. The first problem took place just hours before the spacecraft passed by Europa and prevented it from taking data. Spacecraft engineers believe the problems are related to the command and data systems on Galileo, and do not post a threat to the overall health and safety of the spacecraft. Meanwhile, Deep Space Network lost contact with Voyager 2 for nearly three days between November 12-14. Spacecraft controllers were in the process of uploading commands to turn off Voyager 2's scan platform, a section of the spacecraft where several instruments no longer used are located, to conserve power. After contact was restored controllers found the platform had been turned off as planned. The cause of the blackout has not been determined. HST Gazes Deeply: A new "deep" image of a section of the southern hemisphere of the sky taken by the Hubble Space Telescope may provide new insights into the universe, astronomers announced Monday, November 23. The Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) is an image of a small region of the sky near the south celestial pole. It was taken by Hubble over 10 days in October. The HDF-S complements a similar deep image of a northern hemisphere sky taken in late 1995 by Hubble. The original Hubble Deep Field proved to be a gold mine for astronomers, letting them see dim, distant galaxies not otherwise visible. Beal vs. the Birds: Launch vehicle developer Beal Aerospace may have run into a new -- and unlikely -- roadblock, according to a BBC report. Environmentalists are protesting the company's plans to use Sombrero Island, a small, barren island near Anguilla in the Caribbean, for launches. The island is a breeding ground for various species of seabirds, who enjoy the isolated, predator-free island. Beal, who plans to launch its expendable boosters from the island starting in 2000, has offered to buy a similar-sized plot of land in the region to compensate for any loss of bird habitat. Young, Undressed Stars: Astronomers have seen evidence for supersonic jets of gas and dust emitted by young stars that have been "undressed" by more massive nearby stars, information that may shape our understanding of conditions in the early solar system. The jets, billions of kilometers long, are emitted at speeds up to 500 kilometers a second (300 miles a second) from stars in the Orion Nebula, according to work published in the November 26 issue of Nature. Such observations could have implications for planetary systems, especially since the Sun may have once been like those "naked stars" observed. "A key question is whether these naked stars will produce solar or planetary systems given the powerful radiation from the nearby massive stars," John Bally of the University of Colorado said. In Brief: The European Space Agency is looking at an unusual way to fund the Beagle 2 lander that will fly on the 2003 Mars Express mission: advertising. ESA hopes to raise $75 million -- more than the cost of the lander itself -- selling advertising, possibly on two balloons that will be used to slow the lander down when it enters the Martian atmosphere. It would be the first time advertising was displayed on another planet... A Russia television station collected a wide range of suggestions for the name of the International Space Station in a recent poll. While the most popular name was "Starovoitova", after a recently-slain Russian legislator, other names spanned the range from the noble ("Galileo" and "Columbus") to the bizarre ("Mommy"). Those who selected "Babylon", though, should note that, according to the science-fiction series, Babylons 1 through 3 were destroyed... *** Articles *** The Talking Atlas by Andrew J. LePage Introduction While Soviet engineers used the R-7 ICBM to launch their first Sputniks, the first American satellite launch vehicles were based on re-engineered versions of small scientific rockets, and later, short range military missiles like the Redstone, Jupiter and Thor. At the dawn of the Space Age, the bulk of the America's aeronautical engineering resources were being poured into the development of ICBMs. This was in response to President Eisenhower's policy that separated the ICBM and satellite efforts so that the latter would not interfere with the former. As a result, initial development of American satellite carrier rockets lagged. But during 1958 things changed radically. The Soviet Union's early lead in the Space Race and the public's reaction resulted in a reevaluation of priorities. Policy makers decided that ICBM development would continue unabated with the goal of deploying a viable weapon at the earliest possible date to counter the perceived Soviet threat. But now these rockets were also to be seriously considered as the basis of satellite launch vehicles far larger than those used to launch the first American space payloads. However until the ICBM test programs were completed and production could be increased to meet an expanded demand, satellite launches using these larger rockets could only proceed when surplus hardware was available. Because of its advance state of development, the Atlas would be the first American ICBM pressed into service as a launch vehicle. The Atlas ICBM The SM-65 Atlas program, which initially went by the name "Weapon System 107A", began in February of 1954 after it had been determined that an ICBM was feasible. Because of its early ICBM-related development work, Convair (which later became part of General Dynamics) was chosen as the prime contractor for the project in January of 1955. By June the project was given a "A-1" priority which placed it first in line for the nation's engineering and material resources. Unlike most rockets at the time, the Atlas would not rely on aircraft-style monocque construction where the propellant tanks and exterior shell were attached to an internal framework. Instead the Atlas used the same thin stainless steel structure to act an both the outer shell and propellant tanks with internal pressure providing the rigidity needed to keep it from collapsing. This balloon or integral tank-type structure was successfully tested by Convair on the MX-774 rocket which flew from 1946 to 1948. With a diameter of 3 meters(ten feet) and a total length of about 24 meters(80 feet), the stainless steel structure of the Atlas was no thicker than one millimeter (0.04 inches) which resulted in an immense weight savings. Convair, working together with engineers from Rocketdyne, devised a brilliant means of shedding excess mass during flight and greatly increasing the range of the Atlas. After the Atlas had lifted off and gained sufficient altitude, it would jettison a pair of booster engines and their supporting structure. Greatly lightened, the Atlas would continue to accelerate towards its distant target powered by a single sustainer engine feeding off the remaining kerosene and liquid oxygen propellants in the tanks. This eliminated the need of igniting engines at high altitude as would be required in a conventional multi-stage ICBM design. But while this innovative stage-and-a-half concept with integral tanks promised to allow Atlas to attain the USAF's range goal of 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles), the design departed too much from the existing rocket engineering paradigm for many. To ease these concerns, on May 2, 1955 the development of a more conventional, two-staged ICBM called the SM-68 Titan I was approved just in case Atlas proved to be a little too innovative. During the Atlas test program several models were built and flown from the Eastern Test Range in Florida to evaluate various systems and allow the design to evolve into a working weapon. The first model was the Atlas A. It was equipped only with a pair of booster engines and was meant to test the basic Atlas design during an abbreviated flight. The first flight occurred on June 11, 1957. Although Atlas 4A lifted off successfully, it quickly started to tumble out of control. While the test was unsuccessful, the rocket's structure withstood the strain of the ordeal before being destroyed by range safety thus vindicating the strength of its design. The first successful launch in the series took place on December 17, 1957 when Atlas 12A flew over the prescribed 800 kilometer (500 mile) range. When the Atlas A test flight program concluded in March of 1958, there were only three successful flights in eight tries. Despite the record, enough was learned to move on to the Atlas B. This rocket would test the entire system from launch to the injection of a dummy warhead into an intercontinental trajectory. The Atlas B would use the same MA-2 propulsion system built by Rocketdyne the operational missile would use. It consisted of a pair of LR89 booster engines generating 734 kilonewtons (165,000 pounds) of thrust each and a LR105 sustainer engine with a thrust of 263 kilonewtons (59,000 pounds) yielding a total liftoff thrust of 1,731 kilonewtons (389,000 pounds). The Atlas B would be the largest American rocket yet flown. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [6/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Project SCORE While the Atlas program was gearing up for full-range test flights in 1958, the USAF and ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) officials were hoping to use one of the Atlas B test flights to launch a satellite. The USAF had proposed using the Atlas to launch a satellite as early as 1955 when the Department of Defense was considering satellite proposals from the Naval Research Laboratory (with what would become Vanguard) and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (who proposed Project Orbiter). While the USAF proposal was turned down because of Eisenhower's policy, the Atlas design was still capable of orbiting a satellite with only minor modifications. But with the shift in national priorities in early 1958, the USAF working with ARPA began to secretly move forward to modify an Atlas B missile to launch a test satellite. For the payload ARPA turned to the U.S. Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. A group headed by George F. Senn proposed to use the Atlas to launch an experimental UHF communication package to forward recorded messages and act as a real-time relay. In late July 1958 ARPA officially approved the Army proposal and Project SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Experiment) was born. At the start of the project, the launch date was set for early November 1958. To avoid conflicts with prelaunch preparations, the communication payload would have to be ready by the middle of October. In addition, ground stations would have to be operational and crews trained by November 1. With only three months until launch, the experimental communications package would have to rely upon proven, off-the-shelf systems to meet the tight development schedule. Because of the performance limitations of a stripped down Atlas B, the Project SCORE experiment package was limited to a mass of 68 kilograms (150 pounds). Calculations indicated that the Atlas could loft this payload into an orbit with a perigee of about 160 kilometers (100 miles) and an apogee of between 800 and 1,300 kilometers (500 and 800 miles). With such a relatively high orbit, real-time communication relay tests could be performed between ground stations as far as 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) from the satellite. For the project, four mobile ground stations each consisting of appropriately equipped army type V-51 vans and a Quad helix tracking antenna mounted on a searchlight base were established. These were located at Fort MacArthur, California, Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, and Fort Stewart, Georgia. They would all be connected to a control center at the Signal Corps Laboratory at Fort Monmouth by telephone lines and HF radio. The SCORE payload itself would consist of a redundant pair of battery-powered, vacuum tube-based UHF communication packages with a nominal design life of 21 days. This equipment would be housed in a cylindrical anodized metal housing at the nose of the missile designed to keep the temperature in the 4 C to 49 C (40 F to 120 F) range. The payload would remain attached to the Atlas once in orbit yielding an impressive total in-orbit mass of 3,970 kilograms (8,750 pounds) - comparable to the mass of the Soviet's Sputnik 2 with its spent booster attached. Each package consisted of a command receiver, a transmitter, and an endless loop tape recorder. The tape recorder, which was borrowed from an Army meteorological satellite development program, used 23 meters (75 feet) of 25 micron (1 mil) thick mylar tape that was capable of providing four minutes of recording or playback time. Upon command from the ground, the package would either record or playback a stored message. Alternatively the system could be commanded to relay a live message from one ground station or another. A metallic contact at the end of the tape loop would automatically switch the system off at the end of the message. To reduce power consumption, the receiver was turned on for only a quarter of a second every 2.5 seconds to listen for commands from the ground. In addition to the experimental communication package, a pair of telemetry beacons similar to those used by the early Explorer satellites were also carried. The Mission Not unexpectedly, the Project SCORE schedule proved to be a bit too ambitious and the launch date slipped several weeks. Delays with Atlas B test flights also contributed to the scheduling problems. The first Atlas B launch in July of 1958 failed but the second test flight on August 2 met its goal by flying more than 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) downrange. After three more largely successful test flights, the Atlas B exceeded its design goal on November 28, 1958 when it flew 9,660 kilometers (6,000 miles). The way was clear to launch Project SCORE. When the launch of Atlas 10B with its secret communication payload took place on the night of December 18, 1958, only a handful of people knew its true mission. As ground controllers monitored the quickly ascending Atlas' progress, an apparent "malfunction" occurred near the end of powered flight. Inexplicably ground computers monitoring the impact point of the missile eventually told controllers that there was no impact point. Because of the secrecy surrounding Project SCORE, not even the ground controllers were aware that there was no malfunction and that Atlas 10B had instead entered a 177 by 1,480 kilometer (110 by 920 mile) orbit with an inclination of 32.3 degrees and a period of 101.5 minutes. Once in orbit, the USAF immediately heralded the event making special note of the nearly four metric ton (8,800 pound) orbital mass (which consisted almost entirely of the now inert Atlas missile). While one of the two communication packages failed after the first orbit when its tape recorder jammed, the backup continued to function and relayed a recorded Christmas message from President Eisenhower during the 13th orbit on December 19. With this, Project SCORE's launch vehicle was dubbed "the talking Atlas" by the press. During the following 12 days, 28 separate messages were played back 78 times for a total of 5 hours, 12 minutes of operation. The Project SCORE experiment also relayed 11 real-time messages for a total of 43 minutes over distances in excess of 4,800 kilometers (3,000 miles). An undetermined number of unauthorized recordings and interrogations were also made from unidentified sites in the Eastern hemisphere during the mission indicating the need for more secure command systems in future communication satellites. The experimental communication package operated until December 30, 1958 when the battery was finally exhausted. Atmospheric drag brought the now silent Atlas out of orbit on January 21, 1959. While Project SCORE was to some extent a USAF publicity stunt designed to garner public support, it did show that a satellite could provide a much needed communication link between distant sites. It also paved the way for the Atlas to serve as a launch vehicle for future programs including Project Mercury. Bibliography David Baker, The Rocket, Crown Publishers, Inc. (New York), 1978 S.P Brown and G.F. Senn, "Project SCORE", Proceedings of the IRE, Vol 48, No. 4, pp. 624-630, April 1960 Drew LePage is a physicist and freelance writer specializing in astronomy and the history of spaceflight. He can be reached at lepage@visidyne.com Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [7/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Charting the Future of Planetary Science Missions by Jeff Foust As planetary scientists from around the world gathered in Madison, Wisconsin in October for the annual conference of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, NASA officials and scientists laid out some newly revised and updated plans for solar system exploration into the next decade and beyond that shows that NASA has completed the transition from a few high-cost science missions to many more low-cost missions. A highlight of the conference was the release of a new plan for robotic Mars exploration, which now calls for greater international cooperation. The plan, as described by Dan McCleese, chief scientist of JPL's Mars Exploration Directorate, starts as previously planned, with the launch of Mars Climate Orbiter in December and the Mars Polar Lander in January 1999. There will also be orbiter and lander missions for the 2001 launch window. The lander would carry the small "Marie Curie" rover, a twin of the Sojourner rover, as the larger and more capable Athena rover will not be ready for the 2001 mission. The Athena rover, or something similar to it, will be reserved for the 2003 lander. The new plan begins to sharply diverge from previous plans in 2003. That launch opportunity may feature just one mission, a lander carrying the Athena rover (the European Space Agency is planning an orbiter/lander mission, Mars Express, for 2003 as well). The goal of the rover would be to collect rock and soil samples and return them to the lander, where a small Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) would launch the samples into orbit around the planet. International cooperation will be key to the 2005 missions. An Ariane 5 booster will launch a French-built orbiter and a NASA lander and rover. The lander will be similar to the 2003 mission but will include a drill to collect samples from below the surface. As before, the lander will collect samples and launch them into orbit. There the French orbiter will collect the sample caches from both landers and return them to Earth. The sequence of missions in 2003 and 2005 could be repeated in 2007-2009 and again in 2011-2013, according to McCleese. The goal is to get samples from three key regions of Mars: areas of ancient ground and surface water and possible areas of modern ground water. These samples, McCleese said, will help scientists understand the geological and possible biological history of Mars. The Mars exploration program, funded at about $250-275 million a year starting in 1999 through at least 2009, will not neglect planning for any future human missions to Mars. The 2003 mission will carry experiments to monitor the radiation environment on the surface and also test for soil toxicity. Also in the works are "micromissions," small missions of opportunity that would cost around $20 million and weigh 30-50 kilograms (66-110 lbs.) These spacecraft would be launched as secondary payloads on Ariane 5 boosters, and then use Earth flybys for gravity assists to fly to Mars, similar to Japan's Nozomi mission to Mars. These missions would carry out focused tests that can be completed by small spacecraft. The first micromissions would fly early next decade. Another JPL scientist, Rich Terrile, talked about two other upcoming high-profile missions, the Europa Orbiter and Pluto/Kuiper Express, missions "that are almost impossible to do on almost no budget." Despite the technological and financial hurdles, plans for both missions as well as a solar probe mission are proceeding well. The Europa Orbiter mission is currently planned for a November 2003 launch on the space shuttle, depending on the results of a technology assessment planned in 1999 or 2000. The spacecraft would fly on a direct trajectory to Jupiter, arriving in about 3 years. It would then go into a Galileo-type "tour" orbiting Jupiter and using flybys of the large Galilean moons to adjust its orbit, for up to two years. Then a three-month "endgame" would put the spacecraft into a 200-km (125-mi.) orbit above Europa, where it would return data for one month before radiation would irrepairably damage the spacecraft. The orbital constraints of the mission mean that about tow-thirds of the mass of the orbiter will be propellant, leaving just 20 kg (44 lbs.) for instruments. The "strawman" payload for the mission includes a laser altimeter, a camera, an ice-penetrating radar to search for underground oceans, and tracking of the spacecraft's radio signal to study Europa's gravitational field. Shortly after the Europa Orbiter launch would come the Pluto/Kuiper Express mission to fly by Pluto and one or more Kuiper Belt objects. The current plan calls for launch in late 2004 on the shuttle or a Delta 3. The spacecraft would make a gravity-assist flyby of Jupiter in April 2006 before flying by Pluto in December 2012. A launch by late 2004 is critical, since it would be difficult to impossible to use the Jupiter gravity-assist flyby after that date. The 220-kg (485-lbs.) spacecraft would carry just 7 kg (15 lbs.) of science instruments, including a camera, infrared and ultraviolet spectrometers, as well as radio science using the spacecraft's antenna. The flyby would take place at a speed of 17-18 km/sec (10.5-11.25 mi./sec), somewhat slower than Voyager 2's flyby of Neptune's moon Triton in 1989, and data collected during the flyby would be returned for a year after the flyby. A third mission, the Solar Probe, would launch in 2007 on a mission to fly within 4 solar radii (2.8 million kilometers, 1.7 million miles) of the Sun, the closest any spacecraft has approached the Sun. The spacecraft would use a Jupiter gravity assist to put it on a polar orbit around the Sun, much like Ulysses, but far closer to the Sun. A sunshade would protect the spacecraft from the intense heat of its close solar flybys. The Europa, Pluto, and solar missions are all tied together by the use of similar technologies, developed under the "X2000" program, funded separately from the individual missions. The project overall is "fairly well funded" according to Terrile, with about $100 million a year starting in fiscal year 2000. Not to be forgotten are the Discovery and New Millennium programs. "We can't say enough good things" about the Discovery program, said Carl Pilcher of NASA headquarters. And while the initial projects of the New Millennium program have had problems -- there was concern the full science payload would not make it onto Deep Space One until a few weeks before launch -- the program is using lessons learned from the Discovery program for future projects, like the Deep Space 4 comet sample return mission. Jeff Foust is editor of SpaceViews. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [8/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... *** Book Reviews *** by Jeff Foust Dragonfly: NASA and the Crisis aboard Mir by Bryan Burrough HarperCollins, 1998 hardcover, 528pp., illus. ISBN 0-88730-783-3 US$26.95/C$40.00 The Shuttle-Mir program of dockings and astronaut tours of duty on Mir was held up as a sign of cooperation between former enemies. Instead, it deteriorated into a series of near-disasters, with more then enough recriminations to go around. Even for those who think they know a lot about what happened on Mir, Bryan Burrough's book "Dragonfly" will shed a new light on the often-troubled project. Dragonfly -- a term sometimes used to describe the sprawling, ungainly appearance of Mir -- provides a remarkable, comprehensive behind-the-scenes look at the trials and tribulations of the joint NASA-Russia Mir missions. While the book covers the whole project, from its inception in the early 1990s to the last shuttle-Mir docking earlier this year, the focus of the book is on the dramatic events on Mir in 1997 -- from the fire to the Progress collision, and all the mechanical breakdowns in between. The book shows the Mir missions had few heroes and fewer villains, other than miscommunication, ignorance, egos, and politics. His descriptions of NASA astronauts and personnel are not the flattering portraits created by the agencies PR experts: John Blaha was isolated and depressed on Mir, and was highly dependent on ground personnel and even his wife; Jerry Linenger was disliked by his Russian crewmates and even fellow NASA personnel, who saw him as an opportunist, and David Wolf was a hard-partying person who took a Mir assignment as the last chance to resuscitate his career. Yet there were those, from astronaut Mike Foale to unsung works on the ground, who struggled. ultimately successfully, to keep the project going. Burrough, who notes in the book that this was the first time he had covered a space topic since the Challenger accident, does a masterful job. There are very few obvious errors in the book (an occasional typo or two) and Burrough weaves a compelling story. For anyone interested in what went on out of public view during the Shuttle-Mir program, and the lessons learned -- or ignored -- during this program may shape the ultimate fate of the International Space Station, "Dragonfly" is highly recommended. The Moon Book by Kim Long Johnson Books, 1998 softcover, 148pp., illus. ISBN 1-55566-230-7 US$12.50 Ever wonder why the Moon rises and sets at varying times from day to day and month to month? If so, you may be interested in Kim Long's "The Moon Book", which takes a look at this and a number of related aspects of our nearest neighbor in space. The book takes a detailed look at the observational aspects of the Moon, from changes in phases and rise/set times to less well-known features like libration (which enables us to see a little more than half of the Moon) to patterns in its orbit. In addition, the book explores some of the history and folklore surrounding the Moon, including names for full Moons in different cultures. One area the book falls down in, though, is the science of the Moon. Only a few pages are dedicated to discussion about the origin and nature of the Moon; the recent discovery of possible deposits of ice at the lunar poles gets just a couple sentences. This stands out as an omission mainly because the author goes into great detail in other areas, like observations and folklore. Otherwise, "The Moon Book" is a good, concise reference about many key aspects of the Moon. Rocket Boys: A Memoir by Homer H. Hickam, Jr. Delacorte Press, 1998 hardcover, 368pp. ISBN 0-385-33320-X US$23.95/C$32.95 In the fall of 1957, the launch of Sputnik electrified the United States. That was true even in the small, isolated town of Coalwood, West Virginia, where outside events were rarely favored as topics of discussion over local gossip. It also grabbed the intention of Homer Hickam, Jr., younger son of the local coal mine supervisor, who announced out of the blue his intention to build a rocket. Homer's efforts to build rockets, and the effect on his community, is the subject of his memoir "Rocket Boys". The book is a story of the intertwined struggles of building rockets with a set of friends -- the rocket boys, as they were known -- and those of a teenager coming of age. The tragedy and triumph that follows in the three years after Sputnik makes for an engrossing story. The book doesn't deal directly with space, although there are cameo appearances by Wehrner von Braun and presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, and Hickam does eventually realize his dream of working for NASA. However, it's a great story about how the events of space can have an impact on the affairs of man. *** NSS News *** Upcoming Boston NSS Events Thursday, December 3, 7:30pm "The Overview Effect" by Frank White Frank White, author of "The Overview Effect" will be giving a talk and doing a book signing! The 2nd edition of his book has been released and he will be talking about the changes in the world and in the space movement/space program since the publishing of the first edition in 1987. Unless otherwise specified, Boston NSS Meetings are held on the first Thursdays of every month at 545 Main Street (Technology Square), 8th floor, Cambridge, near the Kendall/MIT stop on the Red Line. Free parking is available. check the Boston NSS Web site (http://www.spaceviews.com/boston/) for more information about these upcoming speakers. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [9/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NSS Election Results by Lauri Zeman, NSS Secretary The NSS officer, advisor, and governor election is officially completed. The officers, advisors, and governors elected are shown below. Four motions were passed to waive the requirement to serve one year on the board prior to election as an officer. Those waivers were for Ausmann, Brandenstein, Pancratz, and Whitebread. Number of board members voting--24. Board members who did not vote--Aldrin, Borowski, Gounley, Hopkins, Redfield, Worden, Zsidisin, Zubrin. (Note--Redfield and Worden voted on the three waiver motions sent out by email but not on the remainder of the election.) Officers President--Dan Brandenstein Chairman of the Executive Committee--Kirby Ikin Chairman of the Board of Directors--Buzz Aldrin Chairman of the Board of Governors--Hugh Downs Executive Vice President--Gordon Woodcock Senior Vice President--Robert Zubrin Vice President of Fundraising--Greg Rucker Vice President of Chapters--Greg Allison Vice President of Membership--Jeffrey Liss Vice President of Public Affairs--Karen Mermel Treasurer--Joe Redfield Secretary--Lauri Zeman Assistant Treasurer--Joe Ausmann Assistant Secretary--Christopher Pancratz General Counsel--Joe Whitebread Board of Advisors Jim Bennett C. J. Cherryh David Criswell Jerry Grey Joe Haldeman Eleanor Helin Mark Holthaus Barbara Marx Hubbard Margaret Jordan Ronnie LaJoie Carol Lane Florence Nelson Scott Pace Stanley G. Rosen Stanley Schmidt Board of Governors Mark Albrecht Robert Allnutt Norm Augustine Alan Binder Frank Borman Ben Bova Bruce Boxleitner George E. Brown, Jr. Gerald P. Carr Sir Arthur C. Clarke Michael Collins Michael DeBakey Hugh Downs K. Eric Drexler Freeman Dyson Edward R. Finch Aaron Freeman Don Fuqua Newt Gingrich Peter Glaser John Glenn Slade Gorton Tom Hanks Bob Hope S. Neil Hosenball Robert Jastrow John Johnson Irving Kahn Arthur Kantrowitz John Lewis John M. Logsdon James Lovell Robert McCall Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Hans Mark Marvin Minsky Kenneth Money Frank Moss Nichelle Nichols Jack Olson Frederick I. Ordway III Bill Pogue Majel Barrett Roddenberry Neil Ruzic Harrison Schmitt Frederick Seitz John B. Slaughter James A. Van Allen Maria von Braun Glen P. Wilson James B. Wyeth *** Features *** Jonathan's Space Report by Jonathan McDowell [Ed. Note: Go to http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~jcm/space/jsr/jsr.html for back issues and other information about Jonathan's Space Report.] Note: I've updated the launch log files at http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~jcm/space/log/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [10/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Shuttle and Station The International Space Station era has begun. The launch of the Zarya module was successful on Nov 20 at 0640 UTC. Zarya is the first element of the International Space Station. It was funded by the US and built by Krunichev in Moscow, and will be controlled by RKA/Energiya in Korolev. Krunichev built it under a subcontract from Boeing for NASA, so I imagine that formally NASA is the owner but RKA is the operator. The Zarya derives its design from the TKS spaceship and the 77KS Mir side modules. Zarya is the Funktional'no-Gruzovoy Blok (FGB), serial 77KM No 175-01. It includes a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Zarya was launched by a three stage Proton-K (8K82K) rocket, serial 395-01, from pad 81L at 5-GIK (the Baykonur cosmodrome). The third stage and Zarya reached orbit 9 min after takeoff. Initial orbit was 176 x 343 km x 51.6 deg. By Nov 25 it had maneuvered to a 383 x 396 km x 51.7 deg orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which will dock the Unity node to it. Launches of spacecraft in the TKS/77KS series: TKS Mockup 1976 Dec 15 (with Kosmos-881/882) TKS No. 161-01 1977 Jul 17 Kosmos-929, TKS test flight TKS Mockup 1977 Aug 5 (launch failure) TKS Mockup 1978 Mar 30 (with Kosmos-997/998) TKS Mockup 1979 May 22 (with Kosmos-1100/1101) TKS No. 163-01 1981 Apr 25 Kosmos-1267, TKS test docked with Salyut-6 TKS-M No. 164-01 1983 Mar 2 Kosmos-1443, TKS test docked with Salyut-7 TKS-M No. 165-01 1985 Sep 27 Kosmos-1686, module docked with Salyut-7 FSB No. 166-01 1987 Mar 31 Propulsion unit for Kvant module FSB No. 162-01 1987 May 15 Propulsion unit for Skif-DM payload TsM-D No. 171-01 1989 Nov 26 Kvant-2, docked with Mir TsM-T No. 172-01 1990 May 31 Kristall, docked with Mir TsM-O No. 173-01 1995 May 20 Spektr, docked with Mir TsM-I No. 174-01 1996 Apr 23 Priroda, docked with Mir FGB No. 175-01 1998 Nov 20 Zarya, ISS first element USM No. 176-01 Under construction as ISS docking module Meanwhile, Space Shuttle OV-105 Endeavour is on the launch pad ready for mission STS-88 on Dec 3. Crew of STS-88 are: Commander - Col. Robert Cabana, USMC, NASA chief astronaut Pilot - Maj. Frederick Sturckow, USMC/NASA Mission Specialists: Col. Jerry Ross, USAF/NASA, Maj. Nancy Currie, USA/NASA, Dr. James Newman, NASA, and Sergei Krikalyov, RKA. The payload bay contains the following cargo: Sill: RMS arm No. 303 Bay 1-2: Tunnel Adapter 002 Bay 3-4: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock (Boeing/Palmdale) Bay 7-13: Unity (Node 1) (Boeing/Huntsville) PMA-1 docking adapter (Boeing/Huntingdon Beach), PMA-2 docking adapter (Boeing/Huntingdon Beach) Bay 2 Port: GABA adapter with SAC-A satellite Bay 4 Port: Carrier with PFR spacewalk restraint Bay 4 Stbd: Carrier with Cable Caddy for spacewalks Bay 5? Stbd: Carrier with PFR spacewalk restraint Bay 6 Port: GABA adapter with Mightysat Bay 6? Stbd: Carrier with two TCS laser rendevous sensors Bay 13 Port: GABA adapter with SEM-7 and G-093 canisters Bay 13 Stbd: GABA adapter with IMAX Cargo Bay Camera The PMA-1 and PMA-2 adapters are detachable from Unity, but launched installed. Endeavour will unberth Unity from the bay using the RMS arm, and dock PMA-2 to the Orbiter Docking System. After rendezvous, the axial +Y port of Zarya will be attached to PMA-1. PMA-2 will be used as ISS's main Shuttle docking port; it will be moved from Unity to the Lab module when that is launched. The SAC-A satellite is an Argentine payload which carries an experimental remote sensing camera and a marine life science experiment consisting of a GPS receiver which will track signals from a GPS-equipped whale (yes, a whale). The 60 kg satellite was build by INVAP of Bariloche for CONAE, the Argentine space agency. It will be ejected from an HMDA canister in the payload bay. Mightysat is a small satellite with a mass of about 70 kg, built by Orbital Sciences/McLean. It carries a suite of technology experiments for USAF Phillips Lab. Mightysat and SAC-A share a Hitchhiker avionics box. SEM-7 is a canister with high school experiments; G-093 has a physics experiment for the U. of Michigan. The ISS overview press kit shows a cargo bay view with the 'AMTEC/AWCS' experiments where SEM-7/G-093 should be; in fact, AMTEC and AWCS are technology experiments on the Mightysat payload, although it's not clear if they are mounted on the subsatellite or remain attached to the Shuttle. The new, "improved" (sic) STS press kits themselves have no graphics of the payloads, so I'm not sure of the details of the EVA equipment. Mir Padalka and Avdeev made a spacewalk from the Kvant-2 airlock on the Mir complex on Nov 10-11. Hatch open was Nov 10 1924 UTC and hatch closed was Nov 11 0118 UTC according to C. van den Berg. They installed a meteorite detector in preparation for the Leonid shower, and hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio minisatellite at around 1930 UTC (anyone have a better time?). Spoutnik-41 (Spoutnik is the French spelling) is a scale model of the first satellite, PS-1, launched 41 years ago. It carries a small transmitter, and is also designated RS-18. A similar model was launched last year. Sponsors of the satellite are Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia. On that occasion, two flight models were carried to Mir but only one was launched. The second Spoutnik-40 flight model is still aboard Mir. The recent Progress flight carried up yet a third satellite with an improved electronics module. (There was earlier some confusion about whether the RS-18 satellite was a new satellite or was the one stored on Mir since last year; Bernard Pidoux confirms Spoutnik-41 is an entirely new satellite, and the plan to just swap out the electronics module on the other one was abandoned). The second Spoutnik-40 may still be deployed next year. Four other objects from the EVA are being tracked by Space Command. STS-93/AXAF The solid rocket boosters for mission STS-93 have been stacked on mobile launch plaform MLP-1 in the VAB. The AXAF telescope payload is still in California; launch of STS-93 is now expected in March. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [11/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Recent Launches The BONUM-1 satellite was successfully launched by a Boeing Delta 2 on Nov 22. BONUM-1 is a Hughes HS-376HP communications satellite with a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor. The satellite will provide domestic Russian communications for Media Most, a Moscow-based television and media conglomerate, broadcasting 50 channels to western Russia from a position at 36 deg E. Mass is 1426 kg at launch, around 630 kg dry. The HS-376HP is small by today's standards and carries just 8 Ku-band transponders. The Delta 7925-9.5 launch vehicle entered a 157 x 189 km x 29.2 deg parking orbit ten minutes after launch. Two further burns of the second stage raised the orbit to 159 x 1304 km and then 1228 x 1683 km x 26.7 deg. The Thiokol Star 48B solid third stage then boosted BONUM-1 to a 1285 x 36703 km x 19.5 deg geostationary transfer orbit while the second stage made a final depletion burn to lower its orbit to 274 x 1552 km x 25.6 deg, making sure it will reenter quickly. Deep Space 1, in solar orbit, successfully started its ion drive on Nov 24. An initial attempt failed after four minutes on Nov 10. This is the first time ion propulsion has been used as the primary propulsion on a spacecraft. Below is a list of spacecraft thought to have tested electric propulsion systems. I haven't done a proper study of this subject, so this list is incomplete and may have errors - perhaps someone can come up with a better one. It is intended to include ion thrusters, pulsed plasma thrusters and Hall effect thrusters, but exclude the lower efficiency arcjets. The Russians report 15 flights of stationary Hall plasma thrusters since 1971. The XIPS is an 8-cm ion thruster; NSTAR is a 30-cm one. All systems prior to this year were used for experiments only, or for fine orbit control and maintenance. What's new is that DS1 and STEX will actually use their systems for major orbit changes. 1964 Jul 20 SERT (NASA) 30 minute test, suborbital 1964 Aug 29 661A Flight 21-2 (USAF) Suborbital 1964 Dec 21 661A Flight 21-3 (USAF) Suborbital 1965 Apr 3 SNAPSHOT (USAF) (telemetry failed) 1965 Jul 18 3MV-4 No. 3 Test in solar orbit? (USSR) 1968 Aug 10 ATS 4 1969 Aug 12 ATS 5 1970 Feb 4 SERT-2 (NASA) Two thrusters, operated until 1980 1972 Feb 2 Meteor Plasma engine 1974 May 30 ATS 6 Cs ion engine test 1974 Jul 9 Meteor-Priroda 1 Plasma engine 1975 Oct 12 TIP 2 Pulsed plasma thruster 1976 Mar 15 LES-8/LES-9 Pulsed plasma thrusters 1976 Sep 1 TIP 3 Pulsed plasma thruster 1981 Feb 11 ETS-4 (NASDA) Ion thruster 1981 May 15 Nova 1 Pulsed plasma thruster 1984 Oct 12 Nova 3 Pulsed plasma thruster 1987 Feb 1 Kosmos-1818 Plasma-1 SPT 1987 Jul 10 Kosmos-1867 Plasma-2 SPT 1988 Jun 16 Nova 2 Pulsed plasma thruster 1994 Jan 20 Gals 11 SPT-100 plasma thruster 1994 Aug 28 ETS-6 (NASDA) Ion thrusters for NSSK 1995 Nov 17 Gals 12 SPT-100 plasma thruster 1997 Aug 28 PAS 5 HS-601 XIPS for NSSK 1997 Dec 8 Galaxy 8i HS-601 XIPS for NSSK 1998 Aug 30 Astra 2A HS-601 XIPS for NSSK 1998 Oct 3 STEX TAL-D55 plasma thruster Table of Recent Launches Date UT Name Launch Vehicle Site Mission INTL. DES. Oct 3 1004 STEX ) ARPA Taurus Vandenberg 576E Technol. 55A ATEX ) Oct 5 2251 Eutelsat W2 ) Ariane 44L Kourou ELA2 Comsat 56A Sirius 3 ) Comsat 56B Oct 9 2250 Hot Bird 5 Atlas IIA Canaveral SLC36B Comsat 57A Oct 20 0719 UHF F/O F9 Atlas IIA Canaveral SLC36A Comsat 58A Oct 21 1637 ARD ) Ariane 5 Kourou ELA3 Technol. Maqsat 3) Technol. 59A Oct 23 0002 SCD-2 Pegasus Canaveral RW02/20 Rem.Sens. 60A Oct 24 1208 Deep Space 1) Delta 7326 Canaveral SLC17A Probe 61A SEDSAT 1 ) Amateur 61B Oct 25 0414 Progress M-40 Soyuz-U Baykonur LC1 Cargo 62A Oct 28 2216 Afristar ) Ariane 44L Kourou ELA2 Radio com 63A GE 5 ) Comsat 63B Oct 29 1919 Discovery ) Shuttle Kennedy LC39B Spaceship 64A Spacehab ) Laboratory 64A Oct 30 1845 PANSAT - Discovery, LEO Test sat 64B Nov 1 1703 Spartan 201 - Discovery, LEO Astronomy 64C Nov 4 0512 PAS 8 Proton-K/DM3 Baykonur Comsat 65A Nov 6 1337 Iridium 2) Delta 7920-10C Vandenberg SLC2W Comsat 66A Iridium 83) Comsat 66E Iridium 84) Comsat 66D Iridium 85) Comsat 66C Iridium 86) Comsat 66B Nov 10 1930? Spoutnik-41 - Mir, LEO Amateur 62C Nov 20 0640 Zarya Proton-K Baykonur LC81L Station 67A Nov 22 2354 BONUM-1 Delta 7925 Canaveral SLC17B Comsat 68A Current Shuttle Processing Status _________________________________ Orbiters Location Mission Launch Due OV-102 Columbia OPF Bay 3 STS-93 Mar 1999 OV-103 Discovery OPF Bay 1 STS-96 May 1999 OV-104 Atlantis OPF Bay 2 STS-101 Aug 1999 OV-105 Endeavour LC39A STS-88 Dec 3 MLP1/RSRM-69 VAB Bay 1 STS-93 MLP2/ MLP3/RSRM-67/ET-97/OV-105 LC39A STS-88 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [12/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Space Calendar by Ron Baalke [Ed. Note: visit http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/ for the complete calendar] December 1998 Dec 01-03 - Origin of the Earth & Moon Conference, Monterey, California Dec 01-03 - 5th ESA Workshop On Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Dec 02 - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) Pegasus XL Launch Dec 02 - Asteroid 4268 Grebenikov Closest Approach To Earth (1.195 AU) Dec 02 - Asteroid 6877 Giada Closest Approach To Earth (1.346 AU) Dec 02 - Kuiper Belt Object YY3 at Opposition (29.786 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Dec 02 - Mercury at Perihelion Dec 02 - Workshop On Exploiting The Opportunities Of Space, Vienna, Austria Dec 02 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-27 Launch (Atlantis), DOD Classified Mission Dec 02 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-61 Launch (Endeavour), 1st Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Dec 03 - STS-88 Launch, Endeavour, 1st Space Station Assembly Flight Dec 03 - Globalstar Soyuz Launch Dec 03 - Cassini, Deep Space Maneuver (TCM-5) Dec 03-04 - 3rd Annual AGN Workshop, Canberra, Australia Dec 04 - SATMEX 5 Ariane 4 Launch Dec 04 - Venus Occults 185332 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 04 - Asteroid 1866 Sisypus Near-Earth Flyby (0.338 AU) Dec 04 - Asteroid 8507 (1991 CB1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.155 AU) Dec 04 - Asteroid 7172 Multatuli Closest Approach To Earth (1.339 AU) Dec 04 - Asteroid 2915 Moskvina Closest Approach To Earth (1.530 AU) Dec 04 - Gravity Wave Lecture, Greenbelt, Maryland Dec 04 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus, Venus Orbit Insertion Dec 04-06 - International Symposium On Solid State Detectors For The 21st Century, Nara, Japan Dec 05 - Asteroid 1998 WB2 Near-Earth Flyby (0.017 AU) Dec 05 - Cassini Educators Workshop, Pasadena, California Dec 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Pioneer 10, (Jupiter Flyby Dec 05-07 -[Nov 28] Australian Space Research 8th Annual Conference, North Adelaide, Australia Dec 06 - Asteroid 3362 Khufu Near-Earth Flyby (0.364 AU) Dec 06 - Asteroid 7543 Prylis Closest Approach To Earth (3.911 AU) Dec 06 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Pioneer 3 Launch (Moon Flyby Mission) Dec 06-10 - American Geophysical Union (AGU) 1998 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California Dec 07 - Cassini at Aphelion (1.58 AU) Dec 07 - Comet Lovas 1 Closest Approach To Earth (0.870 AU) Dec 07 - Asteroid 1998 VD31 Near-Earth Flyby (0.151 AU) Dec 07 - Asteroid 1998 WM Closest Approach To Earth (0.546 AU) Dec 07 - Asteroid 1998 WO7 Closest Approach To Earth (0.609 AU) Dec 08 - Asteroid 1985 UJ Closest Approach To Earth (0.922 AU) Dec 08 - Asteroid 1994 SE Closest Approach To Earth (1.379 AU) Dec 09 - Asteroid 6524 Baalke at Opposition (1.251 AU - 15.0 Magnitude) Dec 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Landing on Venus Dec 09-11 - Conference On Cosmological Contraints On X-Ray Clusters, Strasbourg, France Dec 10 - Mars Climate Orbiter Delta 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter) Dec 10 - Asteroid 6054 Ghiberti Closest Approach To Earth (1.550 AU) Dec 10 - Asteroid 1916 Boreas Closest Approach To Earth (1.687 AU) Dec 11 - Asteroid 52 Europa at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Dec 11 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77824 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3122 Florence Closest Approach to Earth (1.092 AU) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3772 Piaf Closest Approach To Earth (2.191 AU) Dec 12 - Tempo 1 Proton Launch (Russia) Dec 12 - Asteroid 7480 Norwan Near-Earth Flyby (0.360 AU) Dec 12 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 WY2 at Opposition (46.432 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Dec 13 - ICO Atlas 2AS Launch Dec 13 - Geminids Meteor Shower Peak Dec 13 - Comet C/1998 W1 (Spahr) Closest Approach To Earth (0.846 AU) Dec 13 - Asteroid 6318 Cronkite Closest Approach To Earth (0.588 AU) Dec 13 - Asteroid 6326 (1991 FJ1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.451 AU) Dec 14 - Asteroid 1998 WZ1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.132 AU) Dec 14 - Asteroid 4957 Brucemurray Closest Approach to Earth (0.718 AU) Dec 14 - Asteroid 3288 Seleucus Closest Approach To Earth (1.439 AU) Dec 14 - Cosmology Topology In Paris, Paris, France Dec 14-18 - 19th Texas Symposium On Relativistic Astrophysics, Paris, France Dec 15 - Panamsat-6B Ariane 4 Launch Dec 15 - IKONOS-1 Athena 2 Launch Dec 15 - Asteroid 4450 Pan Closest Approach To Earth (1.230 AU) Dec 16 - Asteroid 5189 (1990 UQ) Closest Approach To Earth (1.163 AU) Dec 17 - LORAL Atlas 2 Launch Dec 17 - Asteroid 5402 Kejosmith Closest Approach To Earth (1.021 AU) Dec 17 - Galileo Europa Mission Lecture, Pasadena, California Dec 17 - 95th Anniversary (1903), Wright Brothers' 1st Airplane Flight Dec 18 - Nozomi (Planet-B), 2nd Moon Flyby Dec 18 - DSP Titan 4B Launch Dec 18 - Asteroid 1993 RR2 Closest Approach To Earth (2.268 AU) Dec 18 - Galileo Europa Mission Lecture, Pasadena, California Dec 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Thaicom 1 Launch (1st Thailand Satellite) Dec 18 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Score Launch (1st Telecommunication Satellite) Dec 19 - Asteroid 1998 WQ5 Closest Approach To Earth (1.045 AU) Dec 19 - Asteroid 6985 (1994 UF2) Closest Approach To Earth (1.226 AU) Dec 19 - Asteroid 7202 (1995 DX1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.541 AU) Dec 19 - Asteroid 6979 Shigefumi Closest Approach To Earth (1.860 AU) Dec 19 - Asteroid 4559 Strauss Closest Approach To Earth (2.013 AU) Dec 20 - NEAR, 1st Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-1) Dec 20 - Nozomi (Planet-B), Earth Gravity Assist Dec 20 - Mercury At Its Greatest Western Elongation (21 Degrees) Dec 20 - Asteroid 3352 McAuliffe Near-Earth Flyby (0.396 AU) Dec 20 - 1st Day Of Ramadan Dec 21 - Comet C/1998 U5 (LINEAR) Perihelion (1.236 AU) Dec 21 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 21 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 8 Launch Dec 22 - Winter Solstice, 01:55 UT Dec 22 - Ursids Meteor Shower Peak Dec 22 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Closest Approach to Earth (1.103 AU) Dec 22 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77608 (8.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 23 - Cassini, Probe Checkout #3 Dec 23 - Comet C/1998 G1 (LINEAR) Closest Approach to Earth (1.982 AU) Dec 24 - Asteroid 49 Pales Occults PPM 206242 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Dec 24 - Asteroid 7894 (1994 XC1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.754 AU) Dec 25 - Mars Climate Orbiter, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #1 (TCM-1) Dec 25 - Moon Occults Jupiter Dec 25 - Asteroid 1998 WZ6 Near-Earth Flyby (0.284 AU) Dec 25 - Asteroid 5164 Mullo Closest Approach To Earth (0.966 AU) Dec 25 - Asteroid 5721 (1984 SO5) Closest Approach To Earth (1.545 AU) Dec 25 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 26 - Asteroid 7474 (1992 TC) Closest Approach To Earth (0.577 AU) Dec 26 - Asteroid 7709 (1994 RN1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.438 AU) Dec 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #58 (OTM-58) Dec 27 - NEAR, Eros Satellite Search (A) Dec 27 - Asteroid 1998 QT60 Closest Approach To Earth (0.766 AU) Dec 28 - NEAR, 2nd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-2) Dec 28 - NEAR, 3rd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-3) Dec 28 - Asteroid 7072 Beijingdaxue Closest Approach To Earth (1.710 AU) Dec 29 - Asteroid 132 Aethra At Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Dec 29 - Asteroid 67 Asia At Opposition Dec 31 - Leap Second Added To World's Clocks Dec 31 - Asteroid 7201 (1994 UF1) Closest Approach To Earth (1.238 AU) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 декабря 1998 (1998-12-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews - December 1998 [13/13] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... This is the current issue of "SpaceViews" (tm), published by the Boston Chapter, National Space Society (NSS), distributed in electronic form. It is also sent as a 8 to 12 page double column newsletter via US Mail. You may re-distribute this electronically for non-profit use as long as the entire contents (including this notice) are intact, and you send us the names of all recipients (include us in your distribution list). MAILING LIST INFORMATION: Subscribing and Unsubscribing: To stop receiving the large monthly 'SpaceViews' newsletter, send this e-mail message: To: MajorDomo@spaceviews.com Subject: anything UNsubscribe SpaceViews To receive electronic copies of this SpaceViews newsletter and/or other information about space and NSS, send an e-mail message similar to the following. This example subscribes you to 4 separate mailing lists which are described below. Of course, fill in your own Internet address where is says "YourAddress@StateU.edu" and your real name inside the parenthesis. Try to send it from you own account on your own computer, so that the message appears to be from you. To: MajorDomo@spaceviews.com Subject: anything subscribe SpaceViews YourAddress@StateU.edu (Full Name) which YourAddress@StateU.edu help These subscriptions requests are now handled automatically. The subject line is ignored. The body of the message should contain commands such as: help - send me more information about these commands, which <my_address> - which lists am I on, info <list_name> - mail me a description of a list, UNsubscribe <list_name> - remove me from a list, Subscribe <list_name> <my_address> <full name> - add me to a list, Although it is possible to omit your address and name, please include them when subscribing so that we know who you really are, and to avoid problems like having the name of a workstation inadvertently embedded in you address. Problems: To get a message to a real person, mail to: SpaceViews-Approval@spaceviews.com ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS: Articles, letters to the editor, chapter updates, andother similar submissions for SpaceViews are always welcome. The deadline for each month's issue is the 20th of the month before (i.e. the August deadline is July 20). The preferred method of submission is ASCII text files by e-mail; send articles and other submissions to jeff@spaceviews.com. If you would like to submit articles in other formats, or would like to submit articles by another method than e-mail, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at the above e-mail address. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION: Copyright (C) 1998 by Boston Chapter of National Space Society, a non-profit educational organization 501(c)3. Permission is hereby granted to redistribute for non-profit use, provided: 1. no modifications are made (except for e-mail delivery info.) 2. this copyright notice is included, 3. you inform Boston NSS of the names of all recipients This permission may be withdrawn at any time. All other rights reserved. Some articles are individually copyrighted (C) by their authors. Excerpts cannot be used, except for reviews and criticisms, without written permission of NSS, Boston Chapter. (We will try to respond by e-mail within four business days.) -Jeff Foust (editor, jeff@spaceviews.com), -Bruce Mackenzie (email distribution, bam@draper.com) -Roxanne Warniers (mailings, rwarnier@colybrand.com) ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. President: Elaine Mullen Board of Directors: Michael Burch Vice President: Larry Klaes Jeff Foust Secretary: Lynn Olson Bruce Mackenzie Treasurer: Roxanne Warniers John Malloy - To NOT receive future newsletters, send this message to our NEW address: - To: majordomo@SpaceViews.com - Subject: anything - unsubscribe SpaceViews - E-Mail List services provided by Northern Winds: www.nw.net - SpaceViews (tm) is published for the National Space Society (NSS), - copyright (C) Boston Chapter of National Space Society - www.spaceviews.com www.nss.org (jeff@spaceviews.com) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года