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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 27 апреля 1998


    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - April 24, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT April 24, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager The Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) instrument failed to operate properly during orbiter solar thermal vacuum (STV) testing. A part failure in the 15V PMIRR power supply is the suspected cause. All other objectives of the orbiter thermal vacuum test were accomplished successfully. The plan is to break vacuum on Friday, April 24, troubleshoot the cause of the failure over the weekend, and reestablish vacuum conditions on Monday, April 27, if the team is confident the root cause of the failure has been diagnosed and fixed. Lander integration and test activities are proceeding on schedule with no significant problems. ElectroMagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) testing of the lander spacecraft was completed successfully. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit this website: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Third MGS Image Of Cydonia Region, Viking 1 Landing Site Available Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... The third image of the Cydonia Region taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft is now available on the MGS website: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/target/CYD3/index.html This is the raw image. Processed images will be available later today at the same site. Also available is an MGS image of the Viking 1 landing site: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/msss/camera/images/4_23_98_vl1_stereo_release/ind ex.html Captions to both images are appended below. Ron Baalke RAW IMAGE POSTED - April 24, 1998 10:00 AM Pacific Daylight Savings Time CYDONIA OBSERVATION #3 PHOTO CAPTION Orbit: 258 Range: 409.53 km Resolution: 3.46 m/pixel Image dimensions: 1024 X 9600 pixels, 3.5 km x 33.2 km Line time: 0.50 msec Emission angle: 29.90 degrees Incidence angle: 69.59 degrees Phase angle: 60.62 degrees Scan rate: ~0.15 degree/sec Start time: periapsis + 410 sec Sequence submitted to JPL: Wed 04/22/98 21:45:00 PDT Image acquired by MOC: Thu 04/23/98 12:23:02 PDT Data retrieved from JPL: Fri 04/24/98 09:00 PDT MOC Acquires High Resolution Stereoscopic Images of Viking One Landing Site Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera Release: MOC2-44A, -44B Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera Image ID: 577659262.25403 P254-03 (partial) 576862349.23503 P235-03 (partial) See also: Viking One Landing site (A)[Image] (B)[Image] (A) Viking Orbiter 1 027A63, showing outline of area including Viking Lander 1 location covered by stereoscopic images (B) Stereoscopic portions of MOC images 25403 (red) and 23503 (blue,green) reproduced at a scale of 7.5 meters/pixel (JPG = 676 KBytes) CAPTION Two MOC images of the vicinity of the Viking Lander 1 (MOC 23503 and 25403), acquired separately on 12 April 1998 at 08:32 PDT and 21 April 1998 at 13:54 PDT (respectively), are combined here in a stereoscopic anaglyph. The more recent, slightly better quality image is in the red channel, while the earlier image is shown in the blue and green channels. Only the overlap portion of the images is included in the composite. Image 23503 was taken at a viewing angle of 31.6° from vertical; 25403 was taken at an angle of 22.4°, for a difference of 9.4°. Although this is not as large a difference as is typically used in stereo mapping, it is sufficient to provide some indication of relief, at least in locations of high relief. The image shows the raised rims and deep interiors of the larger impact craters in the area (the largest crater is about 650 m/2100 feet across). It shows that the relief on the ridges is very subtle, and that, in general, the Viking landing site is very flat. This result is, of course, expected: the VL-1 site was chosen specifically because it was likely to have low to very low slopes that represented potential hazards to the spacecraft. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - April 24, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... CASSINI SIGNIFICANT EVENTS FOR WEEK ENDING 4/24/98 Spacecraft Status: The Cassini spacecraft is presently traveling at a speed of approximately 136,000 kilometers/hour (~84,000 mph) relative to the sun and has traveled approximately 531 million kilometers (~329 million miles) since launch on October 15, 1997. The Cassini spacecraft has been flying for just over 6 months. Cassini's first planetary gravity assist, a technique used to increase spacecraft velocity, is approaching; the Venus-1 flyby scheduled for early Sunday morning, April 26th. The most recent Spacecraft status is from the DSN tracking pass on Thursday, 04/23, over Goldstone. The Cassini spacecraft is in an excellent state of health and is executing the C7 sequence nominally. Inertial attitude control is being maintained using the spacecraft's hydrazine thrusters (RCS system). The spacecraft continues to fly in a High Gain Antenna-to-Sun attitude. It will maintain the HGA-to-Sun attitude, except for planned trajectory correction maneuvers, for the first 14 months of flight. Communication with Earth during early cruise is via one of the spacecraft's two low-gain antennas; the antenna selected depends on the relative geometry of the Sun, Earth and the spacecraft. The downlink telemetry rate is presently 40 bps. Spacecraft Activity Summary: On Friday, 04/17, the third Periodic Instrument Maintenance activity (PIM) completed execution, as planned. This activity is carried out every three months by 11 of the 12 Orbiter instruments. All Instrument representatives reported successful completion of their PIM activities. Also on Friday, the realtime portion of an SSR Flight Software Partition maintenance activity was performed, as planned, completing the activity which had begun on Tuesday, April 14. On Saturday, 4/18, the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem's (AACS's) active vector was updated as part of the preparations for the upcoming Venus-1 gravity assist flyby. On Sunday, 04/19, and Monday, 04/20, there were no changes to spacecraft configuration. On Tuesday, 04/21, the Solid State Recorder (SSR) record and playback pointers were reset, according to plan. This housekeeping activity, done approximately weekly, maximizes the amount of time that recorded engineering data is available for playback to the ground should an anomaly occur on the spacecraft. On Wednesday, 04/22, the RPWS/RADAR minisequences for execution and playback were uplinked to the spacecraft. The RPWS activity is one which will search for lightning in the atmosphere of Venus using the Radio and Plasma Wave Scienceinstrument. The RADAR activity is an engineering test to verify the ability of the Cassini RADAR instrument to detect a signal reflected back from a target body (the surface of Venus). The data collection minisequence's activities will be carried out on Sunday, April 26 around the Venus closest approach point. The results of Sunday's activities will be returned to Earth in the playback minisequence, scheduled to occur the following Friday and Saturday nights (May 1 and 2). On Thursday, 04/23, there were no changes to spacecraft configuration. Upcoming events: Activities scheduled for the week of 4/24 - 4/30 include: Venus Flyby (04/25 thru 04/26), with closest approach occurring on Sunday morning (04/26), execution of the RPWS and Radar Venus activities (04/26), Pre-TCM 4 Memory Read Out of Mass Properties (04/27), SSR FSW Partition Maintenance (04/28), and an SSR Pointer Reset (04/30). Additionally, the first Solar and Earth Occultationswill occur (04/26). DSN Coverage: Over the past week Cassini had 10 scheduled DSN tracks occurring from 04/10 through 4/16. In the coming week there will be 16 DSN passes. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Lunar Prospector Update - April 24, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Lunar Prospector Status Report #29 April 24, 1998 - 1:00 p.m. EST (10:00 a.m. PST) The Lunar Prospector spacecraft continues to perform very well. A recent increase in solar activity has been associated with an increase in particle counts from the Alpha Particle Spectrometer (APS) over the last couple of weeks. This effect will be compensated for in the course of the ongoing data analysis. Current spacecraft state (00:00 4/23/98 GMT): Orbit: 1225 Downlink: 3600 bps Spin Rate: 11.96 rpm Spin Axis Attitude (ecliptic): Latitude: 83.2 deg Longitude: 94 deg Trajectory: Periselene Alt: 81.8 km Aposelene Alt: 118 km Period: 118 minutes Occultations: 46 minutes Eclipses: 46 minutes An attitude reorientation maneuver is scheduled for Monday, 4/27, with a maneuver test pulse firing scheduled for Friday, 4/24. Lisa Chu Thielbar Lunar Prospector Mission Office NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, Calif. 94035 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Physics News Update - April 23, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... PHYSICS NEWS UPDATE The American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Physics News Number 368 April 23, 1998 by Phillip F. Schewe and Ben Stein THE STRONGEST GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS EVER MEASURED, corresponding to a spacetime warping of 30%, have been recorded by scientists using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. By comparison, the proportional curvature of space is 100% at a black hole, but only about one part in a million near the sun's surface and one part per billion near the Earth's surface. RXTE was designed to monitor (over microsecond time intervals) the x rays coming from binary star systems in which matter from a conventional star is siphoned off into an accretion disk surrounding a nearby neutron star or black hole. In about 16 binary-star systems that contain neutron stars, blobs of gas in the disk are thought to spiral in toward the neutron star, picking up speed before they make a final plunge onto the surface. The x rays produced in this process are regularly dimmed when the hot gas is on the far side of the star. This leads to quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the x-ray brightness of the star. Also notable is the fact that the brightness variations only occur at certain well-defined rates, "pure tones" corresponding to special orbital periods for the gas going around the star. The spacetime encountered by the gas is so highly warped because the gas is able to skim within a few km of the neutron star, which itself is only about 10 km in diameter. At this week's meeting of the American Physical Society in Columbus, Ohio, Frederick Lamb of the University of Illinois (217-333-6363, f-lamb@uiuc.edu) described how the observed variations in the x-ray brightness can be used to deduce properties of the neutron star, such as its mass and size. At a press conference, Lamb and William Zhang of NASA Goddard concentrated on the binary-star system 4U1820-30, about 20,000 light years from Earth. The neutron star has a mass of 2.3 solar masses and orbits its companion star in only 11 minutes. Close observations of this system confirm a prediction made by Lamb and his colleagues Coleman Miller and Dimitrios Psaltis that the gas blobs would continue to spiral inward until they reached an "innermost stable orbit," where they would orbit before making the dive for the surface. This is a purely general relativistic (GR) effect; in Newton's mechanics, by contrast, the blob could have gotten arbitrarily close to the surface, providing it were going fast enough. The observations by Zhang and his collaborators now confirm Lamb's prediction, thus opening up a new "strong-gravitational field" era in GR studies. The measurements of the gas motion even provide hints as to the nature of the strong nuclear force sustaining the neutron star against further gravitational collapse. The new evidence indicates that the nuclear force is stiffer and more repulsive than has generally been thought. PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN THE MAKING have been discovered in the form of tenuous dust disks surrounding several more stars. Astronomers believe that our own solar system evolved out of such a disk of material left over after the formation of the sun. Previously a disk like this had been found around the star Beta Pictoris. Now a report in Nature (23 April) reveals disks around two more stars, Formalhut and Vega. Yet another, around the star HR4796A, was announced at a NASA press conference on 21 April. Formalhut's disk even has a dust-free inner zone which one would have expected if rocky planets formed there had swept all such material for their own use. The observations are possible because of new infrared detectors sensitive to the radiation emitted by the relatively cool dust. PHYSICAL REVIEW FOCUS is a new weekly online summary of selected recent or forthcoming articles in Physical Review Letters. (Physics News Update does this too, but Focus looks at articles in more depth.) The summaries are available on the American Physical Society website at this address: publish.aps.org/FOCUS? Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sky & Telescope News Bulletin - April 24, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN APRIL 24, 1998 HST ANNIVERSARY The Space Telescope Science Institute marked the eighth year of revolutionary astronomical data from the Hubble Space Telescope on April 17th by releasing an infrared image of Saturn taken earlier in the year by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona). The false-color view from Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) reveals details about the various cloud layers and hazes in Saturn's atmosphere. CASSINI PASSING VENUS After six months in space, the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft will have its first planetary encounter April 26th when it makes a pass over Venus at an altitude of 284 km. The planet's gravity will give the spacecraft a 26,280-kilometer-per-hour boost in speed. Launched last October, Cassini and the Huygens Titan probe, supplied by the European Space Agency, still have a long way to go before reaching the ringed planet. The spacecraft will make three more gravity-assist flybys -- a second pass by Venus, then one by the Earth, and then one by Jupiter -- before arriving at Saturn in 2004. SIGNS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEM Astronomers have found what they believe is a "missing link" for understanding the formation of planets around stars. Two teams of researchers noticed that the star HR 4796 in Centaurus is surrounded by a disk of material. Michael Werner, David Koerner, and Michael Ressler (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and Dana Backman (Franklin and Marshall College) used the 10-meter Keck II Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Ray Jayawardhana (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Charles Telesco (University of Florida) made their observations from Cerro Tololo in Chile. Although other stars are known to sport rings of dust -- which hint at planetary systems -- these new observations reveal that HR 4796 has a gap in the disk immediately next to the star. The absence of material strongly suggests that forming planets have swept this region clean. The cleared area has a diameter of about 100 astronomical units, slightly larger than our own solar system. FIRST VLT MIRROR INSTALLED The European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope took another important step toward completion on April 17th. The first of the 8.2-meter- wide mirrors was mounted in one of the four telescope structures atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. "First light" for the telescope is expected by the end of May. SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY GRAND OPENING Another observatory BELOW ground is nearly complete. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, located 2 kilometers beneath Sudbury, Ontario, will hold its inauguration ceremonies on April 28-29. The detector, designed to see neutrinos produced by the Sun's fusion reactions, uses 1,000 metric tons of heavy water in a 12-meter-diameter acrylic vessel. Distinguished guests for the subterranean festivities include Stephen Hawking, John Bahcall, and Nobel laureate Bertram Brockhouse. If you didn't get your invitation, you can still participate by watching the events live on the Internet. BOWER AWARDS On April 30th, Sir Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal, will be honored with the 1998 Bower Award and Prize in Science from Philadelphia's Franklin Institute. The prize of $250,000 is given annually to "a distinguished scientist for outstanding work in the life or physical sciences." The Institute also honored John C. Diebel, founder and chief executive of Meade Instruments Corp., with the Bower Award for Business Leadership. He was cited for "his courage, insight, and leadership of a commercial venture founded on the premise of making astronomy accessible and affordable to the public." The business award carries no cash prize. VENUS AND JUPITER ARE OCCULTED TOGETHER If you were lucky for clear morning skies earlier in the week, you may have witnessed the conjunction of Venus and Jupiter. The pair was joined by the waning crescent Moon on the morning of April 23rd. Even luckier observers in parts of Africa and southern Asia watched as the Moon occulted both Jupiter and Venus. Olivier Staiger journeyed to Ascension Island off the coast of Africa to see the event. According to Jean Meeus, there are 13 double occultations of bright planets between the years 1600 and 2200. (This does not include Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.) The most recent was of Mars and Jupiter on February 8, 1951. The next will include Mercury and Mars on February 13, 2056. NAME A SPACECRAFT NASA and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Science Center are sponsoring a contest to name AXAF, the third of NASA's "Great Observatories." The names Edwin P. Hubble and Arthur H. Compton are associated with AXAF's predecessors, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. But officials have yet to christen AXAF, which is currently slated for a December 1998 Space Shuttle launch. The winner will enjoy an expenses-paid trip to see the satellite take off from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Contest rules are available on the World Wide Web at http://asc.harvard.edu/contest.html, by phone at 617-496-7941, or by writing to AXAF Contest, AXAF Science Center, Office of Education and Public Outreach, 60 Garden St., MS 83, Cambridge, MA 02138. You can also address queries to contest@cfa.harvard.edu by electronic mail. Entries are due by June 30th. THIS WEEK'S "SKY AT A GLANCE" Some daily events in the changing sky, from the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE. APRIL 26 -- SUNDAY * New Moon (exact at 7:41 a.m. EDT). APRIL 27 -- MONDAY * Early Tuesday morning the faint asteroid 1243 Pamela will occult an 8.2-magnitude star in Sagittarius for up to 9 seconds as seen from the central U.S. The occultation should happen around 8:51 Universal Time near the Mississippi Delta (3:51 a.m. Central Daylight Time), and around 8:54 UT in Michigan. See the finder chart in the April Sky & Telescope, page 94, or at http://www.skypub.com/occults/occults.html. APRIL 28 -- TUESDAY * The thin waxing crescent Moon occults the 1st-magnitude star Aldebaran in broad daylight today for much of North America. The Moon will be only 30 degrees east of the Sun, so it may not be easy to find even with a wide-field telescope unless the air is very clear. For a timetable see the January Sky & Telescope, page 97, or http://www.skypub.com/occults/lunocc98.html. * After the Sun sets, Aldebaran can be easily seen shining below or to the lower right of the Moon in the western sky. APRIL 29 -- WEDNESDAY * Early on Thursday morning, the oddly shaped asteroid 216 Kleopatra will occult a 10.8-magnitude star in Scutum for up to 16 seconds. Observers in the Northeast have the best chance to see this event. You may need an 8- or 10-inch telescope to keep the faint star in steady view. Kleopatra displayed a silhouette almost four times longer than wide during a 1991 occultation that was timed by 10 amateurs (see Sky & Telescope for January 1992, page 73), so interest in this event is high. A finder chart is in the April Sky & Telescope, page 94, and at http://www.skypub.com/occults/occults.html. APRIL 30 -- THURSDAY * The crescent Moon shines this evening in the feet of Gemini in the western sky. High above the Moon are Gemini's head stars, Pollux and Castor. A similar distance to the Moon's left is Procyon. MAY 1 -- FRIDAY * This evening the Moon is almost midway between Pollux (to its upper right) and Procyon (to its lower left). MAY 2 -- SATURDAY * Binoculars show the Beehive star cluster, M44 in Cancer, about 5 degrees to the right of the Moon this evening. ============================ THIS WEEK'S PLANET ROUNDUP ============================ MERCURY is barely above the eastern horizon as dawn brightens. It's far to the lower left of Venus and Jupiter. VENUS shines brightly low in the east-southeast during dawn, with Jupiter just to its upper right. Venus is 7 times brighter than Jupiter. They're moving apart by about 1 degree per day. MARS is hidden behind the glare of the Sun. JUPITER appears close to Venus in the east-southeast during dawn; see above. SATURN is hidden behind the glare of the Sun. URANUS and NEPTUNE, magnitudes 6 and 8, respectively, are in Capricornus low in the southeast just before dawn. See the finder chart in the May Sky & Telescope, page 96. PLUTO, magnitude 13.8, is near the Ophiuchus-Scorpius border. It's well up in the southeast by midnight. A finder chart is in the May Sky & Telescope, page 97. (All descriptions that relate to the horizon or zenith are written for the world's midnorthern latitudes. Descriptions that also depend on longitude are for North America. Eastern Daylight Time, EDT, equals Universal Time minus 4 hours.) More details, sky maps, and news of other celestial events appear each month in SKY & TELESCOPE, the essential magazine of astronomy. See our Web site at http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! SKY & TELESCOPE, P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02178 * 617-864-7360 (voice) Copyright 1998 Sky Publishing Corporation. S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance stargazing calendar are provided as a service to the astronomical community by the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE magazine. Widespread electronic distribution is encouraged as long as these paragraphs are included. But the text of the bulletin and calendar may not be published in any other form without permission from Sky Publishing (contact permissions@skypub.com or phone 617-864-7360). Illustrated versions, including active links to related Internet resources, are available via SKY Online on the World Wide Web at http://www.skypub.com/. In response to numerous requests, and in cooperation with the Astronomical League (http://www.mcs.net/~bstevens/al/) and the American Association of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.corvus.com/), S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance are available via electronic mailing list too. For a free subscription, send e-mail to skyline@gs1.revnet.com and put the word "join" on the first line of the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send e-mail to skyline@gs1.revnet.com and put the word "unjoin" on the first line of the body of the message. SKY & TELESCOPE, the Essential Magazine of Astronomy, is read by more than 200,000 enthusiasts each month. It is available on newsstands worldwide. For subscription information, or for a free copy of our catalog of fine astronomy books and products, please contact Sky Publishing Corp., P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02178-9111, U.S.A. Phone: 800-253-0245 (U.S. and Canada); 617-864-7360 (International). Fax: 617-864-6117. E-mail: custserv@skypub.com. SKY Online: http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Aids In Highway Planning Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Don Nolan-Proxmire Headquarters, Washington, DC April 24, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1983) Lanee Cooksey Stennis Space Center, MS (Phone: 228/688-1957) RELEASE: 98-69 NASA'S COMMERCIAL REMOTE SENSING PROGRAM AIDS IN HIGHWAY PLANNING The Commercial Remote Sensing Program at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, recently applied its comprehensive remote sensing capabilities to highway routing plans for the Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT). The highway, a connecting route between Hernando, MS, and Collierville, TN, is still being planned but by using remote sensing, the time needed for planning may be significantly reduced while the quality of the route may be enhanced. Remote sensing -- the observation of the surface of the Earth from distant vantage points, usually from sensors mounted on aircraft or satellites -- provides images to make detailed maps of selected study areas. The remotely sensed images gathered for the MDOT project were used to form a highly accurate, digital map database to determine the best route for a highway. By having a synoptic view of the proposed route, planners can determine what transportation infrastructure, buildings, industrial facilities, water bodies, farmlands, forests, wetlands and geological features are present. The project began in October 1997 when supervisors from the Mississippi Department of Transportation visited Stennis and viewed a demonstration of possible applications of remote sensing for transportation issues. Richard Campanella of Lockheed Martin Stennis Operations, part of the team that worked on the project, was present at that demonstration. "They (MDOT) were interested in researching new techniques to do their job better," Campanella said. "NASA was interested in extending remote sensing technology to the state agencies for the benefit of the state." After a meeting with MDOT engineers that outlined their requirements, a prototype model was designed to help select the optimal highway route. Campanella, working with Jim Johnson of the Institute for Technology Development - Spectral Visions, took the engineers' requirements, and transformed them into data sets that would be integrated into a Geographic Information System model. This provided an analysis and visualization tool that allowed viewing and modelling of the 20-mile by 5-mile area under consideration. The model contained about a dozen layers of criteria that influence route planning: utility corridors, civic structures, natural deposits, water bodies, flood zones, homes and businesses, wetlands and farmlands. One advantage that remote sensing presents in transportation planning is the reduction in time. By doing the preliminary planning with the computer model, what used to take at least a year can now take as little as a few months. "The success of this model demonstrates the usefulness of remote sensing in the planning of roadways and other elements of our transportation infrastructure," said Tom Stanley with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program at Stennis. "Transportation projects using this technology will be implemented more quickly at less cost to the public. Use of remote sensing also can balance environmental and other considerations that can cause enormous delays to a project." Campanella is quick to point out that models will not replace people in the field conducting the survey work. "At the actual site engineering level, you will always need surveyors in the field collecting highly accurate field data," Campanella said. "Remote sensing can be used to support those field crews to make sure the area they're characterizing is the optimal route for the road." -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Update - March 24, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MISSION STATUS April 24, 1998 The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has completed the last of three attempts to image the Cydonia region of Mars, the two Viking lander sites and the Mars Pathfinder landing site. Global Surveyor captured the final image of Cydonia as the spacecraft passed over the area at a distance of about 392 kilometers (244 miles). The images contain additional portions of "The City," a locale sporting a variety of geological features sometimes identified as "mounds," the "city square," the "pyramid" and the "fortress." This area, photographed more than 20 years ago by the Viking orbiters, has been of public interest because it is adjacent to the so-called "Face on Mars." The images are posted on JPL's Mars news site at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/marsnews, on the Mars Global Surveyor project home page at http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov, and on NASA's Planetary Photojournal site at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov. The spacecraft also captured the Mars Pathfinder landing site in Ares Vallis after missing it during the first two imaging opportunities. The data strips are being processed and the exact location of the lander is being determined. A low resolution image of the site will be available by the end of the day. Raw data indicated that the lander was not visible due to a thick haze, although familiar landmarks close to the landing site, such as Twin Peaks, were visible. The Viking 1 lander in Chryse Planitia was not identified in images of that site, possibly due to imprecise coordinates used to locate the landing site. Winter weather in the northern hemisphere and heavy cloud cover prevented a view of the Viking 2 lander in Utopia Planitia, as had been the case in the first two sets of images. Mars Global Surveyor is currently in a fixed 11.5-hour orbit around Mars, coming as close as 170 kilometers (106 miles) during each looping orbit. The spacecraft will be gathering science data during most of its five-month pause in aerobraking. Further imaging of the Cydonia region and Viking/Pathfinder landing sites will not be feasible during the remainder of the aerobraking hiatus, however. Mars will shortly pass behind the Sun from Earth's point of view, degrading communications with the orbiter. After that, lighting conditions will not be favorable for imaging Cydonia or the Viking/Pathfinder landing sites. In September, the spacecraft will resume aerobraking to lower and circularize its orbit for the start of the mapping mission in March 1999. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: This Week on Galileo - April 27 - May 3, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... THIS WEEK ON GALILEO April 27 - May 3, 1998 Many different activities are on Galileo's to-do list this week as the spacecraft passes through apojove (the furthest distance from Jupiter for each orbit) and starts heading back toward Jupiter again. Processing and transmission to Earth of science information, also known as playback, continues throughout the week. Included on this week's schedule is data from Europa, Ganymede, Io and Callisto. Playback of data stored on the onboard tape recorder is interrupted several times this week to perform important navigation and engineering activities. On this week's playback schedule, we find information collected by the spacecraft's camera, or solid-state imaging subsystem (SSI), the near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) and the photopolarimeter radiometer (PPR). Europa information that is retrieved this week includes data on the materials, obtained by NIMS, and temperatures, obtained by PPR, that are found on its surface. Global views of Europa, by SSI and NIMS, are also processed and transmitted to Earth. A global view of Ganymede obtained by SSI is returned to Earth this week. The image is expected to provide more information on the radius, shape, color and photometry of the satellite. Remember that photometry is the measurement of light intensity and it helps to identify different materials. The image is also expected to tell scientists whether frost on the surface of Ganymede is mobile enough to be noticed at a global scale. SSI also returns an image of Io obtained while in eclipse. Due to the lack of sunlight, these types of images have proven to be the best way to discover and monitor lava temperatures and interactions of plumes from Io with Io's atmosphere and Jupiter's magnetic and electric field environment. Finally, NIMS returns a global map of Callisto. Together with an observation planned for May 1999, the information gathered from this observation is expected to shed some light on open questions regarding differences in materials found in different regions of Callisto. Engineering and navigation activities are initiated this week when the spacecraft performs regular maintenance on its onboard tape recorder. On Thursday, the spacecraft will perform a flight path correction in preparation for its next encounters with Europa and Jupiter in late May. Regular maintenance of the spacecraft's propulsion system is performed on Friday. And on Sunday, the flight team will transmit commands to the spacecraft to change onboard attitude control software. The changes to the software will allow the attitude control computer to, on its own, interpret the anomalous behavior of the gyroscopes. Back here on Earth, the behavior of the gyroscopes will continue to be monitored and updates to the onboard software will be made as required. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [1/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Welcome to the Space Calendar! This Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries for the upcoming year. It is also available on the World Wide Web at: http://newproducts.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/ The WWW version of the Space Calendar includes over 1,000 links to related home pages. This calendar is compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke. Please send any updates or corrections to baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov. Note that launch dates are subject to change at any time. Also, note that anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only. The following people have contributed to this month's calendar: Philippe Berthe, F. Cerarca, Timothy Adam, Joao Clerigo, Jens Dengler, Hans Tremmel, Tim Judge, Martin Ratcliffe, Ralph Ballweg ========================= SPACE CALENDAR April 26, 1998 ========================= * indicates changes from last month's calendar. April 1998 Apr 26 - Cassini, 1st Venus Flyby * Apr 26 - Iridium 9 Delta 2 Launch Apr 26 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JQ1 at Opposition (41.980 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Apr 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Discovery of Asteroid 7066 Nessus by Spacewatch Apr 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-55 Launch (Columbia), Spacelab D2 Apr 26 - 150th Anniversary (1848), Graham's Discovery of Asteroid 9 Metis Apr 27-May 03 - Astronomy Week Apr 28 - Islamic New Year Apr 28 - Nilesat-1/BSAT-1B Ariane 4 Launch Apr 28 - Asteroid 1243 Pamela Occults SAO 162175 (8.2 Magnitude Star) Apr 28 - Eugene Shoemaker's 70th Birthday (1928) Apr 29 - Asteroid 191 Kolga Occults SAO 95322 (8.0 Magnitude Star) Apr 30 - Iridium 3 Long March 2C/SD Launch Apr 30 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #46 (OTM-46) Apr 30 - Asteroid 32 Pomona at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Apr 30 - Asteroid 216 Kleopatra Occults GSC 56961723 (10.8 Magnitude Star) * Apr 30 - Asteroid 1998 HM1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.021 AU) * Apr 30 - Asteroid 6577 (1978 VB6) Closest Approach To Earth (1.113 AU) May 1998 May ?? - Sinosat 1 Long March 3B Launch May ?? - Ziyuan-1 Long March 4A Launch (China) * May ?? - EchoStar 4 Proton Launch May 01 - Comet Klemola Perihelion (1.755 AU) * May 01 - Asteroid 7117 Claudius Closest Approach To Earth (1.071 AU) * May 01 - Asteroid 6832 (1992 FP) Closest Approach To Earth (1.658 AU) May 02 - Astronomy Day * May 02 - Space Shuttle Columbia Returns To Earth (STS-90 May 02 - Chinastar-1 Long March 3B Launch (China) May 02 - Comet Denning Near-Jupiter Flyby (0.3389 AU) May 03 - 2060 Chiron at Oppositon (7.937 AU - 15.9 Magnitude) May 04 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (26.5 Degrees) * May 04 - Asteroid 4248 (1984 HX) Closest Approach To Earch (1.525 AU) May 05 - ORBCOMM-3 Pegasus XL Launch * May 05 - Progress M-40 Soyuz U Launch (Russia) May 05 - Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak May 05 - Comet Barnard 3 Perihelion (Lost Comet) May 05 - Asteroid 7088 Ishtar Closest Approach To Earth (1.349 AU) May 05 - Asteroid 8405 (1995 GO) Closest Approach To Earth (9.147 AU - 19.0 Magnitude) * May 06 - Milstar-3 Titan 4B Launch May 07 - Asteroid 1992 TB Near-Earth Flyby (0.384 AU) May 09 - Asteroid 16 Psyche at Opposition (10.4 Magnitude) May 09 - Asteroid 4487 Pocahontas Closest Approch To Earth (1.121 AU) * May 10 - Asteroid 1998 HK1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.272 AU) * May 10 - Asteroid 1990 Pilcher Closest Approach To Earth (1.063 AU) May 12 - Mercury Passes 0.8 Degrees From Saturn May 12 - Asteroid 3103 Eger Closest Approach To Earth (1.713 AU) May 13 - NOAA-K Titan 2 Launch May 13 - Asteroid 25 Phocaea Occults SAO 139602 (8.3 Magnitude Star) May 13 - Asteroid 664 Judith Closest Approach To Earth (1.598 AU) May 13 - Asteroid 3758 Karttunen Closest Approach To Earth (1.624 AU) May 14 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #4 (TCM-4) May 14 - Comet Howell Closest Approach To Earth (1.065 AU) May 14 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab Launch * May 15 - Progress-238 Soyuz U Launch (Russia) * May 15 - Asteroid 4629 Walford Closest Approach To Earth (1.608 AU) May 15 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Faith 7 Launch (Gordon Cooper) * May 16 - Loralsat 1 Ariane 4 Launch * May 18 - PanamSat-8 Proton Launch * May 20 - IKONOS-1 Athena 2 Launch May 20 - Moon Occults Jupiter * May 20 - Asteroid 1987 WC Closest Approach To Earch (0.510 AU) * May 20 - Asteroid 6693 (1986 CC2) Closest Approach To Earth (1.808 AU) May 20 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus Orbiter Launch May 21 - Space Day May 21 - Comet 1997 G2 (Montani) Closest Approach To Earth (2.870 AU) May 21 - Asteroid 1994 JF1 Closest Approach To Earth (0.581 AU) May 21 - Asteroid 1990 VB Closest Approach To Earth (1.767 AU) * May 22 - Venus Visible In Daylight (-3.9 Magnitude) May 25 - Asteroid 1997 US9 Near-Earth Flyby (0.283 AU) * May 25 - Asteroid 6493 Cathybennett Closest Approach To Earth (1.230 AU) * May 25 - Asteroid 6587 Brassens Closest Approach To Earth (1.567 AU) May 25 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab 2 Launch May 26 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Exosat Launch (ESA X-Ray Observatory) May 27 - Asteroid 1917 Cuyo Closest Approach To Earth (1.827 AU) May 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JS at Opposition (34.301 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) May 28 - STS-91 Launch, Discovery, 9th Shuttle-Mir Docking May 28 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #47 (OTM-47) May 28 - Venus Passes 0.3 Degrees From Saturn * May 28 - Pluto at Opposition May 28 - Asteroid 1995 UO5 Closest Approach To Earth (0.415 AU) * May 29 - Iridium 10 Delta 2 Launch May 29 - Asteroid 7025 (1993 QA) Closest Approach To Earth (0.832 AU) May 29 - Asteroid 1994 VR6 Closest Approach To Earth (1.392 AU) May 29 - Asteroid 2430 Bruce Helin Closest Approach To Earth (1.455 AU) May 30 - Asteroid 1997 UF9 Near-Earth Flyby (0.385 AU) May 30-31 - Jet Propulsion Lab Open House, Pasadena, California May 31 - Galileo, Europa 15 Flyby * May 31 - ORBCOMM-2 Pegasus XL Launch Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [2/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... June 1998 Jun ?? - SCD-2 Pegasus XL Launch Jun 01 - Asteroid 2063 Bacchus Closest Approach To Earth (1.307 AU) * Jun 02 - Asteroid 6252 Montevideo Closest Approach To Earth (1.835 AU) Jun 02 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JR1 at Opposition (33.748 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Jun 02 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 15 Launch (Soviet Venus Orbiter) Jun 04 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #48 (OTM-48) Jun 04 - Asteroid 5066 Garradd Closest Approach to Earth (0.839 AU) Jun 04 - Asteroid 1995 YV3 Closest Approach to Earth (2.840 AU - 19.7 Magnitude) Jun 05 - Mercury Passes 0.3 Degrees From Mars * Jun 05 - Asteroid 1995 WQ5 Closest Approach to Earth (1.706 AU) Jun 06 - Asteroid 6 Hebe at Opposition (9.4 Magnitude) Jun 06 - Asteroid 1994 PN Closest Approach to Earth (1.194 AU) Jun 07 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 16 Launch (Soviet Venus Orbiter) Jun 08 - Asteroid 1993 BW2 Closest Approach to Earth (0.809 AU) Jun 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 KV1 at Opposition (40.176 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Jun 09 - Thor 3 Delta 2 Launch Jun 09 - Asteroid 4183 Cuno Near-Earth Flyby (0.2079 AU) Jun 09 - Mercury at Perihelion Jun 10 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Explorer 49 Launch (Moon Orbiter) Jun 11 - Asteroid 5370 Taranis Closest Approach To Earth (1.450 AU) * Jun 11 - Asteroid 4166 Pontryagin Closest Appoarch To Earth (1.673 AU) Jun 12 - Intelsat 805 Atlas IIAS Launch * Jun 13 - Asteroid 4088 (1986 GG) Closest Approach To Earth (1.359 AU) Jun 14 - Asteroid 18 Melpomene at Opposition (9.6 Magnitude) Jun 15 - Asteroid 211 Isolda Occults PPM 195267 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Jun 15 - 10th Anniversary (1988), First Flight of the Ariane-4 Rocket Jun 16 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Vostok 6 Launch (1st Woman in Space) Jun 17 - Moon Occults Jupiter Jun 17 - Asteroid 1994 AH2 Near-Earth Flyby (0.1930 AU) Jun 17 - Mercury Occults 78331 (6.5 Magnitude Star) * Jun 17 - Asteroid 3874 Stuart Closest Approach To Earth (1.553 AU) Jun 18 - Asteroid 59 Elpis Occults PPM 203414 (9.6 Magnitude Star) Jun 18 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-7 Launch (Challenger), Anik C2, Palapa B1, 1st American Woman In Space (Sally Ride) Jun 20 - FGB (Functional Cargo Block) Proton-K Launch (Element of the International Space Station) Jun 20 - Asteroid 72 Feronia at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) Jun 21 - Summer Solstice, 14:03 UT * Jun 21 - Asteroid 5660 (1974 MA) Closest Approach To Earth (0.936 AU) * Jun 21 - Asteroid 1988 PF1 Closest Approach To Earth (1.516 AU) Jun 21 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-57 Launch (Endeavour), Spacehab-1, EURECA Jun 22 - Galaxy 10 Delta 3 Launch * Jun 22 - Moon Occults Aldebaran During Daytime Jun 22 - Asteroid 1995 LG Closest Approach to Earth (0.909 AU) Jun 22 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Discovery of Charon (Pluto's Moon) Jun 23 - Asteroid 1290 Albertine Closest Approach to Earth (1.487 AU) Jun 25 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #49 (OTM-49) Jun 25 - Asteroid 92 Undina at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Jun 26 - Mars Occults 77221 (8.0 Magnitude Star) * Jun 27 - Asteroid 4769 Castalia Closest Approach To Earth (1.232 AU) * Jun 27 - Asteroid 3607 Naniwa Closest Approach To Earth (1.361 AU) Jun 27 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Seasat 1 Launch * Jun 29 - Asteroid 3700 Geowilliams Closest Approach to Earth (1.924 AU) Jun 29 - George Hale's 130th Birthday (1868) Jun 30 - Asteroid 1990 HA Closest Approach to Earth (1.478 AU) Jun 30 - 90th Anniversary (1908), Tunguska Explosion July 1998 Jul ?? - Celestis-03 Pegasus XL Launch * Jul 01 - Asteroid 6748 (1995 UV30) Closest Approach to Earth (1.066 AU) Jul 04 - Earth at Aphelion (1.017 AU From Sun) Jul 04 - Henrietta Leavitt's 130th Birthday (1868) Jul 05 - Asteroid 4953 (1990 MU) Closest Approach to Earth (0.615 AU) Jul 05 - Asteroid 1992 JB Closest Approach to Earth (0.872 AU) Jul 09 - STS-88 Launch, Endeavour, 1st Space Station Assembly Flight Jul 09 - Asteroid 1862 Apollo Near-Earth Flyby (0.339 AU) Jul 10 - Asteroid 7 Iris at Opposition (8.6 Magnitude) Jul 12 - Comet Arend-Rigaux Perihelion (1.371 AU) Jul 12 - 10th Anniversary (1988), Phobos 2 Launch (Soviet Mars Orbiter) Jul 14 - Moon Occults Jupiter Jul 15 - Asteroid 1993 PB Closest Approach to Earth (0.590 AU) Jul 15 - Asteroid 3551 Verenia Closest Approach to Earth (0.794 AU) * Jul 15 - Asteroid 6708 Bobbievaile Closest Approach To Earth (1.002 AU) Jul 16 - GPS IIR-3 Delta 2 Launch Jul 16 - Comet Arend-Rigaux Closest Approach to Earth (2.354 AU) Jul 17 - Mercury at Greatest Eastern Elongation (27 Degrees) Jul 17 - Asteroid 432 Pythia at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Jul 17 - Comet Russell 3 Closest Approach to Earth (1.941 AU) Jul 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #50 (OTM-50) * Jul 18 - Asteroid 6460 Bassano Closest Approach To Earth (1.481 AU) * Jul 19 - Asteroid 6232 1985 SJ3 Closest Approach To Earth (0.963 AU) * Jul 19 - Asteroid 4295 Wisse Closest Approach To Earth (1.165 AU) Jul 20 - Asteroid 43 Ariadne at Opposition (9.1 Magnitude) Jul 20 - Comet Shoemaker 1 Closest Approach to Earth (1.897 AU) Jul 21 - Galileo, Europa 16 Flyby Jul 21 - Asteroid 59 Elpis Occults TAC -106880 (11.1 Magnitude) * Jul 21 - Asteroid 4644 Oumu Closest Approach To Earth (1.375 AU) Jul 21 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 4 Launch (USSR Mars Flyby Mission) * Jul 23 - Neptune at Opposition * Jul 23 - Asteroid 6682 (1973 ST3) Closest Approach To Earth (1.484 AU) Jul 25 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #51 (OTM-51) Jul 25 - DOD US Air Force Titan 4 Launch * Jul 25 - Asteroid 4021 Dancey Closest Approach To Earth (1.143 AU) Jul 25 - Asteroid 3553 Mera Closest Approach To Earth (1.407 AU) Jul 25 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 5 Launch (USSR Mars Orbiter Mission) * Jul 26 - Asteroid 6742 Biandepei Closest Approach To Earth (1.052 AU) Jul 26 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Syncom 2 Launch, 1st Geosynchronous Satellite Jul 28 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab-3 Launch Jul 29 - South Delta-Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [3/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... August 1998 Aug ?? - Sky One Atlas IIAS Launch * Aug 01 - Wind Glove Pegasus XL Launch Aug 01 - Alpha Capricornids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 01 - Asteroid 980 Anacostia at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Aug 01 - Asteroid 1474 Beira Closest Approach to Earth (1.788 AU) Aug 01 - Maria Mitchell's 180th Birthday (1818) Aug 02 - Asteroid 29 Amphitrite at Opposition (9.2 Magnitude) Aug 02 - Asteroid 490 Veritas Occults TAC -214637 (11.2 Magnitude Star) Aug 02 - Asteroid 1993 OZ2 Closest Approach to Earth (1.096 AU) * Aug 03 - Uranus at Opposition Aug 03 - Asteroid 13 Egeria at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Aug 04 - Venus Passes 0.8 Degrees From Mars Aug 04 - Asteroid 7341 (1991 VK) Closest Approach to Earth (1.638 AU) Aug 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 6 Launch (USSR) Aug 06 - Planet B Launch (Japan Mars Mission) Aug 06 - Southern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 06 - Asteroid 1998 EC3 Closest Approach to Earth (0.455 AU) * Aug 07 - Asteroid 1989 OB Closest Approach to Earth (0.855 AU) Aug 07 - Asteroid 1997 GZ3 Closest Approach to Earth (1.500 AU) Aug 08 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Launch (Venus Atmospheric Probes) Aug 09 - Asteroid 71 Niobe at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) * Aug 09 - Asteroid 4618 Shakhovskoj Closest Approach To Earth (1.506 AU) Aug 09 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 7 Launch (USSR) Aug 10 - Venus Occults 79782 (6.9 Magnitude Star) Aug 10 - Asteroid 4886 (1981 EZ14) Closest Approach to Earth (2.113 AU) Aug 11 - Moon Occults Jupiter Aug 11 - Comet Peters-Hartley Perihelion (1.624 AU) Aug 12 - Perseids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 12 - 20th Anniversary (1978), ISEE-3/ICE Launch (Comet Mission) * Aug 13 - NEAR, 1st Optical Navigation Image Of Eros * Aug 13 - 100th Anniversary (1898), Discovery of Asteroid Eros Aug 14 - Asteroid 576 Emanuela Occults TAC +115897 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Aug 15 - Comet C/1997 J2 Meunier-Dupouy Closest Approach to Earth (2.494 AU) Aug 17 - Comet Mueller 3 Closest Approach to Earth (2.209 AU) Aug 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), 1st Test Flight of the Delta Clipper (DC-X) Aug 19 - Asteroid 1987 OA Near-Earth Flyby (0.1019 AU) Aug 19 - Asteroid 3199 Nefertiti Closest Approach to Earth (0.916 AU) Aug 19 - Asteroid 7350 (1993 VA) Closest Approach to Earth (1.414 AU) Aug 21 - Asteroid 469 Argentina Occults SAO 210535 (9.1 Magnitude Star) * Aug 22 - Eutelsat W1/Sirius-3 Ariane 4 Launch * Aug 22 - JCSat 6 Atlas IIAS Launch Aug 22 - Annular Eclipse, Visible From Indian Ocean * Aug 22 - Asteroid 4034 (1986 PA) Near-Earth Flyby (0.327 AU) Aug 23 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #52 (OTM-52) Aug 24 - Asteroid 354 Eleonora at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Aug 25 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Perihelion (1.697 AU) Aug 25 - Comet Russell 1 Perihelion (2.182 AU) Aug 25 - Northern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 26 - Panamsat-7 Ariane 4 Launch * Aug 26 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #14 (TCM-14) Aug 27 - Mercury Passes 2.2 Degrees From Venus * Aug 27 - Uranus Occults PPM 237981 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Aug 28 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Occults TAC +541187 (9.9 Magnitude Star) Aug 28 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Galileo Flyby of Ida Aug 30 - Venus Occults 98676 (8.0 Magnitude Star) Aug 30 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-8 Launch (Challenger), Insat 1B Aug 31 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (18 Degrees) * Aug 31 - Asteroid 1998 FF14 Near-Earth Flyby (0.372 AU) September 1998 Sep ?? - CRSS-2 Athena 2 Launch Sep ?? - JawSat Minuteman II Launch * Sep ?? - IKONOS 2 Launch Sep 05 - Mercury at Perihelion * Sep 05 - Jupiter Occults PPM 207856 (9.9 Magnitude Star) Sep 06 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RR20 at Opposition (42.449 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) Sep 06 - 10th Anniversary (1988), 1st Launch of the CZ-4 Launcher (China) Sep 07 - Moon Occults Jupiter Sep 07 - Venus at Perihelion Sep 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RT5 at Opposition (41.272 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Sep 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RX9 at Opposition (40.912 AU - 24.2 Magnitude) Sep 09 - Asteroid 45 Eugenia Occults GSC 12820410 (10.9 Magnitude Star) Sep 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Sep 10 - Asteroid 804 Hispania at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Sep 10 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Occults TAC +491415 (10. Magnitude Star) Sep 10 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QY9 at Opposition (28.506 AU - 21.6 Magnitude) Sep 11 - ARD/Hot Bird 5 Ariane-503 Launch Sep 11 - Mercury Passes 0.3 Degrees From Venus * Sep 12 - Asteroid 1994 TW1 Closest Approach to Earth (1.515 AU) Sep 12 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-51 Launch (Discovery), ACTS Sep 14 - GPS IIR-4 Delta 2 Launch Sep 14 - Mercury Occults 118535 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Sep 14 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Zond 5 Launch (Soviet Moon Mission) Sep 14 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Sep 16 - Jupiter at Opposition Sep 15 - EOS-1 Atlas IIAS Launch Sep 16 - Asteroid 2 Pallas at Opposition (8.2 Magnitude) * Sep 18 - Afristar/Skynet-4E Ariane 4 Launch Sep 18 - Asteroid 1991 RB Near-Earth Flyby (0.0401 AU) * Sep 19 - UHF-F9 Atlas 2A Launch Sep 19 - Moon Occults Venus Sep 19 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QH4 at Opposition (40.320 AU - 22.6 Magnitude) Sep 19 - 10th Anniversary (1988), Offeq-1 Launch, 1st Israeli Space Launch Sep 19 - 150th Anniversary (1848), William Bond's Discovery of Saturn Moon Hyperion Sep 20 - Moon Occults Mercury Sep 20 - Asteroid 1998 FL3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.050 AU) Sep 20 - Asteroid 5786 Talos Closest Approach to Earth (0.943 AU) Sep 20 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QJ4 at Opposition (33.804 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 20 - 5th Anniversary (1993), 1st Launch of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV - India) Sep 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 TX8 at Opposition (31.047 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Sep 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TO66 at Opposition (44.834 AU - 20.6 Magnitude) Sep 23 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #53 (OTM-53) Sep 23 - Autumnal Equinox, 05:37 UT Sep 23 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 RO at Opposition (30.492 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 25 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 TB at Opposition (29.128 AU - 21.8 Magnitude) Sep 26 - Galileo, Europa 17 Flyby Sep 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Posat 1 Launch, 1st Portuguese Satellite Sep 26 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Soviet Soyuz T-10A Explodes on Launch Pad, Cosmonauts Save By Launch Escape System Sep 27 - Comet Howell Perihelion (1.406 AU) * Sep 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RL13 at Opposition (43.517 AU - 26.0 Magnitude) * Sep 28 - Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Pegasus XL Launch Sep 29 - Asteroid 521 Brixia at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) Sep 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SC at Opposition (33.640 AU - 22.4 Magnitude) Sep 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TK66 at Opposition (41.873 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Sep 29 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-26 Launch (Discovery), TDRS 3, 1st Post-Challenger Shuttle Mission Sep 30 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #54 (OTM-54) Sep 30 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TR66 at Opposition (34.448 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [4/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... October 1998 * Oct ?? - Fengyun-1C Long March 4A Launch (China) Oct 01 - Orion F3 Delta 3 Launch Oct 01 - Asteroid 236 Honoria at Opposition (10.5 Magnitude) Oct 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1992 QB1 at Opposition (39.906 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Oct 01 - NASA's 40th Birthday (1958) Oct 04 - Moon Occults Jupiter Oct 04 - Asteroid 185 Eunike at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Oct 04 - Asteroid 532 Herculina at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Oct 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SB at Opposition (30.112 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 05 - Asteroid 14 Irene at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Oct 06 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RQ20 at Opposition (38.550 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 SZ10 at Opposition (30.617 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Oct 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QZ9 at Opposition (33.987 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 08 - Ejnar Hertzsprung's 125th Birthday (1873) Oct 09 - Draconids Meteor Shower Peak Oct 09 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 SZ4 at Opposition (29.285 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) Oct 10 - Comet McNaught-Hughes Closest Approach to Earth (1.707 AU) Oct 10 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 15 Venus Orbit Insertion * Oct 11 - Asteroid 1998 FR11 Near-Earth Flyby (0.346 AU) Oct 11 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 7 Launch Oct 11 - Wilhelm Olbers' 240th Birthday (1758) Oct 13 - British Interplanetary Society's 65th Birthday (1933) * Oct 14 - Insat-2E/GE-5 Ariane 4 Launch * Oct 14 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #15 (TCM-15) Oct 14 - Comet Lovas 1 Perihelion (1.69 AU) Oct 14 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Closest Approach to Earth (0.464 AU) Oct 14 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 16 Venus Orbit Insertion * Oct 15 - Deep Space 1 Delta Launch (Asteroid/Mars/Comet Flyby Mission) Oct 16 - Moon Occults Mars Oct 16 - Comet Klemola Closest Approach to Earth (1.522 AU) Oct 17 - Asteroid 44 Nysa at Opposition (9.8 Magnitude) Oct 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-58 Launch Oct 20 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TP66 at Opposition (25.403 AU - 20.7 Magnitude) Oct 21 - Orionid Meteor Shower Peak Oct 22 - Asteroid 409 Aspasia Occults SAO 75073 (9.9 Magnitude Star) Oct 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TQ66 at Opposition (33.604 AU - 21.9 Magnitude) Oct 23 - Saturn at Opposition Oct 24 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #55 (OTM-55) Oct 25 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Back 1 Hour (USA) Oct 25 - Asteroid 106 Dione at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Oct 26 - Asteroid 20 Massalia at Opposition (8.8 Magnitude) Oct 26 - Asteroid 674 Rachele at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) * Oct 27 - Asteroid 1989 NA Closest Approach To Earch (1.524 AU) Oct 27 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Canon City Meteorite Fall (Hit Garage) Oct 28 - Asteroid 7358 (1995 YA3) Closest Approach to Earth (0.438 AU) Oct 28 - Asteroid 1508 Kemi Closest Approach to Earth (1.201 AU) Oct 29 - STS-95 Launch, Endeavour, Spacehab-SM Oct 29 - Asteroid 1994 TA Closest Approach to Earth (15.923 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) * Oct 30 - Galaxy 11 Zenit 3SL Launch Oct 30 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TL66 at Opposition (34.099 AU - 20.4 Magnitude) Oct 31 - Moon Occults Jupiter Oct 31 - Asteroid 6 Hebe Occults GSC 6255-1346 (9.2 Magnitude Star) November 1998 Nov ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Aerobraking Phase 2 Begins Nov ?? - Quikscat (Quick Scattermoter) Titan II Launch * Nov ?? - Chinasat-8 Long March 3B Launch * Nov 01 - Terriers/Mublcom Pegasus XL Launch Nov 01 - Asteroid 102 Miriam Occults SAO 164159 (8.7 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Asteroid 576 Emanuela Occults TAC +096711 (10.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TS66 at Opposition (37.825 AU - 21.9 Mag) Nov 01 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Polyot 1 Launch (USSR), 1st Spacecraft With Extensive Maneuver Capability Nov 03 - Taurids Meteor Shower Peak Nov 03 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mariner 10 Launch (Venus/Mercury Flyby Mission) Nov 05 - Asteroid 15 Eunomia at Opposition (7.9 Magnitude) Nov 07 - Comet Takamizawa Perihelion (1.585 AU) Nov 08 - Asteroid 51 Nemausa at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 08 - Asteroid 4055 Magellan Closest Approach to Earth (0.983 AU) Nov 08 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Pioneer 9 Launch Nov 09 - Asteroid 69 Hesperia at Opposition (10.8 Magnitude) Nov 09 - Mercury Occults 184412 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 10 - Asteroid 46 Hestia at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 10 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Zond 6 Launch (Soviet Moon Flyby Mission) Nov 11 - Mercury Greatest Eastern Elongation (22 Degrees) Nov 12 - Argos/Orsted/Sunsat Delta 2 Launch Nov 13 - Moon Occults Mars Nov 13 - Asteroid 145 Adeona Occults PPM 736551 (10.9 Magnitude Star) Nov 13 - 20th Anniversary (1978), HEAO 2 Launch (Einstein X-Ray Observatory) Nov 15 - 10th Anniversary (1988), 1st & Only Buran Launch (Soviet Space Shuttle) Nov 15 - William Herschell's 260th Birthday (1738) * Nov 16 - Comet C/1998 G1 (LINEAR) Perihelion (2.132 AU) Nov 16 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab-4 Launch Nov 17 - Leonids Meteor Shower Peak (Potential Meteor Storm) Nov 18 - Asteroid 270 Anahita at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 19 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #56 (OTM-56) Nov 19 - Bonum Delta 2 Launch Nov 19 - Comet Kowal-Vavorva Perihelion (2.575 AU) Nov 20 - Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults PPM 709785 (9.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 21 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner Perihelion (1.034 AU) Nov 21 - Asteroid 45 Eugenia Occults SAO 94447 (8.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 22 - Galileo, Europa 18 Flyby Nov 23 - Asteroid 3753 (1986 TO) Near-Earth Flyby (0.313 AU) * Nov 24 - MCI 1 Atlas 2AS Launch Nov 24 - Asteroid 1865 Cerberus Near-Earth Flyby (0.1634 AU) Nov 25 - Asteroid FG3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.0384 AU) Nov 26 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #57 (OTM-57) Nov 26 - Asteroid 5 Astraea at Opposition (9.8 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Moon Occults Jupiter Nov 28 - Mercury Passes 0.25 Degrees From Venus Nov 28 - Asteroid 42 Isis at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Asteroid 1989 UR Near-Earth Flyby (0.058 AU) Nov 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 VK8 at Opposition (42.519 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Nov 28 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-9 Launch (Columbia), 1st Flight of Spacelab (ESA) Nov 29 - Asteroid 1 Ceres at Opposition (7.0 Magnitude) * Nov 29 - Asteroid 1992 RN1 Closest Approach To Earth (1.486 AU) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [5/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... December 1998 Dec ?? - ROCSAT Athena 1 Launch Dec ?? - Landsat 7 Delta 2 Launch Dec 02 - Kuiper Belt Object YY3 at Opposition (29.786 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Dec 02 - Mercury at Perihelion Dec 02 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-27 Launch (Atlantis), DOD Classified Mission Dec 02 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-61 Launch (Endeavour), 1st Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Dec 03 - STS-93 Launch, Space Shuttle Columbia, AXAF-1 Dec 03 - Cassini, Deep Space Maneuver (TCM-5) Dec 04 - Venus Occults 185332 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 04 - Asteroid 1866 Sisypus Near-Earth Flyby (0.338 AU) Dec 04 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus, Venus Orbit Insertion Dec 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Pioneer 10, Jupiter Flyby * Dec 06 - ICO Atlas 2AS Launch Dec 06 - Asteroid 3362 Khufu Near-Earth Flyby (0.364 AU) Dec 06 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Pioneer 3 Launch (Moon Flyby Mission) Dec 07 - Cassini at Aphelion (1.58 AU) * Dec 08 - Asteroid 1985 UJ Closest Approach To Earth (0.922 AU) Dec 09 - STS-96 Launch, Endeavour, ISS-2 (Spacehab-DM), Logistics Carrier Dec 09 - Asteroid 6524 Baalke at Opposition (1.251 AU - 15.0 Magnitude) Dec 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Landing on Venus Dec 10 - Mars Climate Orbiter Delta 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter) Dec 11 - Asteroid 52 Europa at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Dec 11 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77824 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3122 Florence Closest Approach to Earth (1.092 AU) Dec 12 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 WY2 at Opposition (46.432 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) * Dec 13 - DOD US Air Force Titan 4 Launch * Dec 14 - Asteroid 4957 Brucemurray Closest Approach to Earth (0.718 AU) * Dec 15 - TSX-5 Pegasus XL Launch Dec 17 - LORAL Atlas 2 Launch Dec 17 - 95th Anniversary (1903), Wright Brothers' 1st Airplane Flight * Dec 20 - NEAR, 1st Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-1) Dec 20 - Mercury At Its Greatest Western Elongation (21 Degrees) Dec 20 - 1st Day Of Ramadan Dec 21 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 21 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 8 Launch Dec 22 - Winter Solstice, 01:55 UT Dec 22 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Closest Approach to Earth (1.098 AU) Dec 22 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77608 (8.8 Magnitude Star) * Dec 23 - Cassini, Probe Checkout #3 * Dec 23 - Comet C/1998 G1 (LINEAR)</a> Cosest Approach to Earth (1.982 AU) Dec 24 - Asteroid 49 Pales Occults PPM 206242 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Dec 25 - Moon Occults Jupiter Dec 25 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Venus Flyby/Landing * Dec 26 - NEAR, Initial Search For Eros Satellites Dec 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #58 (OTM-58) * Dec 28 - NEAR, 2nd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-2) * Dec 28 - NEAR, 3rd Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-3) Dec 29 - Asteroid 132 Aethra at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) January 1999 * Jan 01 - Asteroid 6053 (1993 BW3) Closest Approach To Earth (0.585 AU) Jan 02 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Luna 1 Launch (1st Moon Mission) Jan 03 - Mars Polar Lander Delta 2 Launch * Jan 03 - NEAR, 4th Eros Rendezvous Braking Maneuver (RND-4) Jan 03 - Quadrantids Meteor Shower Peak Jan 04 - Earth at Perihelion (0.983 AU From Sun) Jan 05 - Venus Passes 1.7 Degrees From Neptune Jan 05 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 5 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) * Jan 09 - Cassini At Opposition Jan 10 - NEAR, Asteroid Eros Orbit Insertion (OCM-1) Jan 10 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 6 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Jan 11 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Closest Approach to Earth (0.875 AU) Jan 13 - Venus Passes 0.9 Degrees From Uranus Jan 13 - Mars Occults 139407 (7.1 Magnitude Star) Jan 13 - Olin Wilson's 90th Birthday (1909) Jan 14 - STS-92 Launch, Atlantis, ISS-3 (3-Person Permanent Habitation) Jan 15 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CU29 at Opposition (43.808 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) Jan 16 - 30th Anniversary (1969), 1st Manned Vehicle Docking & 1st Crew Exchange (Soyuz 4 & 5) Jan 17 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CS29 at Opposition (42.620 - 21.4 Magnitude) Jan 18 - Asteroid 1991 VE Near-Earth Flyby (0.1434 AU) * Jan 20 - NEAR, OCM-2, Eros Orbit 401x200 km Jan 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CW29 at Opposition (41.495 AU - 22.8 Magnitude) Jan 25 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Clementine Launch (Moon Orbiter) Jan 25 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Echo 2 Launch, 1st Joint US-USSR Program * Jan 27 - NEAR, OCM-3, Eros Orbit 205x195 km Jan 27 - Mercury Passes 2.2 Degrees From Neptune Jan 27 - Comet Harrington-Abell Perihelion (1.758 AU) * Jan 28 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #6 (TCM-6) Jan 29 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #59 (OTM-59) Jan 29 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Phobos 2 Mars Orbit Insertion February 1999 * Feb ?? - ADEOS II H-2 Launch (Japan) * Feb ?? - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) Pegasus XL Launch Feb 01 - Galileo, Europa 19 Flyby Feb 02 - Mercury Passes 1.5 Degrees From Uranus Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), STS-60 Launch (Discovery), 1st Russian Cosmonaut on Space Shuttle, Wake Shield Facility Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of NASDA H-2 Launch Vehicle (Japan) Feb 03 - 15th Anniversary (1984), STS-41B Launch (Challenger), 1st Untethered Spacewalk (Manned Maneuvering Unit) Feb 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DB2 at Opposition (39.299 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #60 (OTM-60) * Feb 05 - NEAR, OCM-4, Eros Orbit 205x85 km Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DA2 at Opposition (33.070 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CT29 at Opposition (43.893 AU - 21.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10 Venus Flyby Feb 06 - STARDUST Delta 2 Launch (Comet Sample Return Mission) Feb 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CR29 at Opposition (41.011 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) Feb 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CV29 at Opposition (39.590 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Feb 08 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of CZ-3A Launcher (China) * Feb 10 - Asteroid 4596 (1981 QB) Closest Approach To Earth (1.131 AU) Feb 10 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 4 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) * Feb 11 - Pluto Crosses Neptune's Orbit And Becomes the Farthest Planet From the Sun * Feb 12 - NEAR, OCM-5, Eros Orbit 102x99 km Feb 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 5 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Feb 15 - Galileo Galilei's 435th Birthday (1564) Feb 16 - Annular Eclipse, Visible From Central Australia Feb 16 - Chinese New Year Feb 17 - Moon Occults Mercury * Feb 22 - NEAR, OCM-6, Eros Orbit 510x98 km Feb 23 - Venus Passes 0.1 Degrees From Jupiter Feb 25 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 6 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) Feb 25 - 50th Anniversary (1949), WAC Corporal Launch * Feb 27 - NEAR, OCM-7, Eros Orbit 500x100 km Feb 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CQ29 at Opposition (40.142 AU - 22.6 Magnitude) Feb 28 - Mercury at Perihelion Feb 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DC2 at Opposition (40.172 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Feb 28 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Discoverer 1 Launch (1st Polar Orbiter) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 27 апреля 1998 (1998-04-27) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - April 26, 1998 [6/6] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... March 1999 Mar ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Mapping Begins Mar ?? - Lunar-A M5 Launch (Japan Moon Mission) * Mar ?? - Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Launch * Mar ?? - CATSAT Ultralite Launch Mar 03 - Mercury At Its Greatest Eastern Elongation (18 Degrees) Mar 03 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Apollo 9 Launch Mar 03 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Pioneer 4 Launch (1st US Moon Flyby) Mar 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 ES2 at Opposition (44.307 AU - 24.0 Magnitude) Mar 05 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Voyager 1 Flyby of Jupiter Mar 08 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Perihelion (1.770 AU) * Mar 09 - NEAR, OCM-8, Eros Orbit 165x50 km Mar 09 - Comet Skiff-Kosai Perihelion (2.789 AU) Mar 09 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 7 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Mar 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 6 Mars Flyby/Landing (Soviet Union) Mar 14 - Albert Einstein's 120th Birthday (1879) * Mar 15 - NEAR, OCM-9, Eros Orbit 56x49 km Mar 16 - Comet Shoemaker 1 Perihelion (1.979 AU) Mar 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #61 (OTM-61) Mar 18 - Asteroid 1991 TB1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.1632 AU) Mar 19 - Venus Passes 2.4 Degrees From Saturn Mar 21 - Vernal Equinox, 01:46 UT Mar 21 - Comet Mueller 3 Perihelion (3.011 AU) Mar 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 GV9 at Opposition (41.230 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Mar 22 - Galileo Enters Solar Conjunction Mar 26 - Asteroid 1992 SK Near-Earth Flyby (0.0560 AU) Mar 27 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 7 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) Mar 28 - Pierre Simon Laplace's 250th Birthday (1749) Mar 29 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10, 1st Mercury Flyby * Mar 30 - NEAR, OCM-10, Eros Orbit 55x33 km April 1999 * Apr 01 - Asteroid 1863 Antinous Near-Earth Flyby (0.1894 AU) * Apr 02 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Selection Of The Mercury 7 Astronauts * Apr 03 - Comet Schorr Perihelion (2.847 AU) * Apr 04 - Easter Sunday * Apr 04 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Ahead 1 Hour (North America) * Apr 06 - Comet Singer-Brewster Perihelion (2.032 AU) * Apr 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 FW at Opposition (40.975 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) * Apr 08 - STS-97 Launch, Discovery, International Space Station 4 * Apr 08 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #7 (TCM-7) * Apr 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 HM5 at Opposition (31.060 AU - 23.0 Magntude) * Apr 08 - 35th Anniversary (1964), Gemini 1 Launch (Unmanned) * Apr 10 - Galileo Exits Solar Conjunction * Apr 10 - Moon Occults Neptune * Apr 11 - Moon Occults Uranus * Apr 11 - Venus Occults 76150 (7.7 Magnitude Star) * Apr 12 - 150th Anniversary (1849), de Gasparis' Discovery of Asteroid Hygiea * Apr 14 - Moon Occults Mercury * Apr 14 - Christian Huygens' 370th Birthday (1629) * Apr 16 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (27.5 Degrees) * Apr 16 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 EV3 at Opposition (43.701 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) * Apr 20 - Cassini, 2nd Venus Flyby * Apr 20 - Lyrids Meteor Shower Peak * Apr 20 - Venus at Perihelion * Apr 24 - Mars At Opposition * Apr 25 - NEAR, OCM-11, Eros Orbit 35x35 km * Apr 27 - Asteroid 1989 ML Near-Earth Flyby (0.2520 AU) * Apr 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JQ1 at Opposition (41.9 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) * Apr 28 - Comet Bowell-Skiff Perihelion (1.972 AU) ___ _____ ___ /_ /| /____/ \ /_ /| Ron Baalke | baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov | | | | __ \ /| | | | Jet Propulsion Lab | ___| | | | |__) |/ | | |__ Pasadena, CA | The truth always turns out /___| | | | ___/ | |/__ /| | to be simpler than you |_____|/ |_|/ |_____|/ | thought. Richard Feynman Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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