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Ru.Space.News:
Декабрь 1998
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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 02 декабря 1998


    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Готовится к старту первый американский элемент МКС Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Готовится к старту первый американский элемент Международной космической станции [NASA] Запуск первого американского элемента Международной космической станции намечен на 3 декабря. Это будет стыковочный модуль Unity (в интерпретации Российского космического агентства - Node1). Этот элемент будет пристыкован к уже находящемуся на орбите модулю "Заря" 6 декабря экипажем космического корабля Space Shuttle Endeavour. Модуль Unity (на снимке) построен компанией Boeing в Центре космических полетов им. Маршалла в Хантсвилле (шт. Алабама). Он имеет шестигранную боковую поверхность. К нему будут пристыковываться все следующие американские модули станции. Чтобы облегчить "ношу" корабля Endeavour на "шаттл" будет установлен новый сверхлегкий внешний бак с горючим. Первое успешное испытание этого бака состоялось в июне 1998 г. Его размеры такие же как у старого бака, но весит он на 3,4 тонны меньше, что весьма существенно при запуске тяжелых элементов космической станции. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Готовится к старту первый американский элемент МКС (картинка) [1/3] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 3 of file unity3_m.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 unity3_m.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$!+`$L``#_VP!#``4#!`0$`P4$!`0%!04&!PP(!P<' M!P\+"PD,$0\2$A$/$1$3%AP7$Q0:%1$1&"$8&AT='Q\?$Q<B)"(>)!P>'Q[_ MVP!#`04%!0<&!PX("`X>%!$4'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX> M'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'A[_P``1"`"[`/H#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Готовится к старту первый американский элемент МКС (картинка) [2/3] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Готовится к старту первый американский элемент МКС (картинка) [3/3] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 3 of 3 of file unity3_m.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > M)*(%M)MQ61SP`KX&"3QM;!R0!DUU/BF[M$TB\%^!*+J/R?*)P74@<9ZXQCI[ M=\4TENB.9O0\\\?M:'Q7.VDPO#`=OEHQR3E`,G_OGCZ\58N3(P4(<YD`([]< MUT^C>%-&_LXWNKVY,HC^2)7*B%1G`]2>><D_S)P;`Q2ZC&8,-`Q/EL?[N.,T MHJTC52NCH[*\@N=&UT1%2))?-`'HZ#'\JZB36/[/^%]DUB^RZEA6TM\'G</E M+#W`!([<`5P6C6L6EW6J1!F(N;6WEVL2<'##/MU`^@JKI&IQVNGC5-<U.1-, MM!F-3&6$7F-V502V22<XST[*,:+S,MCNX/#MJ_AF.RF"'$(9"5P%('!QGG@D MD>YKE/"<]WJVIZ?X7NM1A;2[=I)[8J2PN=O*KDYW;,,5&<8YYV@4>)?&.G:M MIUO8:=?-#I+HD=W>^4ZF3(_U*H1N`*\L<="!W.-#4M,TK5O#]I<>%I+A;JP0 M/'-!:2HIV\G#E0-PY('H,<X`I*2;!&AXCTRUTO698+5I&C:)3AW)*GD]??)K M-TK3K<2-J%PX)^T".%!SN?`QD?Y_3FU<:F==TR+5V!CF#I!<PX_U;J#R.3\I MX(_7D&L6[U,Z3<I,W[S:Q9%9B%W8XR!U_2FE9!U-'5K")F-D/,FGN58.K,%& M&X);'0')_P`\5QU_J$-M?3V[>)-`A:*5D,<L$I="#C#$+@D=#BM+5_%%KIUK M,+.^MIM:<.!+(CRKN*$QXV#&-PC&TLN`2>P4^>&QL[LFZO\`2;BXNYOWD\OG MR#S)#RS8\WN<FI=RHKN<3%X%NKZ&:ZU[0O$,>G38836R&/8-Q!RS(P!^4''H M1GKQ[+\$O!>KZA-?>(=2'V2.YOG<%HV+S1%02JEN-NX\/CL1SQBWIB+%:BYA M!BF"\/&=I'Y5;M/$NO6=[%'%J<[)*X5Q,1+D9Q_'G%%3WI)RW*HQ=.#A!Z,F M^,.OZIX=UGP;X9\+7(T^RU6YDM+A8XD;<K/"@PS`D']ZQR.I.3FMW1=,U$^) M%&KZPNL"SMH`Q$*1@7&PB0NJD@E\^85`39E!EU;"=9JGA_1KR'2M?NK"*;4; M.$M;S/D^69#&7(7.W.47G&1CC&363X,E>;PS:7C[1/<P)-,R*%W.RAF;`P,D MDFFE=F;=B]HBW4&CV0OT@2_,2O>"%<1F8X:7:!CJV[GWIVAZ+:Z=/>W4#%1= MRR7$RE,LSLL:YR/01@=.F/2I)&.>M0K+*4&9&ZXZ^].Q-[FFL\+:<DN'C3!/ M[U2A`SW!P1^-<PUNEWI'V>WG^V6QC*2-:,C?*?Y\>GK]*NW\:20B.1`REQD$ M9SS7*^)V;3M2B6P9K9$M@ZI$=J;MT8SM''1C42=M"DE+0XO4OAC:+J,<NF7= MQ9I]I6[D6\LEQ+(K+(A7D-C>O(SD@G&.">ANM+UCQ'9S66M^(0MNYR4TZU1% M&,8^_N).0#R:[33;RZEM8&DGD.[.><#MVJ_96UK>,'NK2VF<*<,\*DC@=\>] M3[.+5A.Z."M]!MK*WCTZPFNIHE+8@B"IDYSR$7)JC<Z%J%O<HR:+J/RG<@\J M7`[_`.<U[-I=A9VQDGM[:..15PI4=,CG`Z"HIK>!M1EF,,?FN1&\FT;F56)` M)ZX!9L?4^M/V:6E@Y;[GSWXHN]/T61+K7LV<JDK&VHRL<9P,+YI.,\<"LC0] M2M/$>M23:7<&X@LH=UR8YA'%#P3NE!(PN/XF&W@\\''U+?$QLJH=H7`4#@`9 M/^`KE[_0]&OYIHK_`$NTO([MD>=+B(2+(RJ-I(;(XQD>AR>I-*4+NQ478\IT M7Q5X/N-:CTF+5[*\U.>ZCM4\E=L)8G;CS``7.6_A./<]*]_T*,?V7(3RQ)&[ M\*P8_`_@RQ@L[JQ\):%:7$0$Z2P:?%&ZR`##`JH.>373:4BK:.JC`//7Z5:C M818T@X@?W;/Z"EU)A]@N<XP(7_\`034>E$[)!FDU,_\`$ON!V,;`^_%"V&>' M>++$0^*3=1J/W\?S$=R,#_V6LO7=,.JR66V4H(5^;Y$(.0O'S`\\=O6NG\31 MHE_;*B!0L94`#H`3Q67$S"21`>#_`(U-M&@;*&F^'(M&AD\227,=Q=Q1O:Z; M&]NFR*=A@S@XSN"DC^Z>1M!P:PM$TY](MTLO#12T6&<3GS"T@W'&X@.6Z[?I MFNR\9,PCTN('Y!8*X7L&/4_4]_6JOAFWA=+F5HP60KC/3\NE)KH);7-"+6IF MTI[2Z:2^N)0,@VT<*)P<X93D\GNOY=*RHU-O?1HEO]G6-UVQ`YV#`P,]^.]> MEZ/864D<:M:Q!2@)"J%R<#GBN$\5`1>*;M8P$"LF`!C'[M:N*L[A'<P=<N/$ M5OXHBC41P6MY%Y<4GEG>ZQR*68')4@*2N",UL:W/#]E7PU;0Q->7.WS6.-ML MAQRR]-Q&T*#QU)X'+I29/$]K#(2T:P<*>@W2MGCWP/RJ.VMX9I[R\E3?.M[( MH<D\`,4`_P"^0!6EK)^8-W.KL#HG@]K*QB;3%EBBWRM<$-.`>NPYW8)!/?)Y MY.<Q'XAWK23!8!+&DG[GR;-T5D_VG=L[ON\[,<$8.01S]Q96EI->W5O;QQS. M&=F`SEBN2?KFOGO7M:U?6[SQ-!J>IWD\$%\((X1,R1K&+ATQM4@?=`&<9/?F MHEH5&-TV>S:=?![BXOK>\$T4LKQS2Q%60$-G82@"!UXX`7MQR:C^(#2P:=I^ MH165W>[FV>7;-R`PSN(SR,ICN1GZUY]X)L+.RU^QLK2W2&W+2L43@$A&P3Z] M!^5>L7EO%/:^1(&,:RJ5`<C;\N>,'CDDU46IH&<;:7?[QD32=1)3.Y",_+GD MD%ON^_3FKD=_#'&J1602-0`JK=VJA1V`'F\?2N=U34;V]E>*YG9HBC'R@`J9 6!P#M&!G'M6868$@.X'^\:I4NXKG_V0`` ` end sum -r/size 49854/3016 section (from first encoded line to "end") sum -r/size 62013/20182 entire input file Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Asiasat заказывает спутник у Hughes Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Asiasat заказывает спутник у Hughes [Newsbytes] Гонконгская компания Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. (Asiasat) подписала контракт с компанией Hughes Space and Communications International Inc. (Hughes) на создание спутника связи. Спутник будет построен на базе платформы HS-601HP. Он будет использоваться как дублер для спутника AsiaSat 3S, запуск которого намечен на первый квартал 1999 г. Спутник-дублер будет задействован в случае каких-либо неполадок на AsiaSat 3S или в периоды его модернизации. После ввода в строй спутника AsiaSat 3S компания Asiasat надеется отобрать часть клиентов у компании PanAmSat, четыре спутника которой сейчас обслуживают Азиатско-тихоокеанский регион. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hовые космические зонды NASA Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Hовые космические зонды NASA [SpaceViews] В течение ближайших четырех месяцев NASA планирует запустить в космос 4 исследовательских зонда. Это - Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, Deep Space 2 и Stardust. Все четыре экспедиции будут собирать данные, которые, как надеются ученые, смогут пролить свет на происхождение жизни на Земле и на возможность существования жизни где-либо еще во Вселенной. Первый зонд - Mars Climate Orbiter - будет запущен 10 декабря ракетой-носителем Delta 2. Его вес - 629 кг. Он достигнет Марса через 10 месяцев после старта, после чего он должен перейти в орбитальный полет вокруг этой планеты. Mars Climate Orbiter займется сбором информации о поверхности и климате Марса, которая будет использована в следующей экспедиции со спускаемым аппаратом Mars Polar Lander. Mars Climate Orbiter в течение одного марсианского года (687 дней) будет вести систематические наблюдения и съемки атмосферы Марса. Корабль Mars Polar Lander будет запущен через месяц после Mars Climate Orbiter. Он "примарсится" вблизи еще не исследованной южной полярной шапки Марса. Спускаемый аппарат оснащен камерами, рукой-роботом для сбора грунта и аппаратурой для определения его состава. Его спуск на поверхность Марса будет управляемым и в течение всей этой процедуры будет вестись запись изображений марсианской поверхности. Предполагается, что работы на поверхности Марса будут вестись около трех месяцев. Проект Deep Space 2: в декабре 1999 г. два "снаряда" размером с баскетбольный мяч врежутся в марсианскую поверхность со скоростью около 200 м/с. При этом ударе оболочка этих "снарядов" должна взорваться и на глубину 2 м в грунт будут "вбиты" 2 миниатюрных научных зонда. Основная цель этих зондов - определить, есть ли вода (в виде льда) в верхнем слое марсианского грунта, что станет ключом к разгадке, существовала ли когда-нибудь жизнь на Марсе. Доставит эти маленькие научные станции на Марс корабль Mar Polar Lander. В феврале 1999 г. состоится запуск исследовательского корабля Stardust. Это первая космическая экспедиция США, посвященная исключительно исследованию кометы. Кроме того, это будет первая попытка доставки на Землю космического вещества, полученного за пределами орбиты Луны. Стоимость проекта Stardust - 199,6 млн дол. Корабль Stardust должен в январе 2004 г., пролетая вблизи кометы Wild 2, собрать кометную пыль и образцы газа. Затем Stardust вернет на Землю образцы межзвездной пыли, собранной в том числе и в недавно открытом пылевом потоке в Солнечной системе. В время полета в космосе Stardust будет для сбора пыли раскрываться как раковина. Корабль сделает три витка вокруг Солнца, на втором витке и произойдет пересечение с кометой Wild 2. Stardust вернется на Землю в январе 2006 г. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Hовые космические зонды NASA (картинка 1) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv112821.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv112821.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$!+`$L``#_VP!#``4#!`0$`P4$!`0%!04&!PP(!P<' M!P\+"PD,$0\2$A$/$1$3%AP7$Q0:%1$1&"$8&AT='Q\?$Q<B)"(>)!P>'Q[_ MVP!#`04%!0<&!PX("`X>%!$4'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX> M'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'A[_P``1"`!_`+\#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cameras Aid San Francisco Airport Weather Reports Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Michael Braukus Headquarters, Washington, DC December 1, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1979) Michael Mewhinney Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (Phone: 650/604-3937) Les Dorr FAA Headquarters, Washington, DC (Phone: 202/267-3461) Stephanie Kenitzer National Weather Service (Phone: 301/763-8000 ext. 7007) RELEASE: 98-218 CAMERAS AID SAN FRANCISCO AIRPORT WEATHER REPORTS New digital video cameras installed by NASA at the San Carlos, CA, airport control tower, are helping to better report current weather conditions for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport, some 10 miles away. Installed by engineers from NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, the Airport Approach Zone Camera System enables air traffic controllers and weather forecasters to track real-time onset and dissipation of fog and low clouds in the airport's approach zone, particularly during the late morning. Since many aircraft arrive at that time, the precise timing of the improved visibility will improve the airport's ability to operate at or close to full capacity. "The big problem with arrivals at San Francisco International Airport is that the runways are only 750 feet apart; when you can't use both runways at the same time, you can only land 30 aircraft an hour," said Yuri Gawdiak, an Ames aerospace engineer and the project leader. San Francisco International Airport is one of the nation's busiest, with 600-700 landings on a typical day. With both runways operating simultaneously, 60 aircraft an hour can land. "The live pictures allow us to better serve the needs of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Traffic Management Specialists, here at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center in Fremont, CA; the Oakland Bay TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control Facility) at the Oakland International Airport; and at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center in Washington, DC," said Walt Strach, National Weather Service Meteorologist in Charge of the Fremont facility. The Airport Approach Zone Camera System will significantly reduce telephone calls between the FAA Oakland Center meteorologist and the San Francisco Air Traffic Control Tower. "This should translate into more efficient procedures for flow control when weather is a factor in landing aircraft at San Francisco International Airport," Strach said. "The Airport Approach Zone Camera System is allowing meteorologists, both in my office and at the National Weather Service Forecast Office in Monterey, CA, to better see and understand the local effects of wind currents, and terrain, ocean and bay influences on the formation and dissipation of clouds and fog in and around San Francisco International Airport," Strach said. The Monterey weather office issues aviation, public and marine forecasts for the entire San Francisco Bay Area. The high-speed video cameras operate 24 hours-a-day and provide a 220-degree field of view with rotation, zoom and tilt capabilities. The cameras are remotely controlled by personnel at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather center located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure web site. Ames engineers will install similar cameras at the San Francisco International Airport control tower in the near future. The Airport Approach Zone Camera System is a joint effort between Ames, the FAA and NOAA. The project is managed by the aviation safety monitoring office at Ames and funded by NASA's aviation safety program. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Первый полет американцев на строительство МКС Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Первый полет американцев на строительство Международной космической станции [NASA] 3 декабря - официальная дата старта миссии NASA STS-88 на космическом корабле Space Shuttle Endeavour. Это первый вылет "шаттла" на строительство Международной космической станции. Hа Endeavour полетит экипаж из 6 человек, кроме того Endeavour повезет в космос американский модуль Unity, который станет вторым элементом станции. Его пристыковку к "Заре" и осуществит экипаж. Запуск Endeavour планируется произвести 3 декабря в 3 ч 59 мин EST (11 ч 59 мин по московскому времени), но точный момент старта будет определен за час до указанного времени в соответствии с измерениями точного положения на орбите модуля "Заря". Экспедиция продлится 11 дней 19 часов и 49 минут и завершится она 14 декабря в 11 ч 48 мин EST. Экипаж миссии STS-88: командир Роберт Кабана (Robert Cabana), штурман Фредрик Старкоу (Fredrick Sturckow), специалисты Hэнси Карри (Nancy Currie), российский космонавт Сергей Крикалев, Джерри Росс (Jerry Ross) и Джеймс Hьюмен (James Newman). Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Молодые звезды испускают сверхзвуковые потоки газа и пыли Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Молодые звезды испускают сверхзвуковые потоки газа и пыли [SpaceViews] Астрономы из университета Колорадо получили доказательства того, что молодые звезды испускают сверхзвуковые потоки газа и пыли. Их скорость может достигать 500 км/с, а длина - миллиарды километров. Именно таким образом близлежащие более массивные звезды "раздевают" небольшие молодые звезды. Сейчас такое явление имеет место в туманности Ориона - кокон газа и пыли, окружающий расположенные там звезды, был "содран" ультрафиолетовым излучением более массивных соседних звезд. Такие наблюдения могут пролить свет на образование планетных систем, каковой является и наша Солнечная система. Возможно, Солнце когда-то было такой "новорожденной" звездой, а из улетевших с ее поверхности газа и пыли образовались планеты, в том числе и наша Земля. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Погода может помешать старту Endeavour Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Погода может помешать старту Endeavour [SpaceViews] Облачная погода может помешать старту космического челнока Endeavour, намеченному на завтра 3 декабря. Главный метеоролог по проекту "шаттл" Эд Прайслек (Ed Priselac) считает, что вероятность того, что запуск будет отложен по погодным условиям равна 60%. Проблемы с погодой - это слабая видимость и сильные дожди в районе старта и на посадочной полосе в Космическом центре им. Кеннеди, которая понадобится для приземления Endeavour в случае аварии вскоре после старта. Экипаж Endeavour, в составе которого есть и российский космонавт Сергей Крикалев, прибыл в Центр им. Кенеди из Хьюстона в воскресенье вечером. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Update - November 25, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Wednesday, November 25 (DOY 326/19:00:00 to DOY 329/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 765 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 192 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 7787 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 46239 km Periapsis altitude = 115.3 km Current Orbit Period = 05:18:12 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 39:41:21 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft continues successful phase 2 aerobraking operations with no concerns. The past 13 drag passes have provided about 11 minutes of orbit period reduction. The current period maintains about a 9 minute lead on the baseline. The dynamic pressure 7-orbit running mean is 0.185 N/m2 which is below the 0.23 N/m2 corridor control trigger limit. There was 1 corridor control maneuver executed on the apoapsis portion of orbit 764 to raise periapsis and lower the drag force. Currently, sequence P762 is controlling the S/C activities. It will be replaced early this evening with P767 which will control activities starting with orbit 767 through orbit 770. P762 was to be replaced by P766 but because of a sequence build error, the P766 product could not be built and verified in time to radiate to the S/C. The decision was made to allow the first backup orbit from P762 to control activities for orbit 766 and start the next sequence with orbit 767. Each sequence continues to be built with 5 primary orbits even though, in order to maintain prime shift builds, only four may be allowed to execute at times. Orbit timing predictions continue to be very good. Subsystems continue to report excellent S/C health and performance. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no change in structural performance. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with 13.8 % maximum battery discharge depths each orbit. There is now 3.2 minutes of primary charger margin. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 12.1°C using a 35 minute warming maneuver each orbit. The largest temperature increase due to aero-heating was 69°C on the -Y solar array, cell side. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. The weekly reset meeting was held today to discuss aerobraking progress and to review sequence parameter changes. The dynamic pressure running mean was changed to include 7 orbits, up from 6. The MOLA laser warming maneuver was shortened in duration by 10 minutes to 25 minutes per orbit. The playback from corridor control maneuvers was delayed an additional 50 minutes following the maneuver to assure data is received following Earth occultation. The number of backup orbits was increased from 2 to 3 each sequence to allow margin in case ground processing problems do not allow timely sequence uploads. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 766 DOY329/22:10:10 UTC Through Periapsis for Orbit 788 DOY334/17:04:08 UTC (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY329=11/25) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 11 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 3000. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: Nominal drag pass sequences (P753, P758, P762) Nominal corridor control maneuver sequences (A764) Command loss timer resets Nominal star catalog and ephemeris file updates Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Update - November 30, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Monday, November 30 (DOY 329/19:00:00 to DOY 334/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 788 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 215 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 7215 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 46811 km Periapsis altitude = 111.8 km Current Orbit Period = 04:59:44 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 39:59:49 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The spacecraft health and performance remains excellent as the orbit period is now below 5 hours. The orbit period has been reduced by about 19.5 minutes over the past 23 orbits, close to the baseline schedule. The current period maintains about a 9 minute lead on the baseline. The dynamic pressure 7-orbit running mean is 0.228 N/m2 which is close to the trigger limit of 0.23 N/m2. A periapsis raise maneuver was ordered and will execute on the apoapsis portion of orbit 789 to lower the drag pass forces. The orbit-to-orbit dynamic pressure variability has increased over the past 2 weeks. For this period, the lowest drag force of 0.11 N/m2 was experienced on orbit 773. The high was recorded on the last orbit, 788, registering 0.33 N/m2. Currently, sequence P785 is controlling the S/C activities. It will be replaced early tomorrow morning with P791 which will control activities starting with orbit 791 through orbit 794. P785 was to be replaced by P790 but because of DSN station gaps, navigation data will not be available for the P790 build. The decision was made to allow the first backup orbit from P785 to control activities for orbit 790 and start the next sequence with orbit 791. Early this reporting period, P771 encountered an error and halted, leaving the current sequence (P767) the responsibility of executing orbit 771 as backup. The error, execution of a `Send-Two-Word' command in the same second as another command, has been encountered before. Automated tools discovered the error, but the warnings were misinterpreted by ground personal allowing the error to propagate. Once loaded, the error canceled the sequence early in its startup. A replacement sequence, P772, was generated and loaded. A timing error of 320 seconds was experienced on the backup orbit, which is high but within backup orbit tolerances. The S/C processed a Sun avoidance maneuver following the 771 drag pass which resulted in over 20 grams of fuel used. An ISA has been initiated to document the event. Removal of the `Send-Two-Word' from future sequences was approved by MCR. This fix will be installed on Wednesday. Subsystems continue to report excellent S/C health and performance. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no change in structural performance. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with battery discharge depths ranging from 10.5% to 13.2%. A larger 15.2% DoD was experienced during the Sun avoidance maneuver on orbit 771. There continues to be positive re-charge margin each orbit. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 11.2 °C using a 25 minute warming maneuver each orbit. The largest temperature increase due to aero-heating was 61°C on the -Y solar array, cell side. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. Earth occultations occur each orbit starting just before apoapsis and lasting about 1 hour. The MOLA warming maneuver is executed within the occultation period allowing for maximum ground communication time each orbit. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 789 DOY334/20:35:38 UTC Through Periapsis for Orbit 798 DOY336/16:52:03 UTC (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY334=11/30) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 10 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 3010. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: Nominal drag pass sequences (P767, P771, P772, P775, P780, P785) Nominal corridor control maneuver sequences (A789) Command loss timer resets Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: 'Mirage' used to measure age of Universe (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Australia Ms Rosie Schmedding (02) 6276-6520 Mobile (0418) 622-653 Fax (02) 6276-6821 Media Release: 1 December 1998 Ref 98/280 'MIRAGE' USED TO MEASURE AGE OF UNIVERSE An international team led by a young Australian scientist has used CSIRO's Australia Telescope to measure how fast the Universe is expanding -- and found it to be both older and larger than previously thought. The expansion is measured as a number called the Hubble Constant. It is used to calculate how big and how old the Universe is. The observing team used a new method that avoids the built-in uncertainties in older methods and found the universe to be 15 billion years old. Astronomers have been wrangling over the value of the Hubble Constant -- a number that indicates the expansion rate of the universe and hence its age -- for several decades. Measuring it is a key problem that the Hubble Space Telescope was built to solve. "Our value is about 20% lower than the one got with the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994," said Dr Jim Lovell, leader of the team that made the measurement. The Hubble Constant is named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble, who in the 1920s found that other galaxies were moving away from ours. "The Universe as a whole is expanding, like a lump of bread dough rising," Dr Lovell explained. "Like currants in the dough, the galaxies are all moving away from each other." "The further away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us. The Hubble Constant links the galaxy's distance with its speed." "Measuring the speed at which a galaxy is receding is fairly easy," said CSIRO's Dr David Jauncey, another member of the observing team. "But accurately measuring its distance is very hard." The usual way to measure a galaxy's distance has been to look for objects whose intrinsic brightness is known. "The further off these things are, the fainter they look, and as we know how bright they are intrinsically, we can calculate their distances," said Dr Jauncey. "The usual objects to use have been rare, special pulsating stars called Cepheids, or some kinds of exploding stars (supernovae)." In 1994 a team used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the brightnesses of 20 Cepheids in a galaxy called M100. From these, they calculated its distance was 56 million light-years and from that they got a figure for the Hubble Constant. Dr Lovell used a different, more direct method. "We have been looking at light from a very distant quasar -- a galaxy with an extremely bright centre," he said. "Quasars usually look like small spots but this one looks like a ring. Its image has been distorted by the gravity of a galaxy lying between us and the quasar. We're seeing a sort of mirage of the distant quasar," explained Dr Lovell. The process that makes the mirage is called gravitational lensing, and was predicted by Einstein. Light that ends up in one side of the ring has travelled along a different path to the light on the other side, he said. "These paths are different lengths. When the quasar puts out more radiation, one side of the ring varies before the other. We put that time-lag together with other information we know about the system -- redshifts and angles -- and out pops the Hubble Constant." The technique sounds simple but it has taken until now to use it successfully, says Dr Lovell, because the lens has to meet a number of conditions. "It has to be strong enough to see clearly, you have to be able to measure the distances to both the background quasar and the lensing galaxy, and the quasar has to vary over time in just the right way. What we've got is one of the good ones -- a so-called 'golden lens', the type everyone has been looking for," Dr Lovell said. This 'golden lens' is called PKS1830-211 and was discovered in 1991 by astronomers from the CSIRO's Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the University of Tasmania and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is the strongest gravitational lens ever found, 10 times brighter than any other known. It is 14 billion light-years away while the galaxy distorting its image is 8 billion light-years away. "As more good lens systems become known, more groups are trying to measure the Hubble Constant in this way," said Dr Lovell. The twist is that the Hubble Constant is probably not constant at all. "We think it has varied over the lifetime of the Universe," said Dr Jauncey. "From other work it seems that the Universe is now expanding faster than it used to. The value we've measured is for a particular point in the Universe's history, and will help us to build up a picture of how the rate of expansion has changed." More information: Dr David Jauncey CSIRO (02) 6216 7220 (B.H.) email: Dave.Jauncey@atnf.csiro.au Dr Jim Lovell Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan (+81) 427-59-8346 email:jlovell@vsop.isas.ac.jp More information is also available on the WWW: General information plus still images: http://halca.vsop.isas.ac.jp/1830-211/ A short run-down on the Hubble Constant: http://astroweb.onysd.wednet.edu/sciweb/astronomy/astrophysics/hnought.html An animation of a gravitational lens prepared by Jim Lovell: In Australia: http://www-ra.phys.utas.edu.au/~jlovell/simlens In Japan: http://halca.vsop.isas.ac.jp/~jlovell/simlens Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Announces Research Grants In Microgravity Biotechnology Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Renee N. Juhans Headquarters, Washington, DC December 1, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1712) RELEASE: 98-217 NASA ANNOUNCES RESEARCH GRANTS IN MICROGRAVITY BIOTECHNOLOGY NASA has selected 48 researchers to receive grants totaling approximately $33 million to conduct microgravity biotechnology research. Forty of the grants are to conduct ground-based research, while the remaining eight are flight definition efforts. Fourteen of these grants are for continuation of work currently being funded by NASA, but the majority (34) represent new research efforts. Sponsored by NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications, this research allows investigators to take advantage of a low-gravity environment to improve understanding of fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with biotechnology. The research support by NASA under this announcement includes protein crystallization, cell science studies, and new technology development. This research may affect such important areas as structure-based drug design, tissue engineering, and biosensor development. The investigators will have NASA's microgravity research facilities such as aircraft flying parabolic trajectories and sounding rockets at their disposal; the flight-definition investigators will work toward experiments on the International Space Station. NASA received 165 proposals in response to its announcement in this research area. These proposals were peer-reviewed by scientific and technical experts from academia, government and industry. In addition, those proposals selected for flight definition were reviewed in terms of engineering feasibility by a team from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Huntsville, AL. A list of awardees (by state), their institutions, and research titles can be found via Internet at: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1998/98-217a.txt -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA Selects Litton/PRC For NASA Sounding Rocket Program Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Don Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC December 1, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1727) Keith Koehler Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA (Phone: 757/824-1579) RELEASE: C98-t NASA SELECTS LITTON/PRC FOR NASA SOUNDING ROCKET PROGRAM NASA has selected Litton/PRC of McLean, VA, to perform services for a new contract which consolidates several previous service and supply contracts and other work supporting NASA's Sounding Rocket Program. The contract begins Feb. 1, 1999. Services include designing, fabricating, integrating, testing and performing mission operations for sounding rocket missions. "We are confident that the Litton/PRC team will continue the tradition of successful sounding rocket launches from sites worldwide in support of space and Earth science communities," said Mary Kicza, Associate Director of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The work will be performed at Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA, and at various off-site locations worldwide in support of Wallops projects. The services will be provided under a performance-based, cost-plus award and incentive fee, indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contract. The basic contract is for four years with two, three-year options. The contract's minimum IDIQ value for the four-year basic contract is $11.9 million, and the potential maximum IDIQ value for the basic contract period is $211.8 million. The minimum value for the basic and two, three-year option periods is $31.9 million and the potential maximum value for the basic and two, three year option periods is $572.5 million. The contractor also will provide performance task-order services for various Center programs using NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract government-furnished property, such as the fabrication and environmental test facilities at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract is an integral part of the "Wallops 2000" strategic plan, initiated in 1997, which provides a vision for Wallops to ensure its stability and vitality in the future. The majority of NASA civil service engineers and technicians working on the sounding rocket program will transition to advanced research and development projects including Space Shuttle small payloads, the ultra-long duration balloon program, and the University-class Explorer satellite program, as well as management of the new contract. Wallops will continue to manage the sounding rocket program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Leap Second Scheduled for New Year's Eve (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland Media Contact: Collier Smith (Boulder), (303) 497-3198 December 1998 Leap Second Scheduled for New Year's Eve On December 31, 1998, a leap second will be inserted into the world's Coordinated Universal Time scale, known as UTC, to keep it synchronized with the rotation of the Earth. The leap second will be added to the last minute before 7 p.m. EST, 6 p.m. CST, 5 p.m. MST and 4 p.m. PST, making that minute 61 seconds long. This adjustment will be made to precise clocks all over the world that keep UTC time or local time based on UTC. In the U.S., UTC is kept by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Naval Observatory. See http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/faq/faq.htm for more information. You can call (303) 499-7111 to hear NIST's correct time announcement. The Second Sprung By David Lovering In UTC at midnight On December Thirty-One, You'll find you get an extra Second full of fun. If you're not in Greenwich England When the moment comes about, You'll need to make adjustments To the interval in doubt At seven in the evening (For those on EST), Or six p.m. in Central, Or five for MST. Or four p.m. Pacific Or wherever you may be, Please thank your friendly NISTite In Time and Frequency! For our globe is spinning slower (As we all are, I'm afraid), While the Earth Rotation Service Notes the seconds it's delayed. Since we cannot speed the planet We must compensate the clock, And leap an extra second To match our slowing rock. (David Lovering, an electronics engineer in NIST's Information Technology Laboratory, has a penchant for poetry.) Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Case Western Reserve University's Nassau telescope goes online in Dece Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio For more information, contact: Susan Griffith, 216-368-1004 or sbg4@po.cwru.edu. 12-1-98 CWRU's Nassau telescope goes online in December for public use The whole world will soon have the stars and galaxies at its finger tips. The 0.9-meter telescope at Case Western Reserve University's Nassau Astronomical Station will go online by December 15 as the country's first Earth-bound robotic telescope accessible to the public. Amateur and professional astronomers alike can access the telescope by filing a viewing request through http://astrwww.cwru.edu/nassau/nassau.html. The first online astronomers will help CWRU debug and refine the telescope operations, says Earle Luck, professor and chair of CWRU's Department of Astronomy. The robotic telescope will provide two ways of viewing images. The primary viewing mode will be deeper images taken with main observing instrumentation of the telescope. The other is a quick look through finder telescope. These quick images will be posted in real time to allow a browser to see where the telescope is pointed by the main observation request. "You can put the telescope wherever you want in the observable sky as far as the software and hardware are concerned," he adds. The requests can range for viewing time from a fraction of a second to five minutes and can be a request for a simple image to images using colored filters in red, green, or blue. Users also will need to provide the position of the object to be observed. This information is available through online astronomy catalogues, also linked to the site. As the site develops, Luck plans to add more user-friendly information to make it easier for all to access the telescope. Luck conceived the idea of robotizing the telescope. The reflector telescope at the Nassau Station is one of three telescopes operated by CWRU's Department of Astronomy. The Nassau Station is situated on one of the highest hills in Ohio's Geauga County, approximately 30 miles east of Cleveland. The robotic telescope is composed of the telescope and its associated instrumentation (camera and finder-guider), weather station, weather camera, and power controls for the dome. Each has its own software, which feeds information into a master control program. A computer-based scheduler in the Department of Astronomy will coordinate the requests and return the completed images and information to the telescope users. By mid-1999, a robotic spectrograph will also go online for those interested in information such as the chemical compositions of stars, how fast a star or galaxy is moving, and the temperature of the viewed object. Linked to the telescope is a camera trained on Polaris (the North Star), in the direction of Lake Erie. The lake affects much of Northeast Ohio's weather conditions. If the Polaris monitor generates an all-clear signal for 30 minutes straight, the master controller will instruct the dome to open. Weather will be monitored every two minutes, with the dome closing in event of high humidity, rain, snow, extreme cold, or winds of 40 mph, any of which may damage the telescope's mirrors. Because the station is located in a snow belt, Luck said the tricky part of installing weather equipment was to detect snow. He solved the problem by installing the snow detectors used to trigger the electric elements to melt snow from driveways. Once the telescope has gathered the requested information, it will send a message to the telescope user that the observation is completed, with a link to a Web-accessible file of the images. A monitoring camera with a larger field of view is planned, which will look in the director of the requested image. Images from this camera will be posted in real time to the Nassau Station Web site. The robotic telescope project received the support from the Martha Holden Jennings Foundation in Cleveland, the Case Alumni Association, the Offices of the CWRU President and Provost, and several private donors. The telescope will become a teaching tool within the next year for area teachers as part of the Hands-On Universe science program to enable middle and high school students to learn math and physics through astronomy. The Hands-On Universe program from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is among a number of CWRU-community collaborations in the College of Arts and Sciences' Center for Science and Math Education, seeking to boost interests in these areas through discovery-based learning. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Shuttle Launches Super Satellite (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Air Force Research Laboratory Public Affairs CONTACT: John Brownlee PHONE: (505) 853-3515 VS RELEASE NO. 98-41 November 25, 1998 Space Shuttle Launches Super Satellite KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, N.M. -- The Space Shuttle Endeavour will launch the latest in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) satellite experiments on Thursday (Dec. 3) on a one-year mission to demonstrate how well five new space technologies will work in space. Dubbed MightySat I, this research vehicle is expected to help revolutionize subsystem components and how they will operate in the future. It is the first in a coming series of highly sophisticated Air Force demonstration platforms scientists and engineers will use to quickly integrate diverse, cutting- edge space technologies developed in the laboratory -- and expedite their transition into actual satellites built for the warfighter. According to 1st Lt. Barbara Braun of AFRL's Space Vehicles Directorate, the 135-pound MightySat I is a low-cost satellite about the size of a tabletop television that will evaluate five payloads. "It is the first satellite to be built and tested here at Kirtland AFB," she said. "One of our experiments involves the first composite satellite bus, or chassis, to be launched from the shuttle," Braun explained. "It makes up most of the MightySat I satellite itself. Extremely strong, it weighs a mere 17 pounds compared to the 32-pound aluminum counterpart typically used. And less weight means lower launch costs -- always an important consideration in our business that spends tens of thousands of dollars for every pound put into orbit." "MightySat I is also testing advanced dual-junction solar cells that provide 18-21 percent more power than today's state-of-the-art materials and designs. Other on-board experiments include smaller, more-radiation-tolerant electronic components; microparticle impact detectors; and a "shape-memory-actuated release device" that will help engineers prepare for the coming generation of 'kinder, gentler' payload release mechanisms that will impart much less physical shock to sensitive payloads than current explosive charges do," she added. MightySat I orbital progress will be tracked here at the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center's Test and Evaluation Directorate. "We are responsible for the on-orbit care and feeding of the Air Force family of research satellites, and MightySat I is our most recent addition," said Space Operations Engineer 1st Lt. Valerie Malley. "Using computer software, we 'fly' the satellite from our ground control station here and one in Virginia run by the Orbital Sciences Corporation," explained Malley, who is part of a joint Air Force and civilian contractor team charting the satellite's progress. Malley and her peers will monitor MightySat I's health as it circles the earth and record the status of its five experiments. Her team will receive telemetry, capture moment-by-moment data, and inform AFRL scientists responsible for the on-board experiments how well subsystems are performing. "During the first two weeks of the mission, known as the 'launch and early orbit' phase, we are primarily concerned with ensuring MightySat is spinning properly in the right orbit at the right attitude," Malley said. "Although the satellite has no thrusters, it does have three-axis magnetometers and torque coils that determine the attitude of the satellite and how it spins. We want it to tumble, end over end, rather than revolve around its axis. Once we do that, we will begin switching on MightySat's experiments. We also will keep in close contact with AFRL's people running the experiments. It should be an interesting mission for us!" PHOTO CAPTION: [http://www.vs.afrl.af.mil/news/98-41.html] Air Force Research Laboratory technicians prepare MightySat I for pre-launch tests. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: A VLT Snapshot of Jupiter/[VLT] ISAAC observes Jupiter Occultation (Fo Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ESO Education and Public Relations Dept. Text with all links is available on the ESO Website at URL: http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1998/phot-49-98.html ESO Press Photo 49/98 For immediate release: 26 November 1998 A VLT Snapshot of Jupiter The "UT1 First Light" observations in May 1998 were done with the VLT Test Camera (TC) mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope. The TC was taken off the telescope in early September 1998 to allow mounting of the FORS1 instrument at this focus. In the second half of October, the TC was installed at Nasmyth Focus A of VLT UT1. Various test exposures were then made for optical alignment which also served to gain valuable experience in handling of the telescope in Nasmyth mode. This work led up to the installation of the ISAAC instrument at the Nasmyth Focus B in mid-November. ESO PR Photo 49/98 PR Photo 49/98 is a reproduction of an image of giant planet Jupiter obtained through a narrow optical filter with the VLT Test Camera at UT1 Nasmyth Focus A on October 31, 1998, at 02:06:01.0 UT in the morning. It looks somewhat different from most other published images because of the special passband. In terms of visible detail, it is probably one of the best Jupiter images ever obtained with a ground-based astronomical telescope. Just before the observation, Jupiter's large inner moon Io had begun to pass in front of Jupiter's disk (bright spot at the lower left). The bands in the atmosphere are well visible, also in this narrow-band image and the "Great Red Spot" is at the right edge in the main southern band. At this time, Jupiter was 636 million km from the Earth and the angular diameter was about 45 arcsec. Technical Information: The image was obtained during a period of good seeing (0.4 arcsec). In view of the brightness of this planet (magnitude -2.7) and the enormous light-gathering capacity of the VLT UT1, the exposure had to be done through a narrow interference filter (H-alpha -- centered at 6562 Angstrom and FWHM 50 Angstrom) and it lasted only 0.1 second. The disc of the planet is much darker at the edge than close to the centre which makes an image such as this hard to display. To avoid this problem, an unsharp-mask was applied and to enhance the contrast and sharpness of the surface detail the image was further processed using the Lucy-Richardson method. A bright circle to the right and some fainter ones in the same area are artifacts. North is up and East is left. This is the caption to ESO PR Photo 49/98. It may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. More information about the VLT project is available at: URL: http://www.eso.org/outreach/info-events/ut1fl/ Copyright ESO Education & Public Relations Department Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany ***** ESO Education and Public Relations Dept. Text with all links is available on the ESO Website at URL: http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-1998/vid-07-98.html ESO PR Video Clips 07a-b/98 For immediate release: 1 December 1998 ISAAC observes Jupiter Occultation "Fly" with the VLT over the Moon's surface A few days after the "First Light" of the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), cf. ESO PR 19/98, the ESO Team of astronomers and engineers at Paranal have succeeded in observing a lunar occultation of Jupiter with the new instrument. During this event, that took place on 28 November 1998, the dark rim of the Moon's disk moved in front of the planet, covering it from view. Somewhat later, Jupiter reappeared behind the opposite, illuminated rim. The ISAAC Team made use of this occasion to perform further test observations with ISAAC and the 8.2-m VLT UT1. For this, short exposures were made at the ISAAC Long Wavelength arm through a narrow band (1.5%) filter centred at wavelength 3.2 microns. They lasted 4 sec during the early phase of the occultation and decreased to 0.8 sec, then 0.4 and finally 0.08 sec, as progressively brighter areas of the illuminated part of the Moon's surface moved into the field-of-view. The infrared frames are presented here as two video clips. ESO PR Video Clip 07a/98 Occultation of Jupiter on November 28, 1998: The Moon moves in front of Jupiter's disk [MPEG/Video; 26 frames - 184k] The first, short sequence shows the first phase of the occultation (ingress) during which the dark Moon rim (upper left) covers Jupiter's disk. The bands in the planet atmosphere are well visible, and the polar areas are bright at this infrared wavelength. In this and the following video, the Moon moves from left to right, corresponding to West-to-East in the sky. ESO PR Video Clip 07b/98 Occultation of Jupiter on November 28, 1998: "Flying" above the Moon's surface [MPEG/Video; 266 frames - 1.1 Mb] The second sequence consists of frames taken between 00:47:38 and 02:01:09 hrs Universal Time (UT) -- it also includes the ingress sequence shown in Video Clip 07a/98. During this period, the telescope followed the motion of Jupiter, while the Moon moved in front of the planet. The visual effect is that of a "flight" over the Moon's surface. The sequence begins at the dark side and soon moves over the terminator that separates "day" and "night" on the Moon. Here the shadows are long and the lunar surface relief is particularly well visible. Various craters pass by as the surface brightness continues to increase. At the end, Jupiter re-emerges (the egress phase) behind the bright Moon rim. Due to the sudden change of illumination, exposure time problems were encountered at this moment. More about Occultations Astronomers talk about an occultation when one celestial body moves in front of ("hides") another, as seen by an observer at a particular site. In this sense, total Solar and Lunar eclipses are also occultations, although this term is not used for such events. When the Moon moves in front of a star of a planet, one speaks about a lunar occultation; when a planet (e.g. Jupiter or an asteroid) moves in front of a star, it is called a planetary occultation. Quite a few websites are available with information about occultations. Note, in particular, that of the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) and the dedicated Sky & Telescope Occultation Page. This is the caption to ESO PR Video Clips 07a-b/98. They may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. More information about the VLT project is available at URL: http://www.eso.org/outreach/info-events/ut1fl/ Additional information about ESO videos, including various News Reels, will be found at URL: http://www.eso.org/outreach/epr/videos/. Copyright ESO Education & Public Relations Department Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Prospecting for Helium-3 on the Moon (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... American Geophysical Union Public Information Office 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20009 Tel (202) 462-6900 / FAX 202-328-0566 December 1, 1998 Contact: Harvey Leifert AGU RELEASE NO. 98-41 (202) 939-3212 For Immediate Release hleifert@kosmos.agu.org Prospecting for Helium-3 on the Moon WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Future prospectors on the Moon may be assisted by resource maps developed from research by scientists in Arizona and Hawaii. The resources they will be seeking are not gold or diamonds, but helium-3 [3He], an isotope that is rare on Earth, but more common on the Moon. Helium-3 is expected to be the cleanest fuel of choice for potential 21st century fusion reactors, because its reaction is efficient and produces low residual radioactivity. Drs. Jeffrey R. Johnson of the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona; Timothy S. Swindle of the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in Tucson; and Paul G. Lucey of the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics and Planetology in Honolulu have developed a helium-3 map of the Moon based on a combination of factors they have analyzed. Their research will be published in a forthcoming issue of Geophysical Research Letters, a publication of the American Geophysical Union, as "Estimated Solar Wind-Implanted Helium-3 Distribution On The Moon." The factors taken into account by the researchers in mapping the likely abundance of helium-3 in a given area are the exposure age of the Moon's surface matter, or regolith; the relative amount of charged particles, including helium-3, arriving from the Sun (the solar wind); and the titanium content of the lunar soil. The mineral ilmenite [FeTiO3], composed of iron, titanium, and oxygen, retains helium much better than other major lunar materials. The older soils should be better sources of helium-3, they report, because they have been exposed to the solar wind longer and contain greater amounts of fine-grained aggregates that absorb helium-3. Also, solar wind-implanted particles are more abundant on the far side, because the Earth shields the Moon's near side from the solar wind for a portion of each solar orbit. The scientists estimate that the greatest amounts of helium-3 will be found on the far side maria, or "seas," of the Moon, due to the higher solar wind, and in nearside areas with high concentrations of titanium dioxide [TiO2]. Their hypothesis is based on analysis of rock samples brought back by Apollo astronauts and mineralogic maps produced by the Clementine spacecraft. They expect to refine their maps with new elemental composition maps produced by the Lunar Prospector spacecraft. ### A color figure accompanies this paper. It may be accessed on the worldwide web at: http://www.geophys.washington.edu/Space/GRL/articles/trans/ . Click on Document <cover3.tif>. The caption is: "Simple cylindrical projections (left side of images corresponds to 180 West longitude; 30 degree grid shown) of (a) solar wind fluence model; (b) Clementine 750 mm mosaic; (c) TiO2 abundance map from Lucey et. al. (1996) displayed from 0-7 weight percent; and (d) 3He abundance map displayed from 1-10 ppb (see text for details)." The GRL paper upon which this release is based will be faxed to journalists on request to Harvey Leifert (see contact information above). It has not yet been scheduled for a specific issue of Geophysical Research Letters, but there is no embargo. For further information on the science in this paper, journalists may contact Dr. Jeffrey R. Johnson at USGS Flagstaff: Phone (520) 556-7157; fax (520) 556-7014; email: jjohnson@flagmail.wr.usgs.gov . Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 02 декабря 1998 (1998-12-02) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: The Martian underground was safe place for early life (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Stanford University 11/30/98 CONTACT: David Salisbury, News Service (650) 725-1944; e-mail salisbury@stanford.edu The Martian underground was safe place for early life In the early years of the solar system, when giant chunks of rock and ice pummeled the planets, the best place for life to survive -- if life existed at all -- was in underground niches on Mars. If Martian microbes existed, and survived the large impacts by hiding in the Martian subsurface, they could have later traveled to Earth, via meteorites, and seeded terrestrial life. Those are two contentions put forth in a new paper by Norman H. Sleep, professor of geophysics at Stanford, and Kevin Zahnle at NASA-Ames Research Center in Mountain View. The paper, "Refugia from asteroid impacts on early Mars and the early Earth," appeared in the Nov. 25 issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Planetary Sciences Section). "Early Mars may have been safer than the early Earth and probably was habitable," Sleep says. That's because of the Red Planet's smaller size and lack of large oceans. Earth's oceans, critical for supporting life under normal conditions, may have been the planet's greatest liability in the event of a really large impact -- a so-called "ocean-boiling impact," according to Sleep and Zahnle. Between about 3.8 billion and 4.5 billion years ago, no place in the solar system was safe from the huge arsenal of asteroids and comets left over from the formation of the planets. Sleep and Zahnle calculate that Earth was probably hit repeatedly by objects up to 500 kilometers across -- the distance from Los Angeles to San Francisco. Objects that big probably missed Mars altogether, because it was a smaller target. But if they did hit, the damage would have been less severe, because Mars lacked large oceans to convert to a thick, long-lasting and sterilizing steam atmosphere. If primitive life was wiped out, possibly repeatedly, on Earth, but managed to survive on Mars, it would not have been hard for Martian life to re-seed Earth. Recent computer simulations have shown that, during this early period, large amounts of material must have been exchanged between the two planets. Some of the material blasted from Earth in meteoritic impacts would have landed on Mars, and vice versa. Even today, a Martian meteorite hits Earth about once every three days, Sleep says. Several billion years ago, the impact rate was a thousand times greater. That means millions of Martian meteorites made the trip from Mars to Earth in just a few years, a short enough period for spores or possibly even intact microorganisms buried deep in the meteorites to survive, he calculates. Sleep notes that even modest-sized impacts have been known to decimate life on Earth. The asteroid that caused the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period was only 10 to 20 kilometers across -- small by early solar system standards. Yet, when it hit the Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago, it ignited a fireball that spread out across most of North America and launched tremendous amounts of pulverized rock almost into orbit. As that rock dust fell back to Earth, enough heat was released to set forest fires worldwide and to evaporate about a meter of water from the world's oceans, Sleep says. The dinosaurs were cooked -- literally. That is mild compared to the damage from an object hundreds of kilometers across, like those that were hurtling through space about 4 billion years ago. Hit the Earth with a 500-kilometer wide asteroid, and it vaporizes the rocks at the site of impact and creates a rock-vapor atmosphere that would radiate at temperatures of 2,000 degrees Celsius, like a star, Sleep says. Such tremendous heat would boil off all the world's oceans and create a steam atmosphere that would persist for about 3,000 years. That is long enough to sterilize the Earth's outer crust down to nearly one kilometer, according to Sleep and Zahnle. The planet is, in effect, steam-cleaned. On Mars, an object 500 kilometers across would vaporize the rock at the site of impact, as on Earth, but no long-lasting steam atmosphere would result, so the thermal radiation would dissipate much more quickly. Only the upper few hundred meters of the planet would be sterilized, compared to the upper one kilometer on Earth, Sleep and Zahnle say. What, if any, forms of life could have survived such devastation? Sleep and Zahnle think the logical answer is the thermophilic -- that's Greek for heat- loving -- organisms. Modern thermophilic organisms thrive at temperatures up to about 100 degrees Celsius on Earth, Sleep says. Such critters might have survived at a depth of about one kilometer underground during the largest impacts on Earth, but the habitable zone would have been quite narrow -- any shallower and they would have been cooked by the energy of impact, and any deeper and they would have been cooked by Earth's hot interior, the authors say. By comparison, thermophilic organisms could have survived in a much broader depth range on Mars -- from several hundred to several thousand meters below ground, partly because of Mars' relatively cool interior, but also because of Mars' lower gravity, which allows cracks to extend deeper into the planet's interior and so provides living space for microbes at greater depths than on Earth. Sleep first began thinking about thermophilic organisms in the mid-1980s, when colonies of these creatures were discovered in hot water vents at the bottom of Earth's deepest oceans. Sleep imagined that such undersea vents might provide a good refuge during asteroid impacts, because they would be the last place to get boiled away by the intense heat of a large impact. He reasoned that the thermophilic organisms in such niches might survive large impacts. Sleep thinks it is no coincidence that these creatures occupy the main trunk on the tree of life, where the branches of more recent life are joined. "Clearly bacteria and archaea root into thermophile organisms -- and thermophile organisms are exactly the ones you'd expect to survive if the ocean gets darn hot or boils," Sleep says. The study was funded by the NASA Exobiology Program. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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