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    Дата: 16 апреля 1998 (1998-04-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Students Observe Impact Of Space Travel On Nervous System Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Brian Dunbar Headquarters, Washington, DC April 13, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-0873) John Bluck Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (Phone: 650/604-5026) RELEASE 98-62 STUDENTS OBSERVE IMPACT OF SPACE TRAVEL ON NERVOUS SYSTEM Students from around the world are learning about the next Space Shuttle mission, calledNeurolab, by logging onto the Internet at: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/neuron They are learning how scientists, technicians and astronauts are preparing for the STS-90 mission, scheduled for liftoff April 16. Neurolab will study the effects of weightlessness on the nervous system. "NASA is breaking a time barrier by enabling students to interact with Neurolab researchers via the Internet long before any new information is printed in textbooks," said Linda Conrad, NeurOn (Neurolab Online) Project Manager at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. "About 50 scientists, engineers and the Shuttle and ground crews are working with students and educators through the Internet project." The NASA on-line mentors upload biographies and field journals to the NeurOn Internet pages. NASA employees from Ames, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, and Kennedy Space Center, FL, will answer students' e-mail questions and will participate in "Web chats" with youngsters and teachers. During Internet chats, young people use computers to converse with mentors by typing questions and reading responses and dialogue via the World Wide Web. NASA scientists note that, even after 50 years, they know very little about the way the brain and nervous system are affected by space flight. NASA's Neurolab mission is expected to answer many questions about the way the nervous system reacts to microgravity. There are 26 experiments scheduled for Neurolab. "Lesson plans for teachers are available on the website so they can more easily integrate NeurOn activities related to the experiments into the classroom," Conrad said. The young students monitor activities of ground crew members as they assemble hardware and prepare provisions such as food and water, for the 16-day mission aboard the Shuttle Columbia. A seven-member astronaut crew will conduct the experiments. In their classrooms, students will simulate mission activities to better understand the Neurolab mission. The NeurOn website includes a section that displays projects for youngsters and galleries of student work. The NeurOn project is one of many Internet offerings from NASA's Quest Project at: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov These interactive projects connect students with NASA employees and are designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in high technology. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 апреля 1998 (1998-04-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Second MGS Image of Cydonia Region Available Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... The second image of the Cydonia Region taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft is now available here: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/target/CYD2/index.html If you have trouble getting to this website, try one of the MGS mirror sites listed below. The raw image and 2 enhanced images are available. The image caption is appended below. Ron Baalke NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JET PROPULSION LABORATORY PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 91109 MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov RAW IMAGE POSTED - April 14, 1998 6:30 PM Pacific Daylight Savings Time CONTRAST ENHANCED IMAGES POSTED - April 14, 1998 8:30 PM Pacific Daylight Savings Time CYDONIA OBSERVATION #2 PHOTO CAPTION Orbit: 239 Range: 331.07 km Resolution: 2.5 m/pixel Image dimensions: 1024 X 9600 pixels, 2.5 km x 24 km Line time: 0.35 msec Emission angle: 2.35 degrees Incidence angle: 66.77 degrees Phase angle: 68.81 degrees Scan rate: ~0.15 degree/sec Start time: periapsis + 375 sec Sequence submitted to JPL: Mon 04/13/98 16:40 PDT Image acquired by MOC: Tue 04/14/98 07:02:17 PDT Data retrieved from JPL: Tue 04/14/98 17:30 PDT JPL Clarification: Tue 04/14/98 8:30 PM PDT Image is approximately 1.5 kilometers to the left of the targeted region. Please note that the original RAW IMAGE file is in the orientation as it was received from the spacecraft. All enhanced versions are flipped from left to right to yield the correct orientation. This was done so that the images are in the same orientation as the Viking data. Please also note that we are still querying the Deep Space Network Stations for data. If all data can be recovered the black band in lower portion of the image should be corrected. Processing Performed by Tim J. Parker, Geologist Mars Pathfinder Science Support, JPL. Image Processing Steps: (1) Vertical banding in raw image removed using Vicar software with long, narrow, highpass box filter, oriented parallel to banding in image. (2) Performed moderate histogram stretch in Adobe Photoshop on Macintosh desktop computer. (3) "Flattened" broad shading variations in scene by copying image and creating a "mask" in Photoshop with the shading inverted with respect to the original image. This mask was then merged with original scene and a second histogram stretch performed. Quick Reference to Mars Global Surveyor Mirror Sites Sites with Fast Update Capability Name MGS Mirror Site Address Bandwidth Update Delay Silicon Graphics - http://mars.sgi.com/mgs 200 Mbps 3 Minutes USA Sun - USA http://www.sun.com/mars/mgs 200 Mbps 20 Minutes Digital - USA http://entertainment.digital.com/mars/JPL/mgs 200 Mbps 10 Minutes SDSC - USA http://mars.sdsc.edu/mgs 155 Mbps 10 Minutes Blue Chip - ENGLAND http://www.bchip.com/mars/mgs 155 Mbps 15 Minutes Excite - USA http://mars.excite.com/mars/mgs 155 Mbps 20 Minutes AOL - USA http://mars.primehost.com/mgs 100 Mbps 10 Minutes NASA AMES - USA http://mpfwww.arc.nasa.gov/mgs 100 Mbps 2 Minutes Keyway - USA http://pathfinder.keyway.net/pathfinder/mgs 90 Mbps 3 Minutes NCSA - USA http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/mars/mgs 55 Mbps 2 Minutes NASA KSC - USA http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/mars/mgs 55 Mbps 3 Minutes CSIRO - AUSTRALIA http://sparkli.tip.csiro.au/mars/mgs 34 Mbps 2 Minutes WEB2MIL - URUGUAY http://web2mil.intercanal.com/mars/mgs 10 Mbps 2 Minutes PGD - USA http://mars.pgd.hawaii.edu/mgs 10 Mbps 2 Minutes Riken - JAPAN http://riksun1.riken.go.jp/JPL/mgs 6 Mbps 2 Minutes NASDA - JAPAN http://mars.tksc.nasda.go.jp/JPL/mgs 1.5 Mbps 2 Minutes IKI - RUSSIA http://www.iki.rssi.ru/jplmirror/mars/mgs 0.512 Mbps 5 Minutes THOS - SOUTH AFRICA http://www.southafrica.co.za/mars/mgs 0.128 Mbps 2 Minutes Sites with Same Day Update Capability Name MGS Mirror Site Address Bandwidth Max Update Delay Catlin - USA http://mars.catlin.edu/mgs 20 Mbps 1 Hour Hewlette Packard - http://mars.hp.com/mgs 10 Mbps 1 Hour USA Sunsite - DENMARK http://sunsite.auc.dk/mars/mgs 3 Mbps 1 Hour Ihighway - USA http://mars.ihighway.net/mgs 3 Mbps 1 Hour CNES - FRANCE http://www-mars.cnes.fr/mgs 3 Mbps 30 Minutes Sussex - ENGLAND http://tc.cpes.susx.ac.uk/mars/mgs 2 Mbps 1 Hour Apranet - http://mars.arpanet.ch/mgs 2 Mbps 30 Minutes SWITZERLAND Egnatia - GREECE http://www.egnatia.ee.auth.gr/mirrors/mars/mgs 2 Mbps 1 Hour Provider - POLAND http://mars.provider.com.pl/mgs 2 Mbps 1 Hour FHO - GERMANY http://spot.fho-emden.de/nasa/mgs 2 Mbps 12 Hours Webdesign - HUNGARY http://mars.webdesign.hu/mgs 1.5 Mbps 30 Minutes SCI-CTR - SINGAPORE http://www.sci-ctr.edu.sg/mars/mgs 0.128 Mbps 12 Hours Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 апреля 1998 (1998-04-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Views Viking 1 Landing Site Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/msss/camera/images/4_14_98_vl1_release/index.html Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera MOC Views Viking Lander 1 Site Through Dust Storm Clouds Shortly after 08:32 PDT on 12 April 1998, the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft pointed the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) towards the location of the Viking Lander 1 near 22.48° N, 47.97° W. During acquisition of the 2.7 meter (8.8 foot) per pixel (projected resolution) image, the spacecraft was about 640 km from the site, viewing down from space at an angle of 31.64 °. The local illumination conditions at the time were equivalent to a local martian solar time of 9:20 AM. [Image] MOC 23501 (red) and 23502 (blue) Wide Angle Context Image (showing location of MOC 23503) (JPEG = 825 KB) The figure above shows the wide-angle view of the region during the orbit 235 observations. This view, a map projection, shows an image area of about 310 km wide by 290 km, at a scale of 300 meters (985 feet) per pixel. The green channel of this image was synthesized from the red and blue channels. Noted by a white box is the outline of the MOC high resolution (narrow angle) image (MOC 23503). A well-developed local dust storm dominates this view of the planet. Plumes from the storm suggest that the wind is blowing from lower left to wards the upper right. The slightly dark zone around the dust cloud may be surface that has been swept clean of a fraction of the mobile dust. The dust cloud obscures most of the landing site as seen in this image. [Image] Viking Orbiter 027A63 showing location of MOC 23503 (GIF = 2.2 MB) This figure shows the location of the MOC high resolution image, as seen on a Viking Orbiter frame. The map-projected VO frame (027A63) shown here has a displayed scale of 28 meters (92 feet) per pixel. The Viking image was acquired on 17 July 1976 at 3:07 AM PDT. The Viking Lander 1 site is on a relatively smooth plain in Chryse Planitia. Seen in this Viking image are two important attributes of this location: brightness "streaks" associated with impact craters and irregular, almost sinuous ridges. The dark streaks pointing towards the northeast are consistent with the direction of winter, downslope winds (as seen in the present dust storm). Such dark streaks usually develop as light-colored dust is kicked up by turbulence behind the crater and then transported away by the wind. The ridges are believed to reflect tectonic forces associated with the ground's adjustment to the weight of material filling the Chryse basin. The origin of the fill is not certain: it may be lava flows, flood debris, or both. [Image] MOC 23503 full frame at 1/8th resolution (GIF = 283 KB) This figure shows the MOC image 23503 at roughly the same scale as the Viking image (22 meters, or 71 feet, per pixel). Remarkably, despite the cloudiness seen in the low resolution wide-angle images, considerable surface detail is visible. The MOC image shows two phenomena associated with the dust cloudy atmosphere--a reduction in contrast caused by the haziness of the atmosphere and a light and dark mottling that reflects local variations in cloud thickness (not particularly the light patches at the extreme top and bottom of the image). Note that this version of the image has been processed to enhance both small detail while trying to retain the overall brightness variations. The dark band near the center of the image represents data lost during the tranmsission and transport of the image to Malin Space Science Systems. [Image]< [Image] (Left) Mosaic of Viking Orbiter 452B11 (left) and 452B10 (right) (GIF = 292 KB) (Right) MOC 23503 (partial frame) (GIF = 2.13 MB) The left-hand image, above, is a section out of a mosaic of two Viking Orbiter very high resolution images, also taken under less-than-optimum illumination and atmospheric conditions. The two Viking frames (452B10 and 452B11) were map-projected to a common scale of 7 meters (22.8 feet) per pixel and portions mosaicked. The white arrow points to the approximate position of the lander, as determined by Morris and Jones (Icarus 44, 217-222, 1980) from matching features seen in lander images with features seen in these orbiter pictures. Owing to atmospheric hazes and some residual spacecraft motion-blur, the effective scale of these images is probably between 10 and 12 meters (33 and 40 feet) per pixel. The right-hand view, above, is a section of MOC narrow angle frame 23503 that covers the same area as seen in the highest resolution Viking images. This map-projected picture has a scale of 2.7 meters (9 feet) per pixel. However, defocus of the camera and, more importantly, atmospheric haze, reduces the effective scale of this image to about 4 meters (13 feet) per pixel. This scale is insufficient to resolve the Viking Lander, and the image shows no indication of the presence of the lander. The scale is also marginal for distinguishing large rocks. Some can be seen as part of the ejecta of the larger craters in the scene (especially around the fresh crater about a kilometer to the west of the landing site). Although the MOC image is about 3 times higher resolution than the Viking image, the combination of non-vertical viewing, the less-than-optimum illumination conditions, and the substantial atmospheric contribution to image degradation, all lead to an image that does not address the major outstanding questions regarding the site. Images acquired if the spacecraft passes over the landing site during the mapping will be substantially better. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 апреля 1998 (1998-04-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: John McNamee Chosen To Head Outer Planets/Solar Probe Projects Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Jane Platt FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 15, 1998 MCNAMEE CHOSEN TO HEAD NASA'S OUTER PLANETS/SOLAR PROBE PROJECTS Dr. John McNamee, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, has been appointed project manager for Outer Planets/Solar Probe, which encompasses three planned missions-- Europa Orbiter, Pluto-Kuiper Express and Solar Probe. McNamee will continue in his present role as project manager of the 1998 Mars Surveyor mission, with Outer Planets/Solar Probe as an additional role. After the launches of the Mars '98 Climate Orbiter on December 10, 1998, and the Mars '98 Polar Lander on January 3, 1999, McNamee will assume management of Outer Planets/Solar Probe on a full-time basis. Robert Staehle, former manager for the Ice and Fire Preprojects, has been named deputy project manager for Outer Planets/Solar Probe. "We'll travel to three completely different destinations from the beginning to the end of the solar system," McNamee said, "from the Sun to Jupiter's moon Europa to Pluto and the Kuiper Disk." Europa Orbiter will look for evidence of liquid oceans on the icy moon Europa, while Solar Probe will swoop closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft, and Pluto-Kuiper Express will fly past Pluto, its moon Charon and into the distant Kuiper Disk. McNamee has served as the 1998 Mars Surveyor project manager since May 1995. Before that, he was manager of the Mars Exploration Preprojects and mission design manager for the Mars Pathfinder project. His nine-year career at JPL has also included positions as engineering office deputy manager and navigation team chief for the Magellan mission to Venus. His work on Magellan earned him NASA's Exceptional Service Award. McNamee was born in Fort Sill, OK, but spent most of his youth in Hollywood, FL. He earned his bachelor of science degree in economics from the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, in 1975, and went on to receive a master's degree and doctorate from the University of Texas, Austin. JPL manages the 1998 Mars Climate Orbiter and 1998 Mars Polar Lander mission and the Outer Planets/Solar Probe projects for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 16 апреля 1998 (1998-04-16) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Update - April 10, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... STARDUST Status Report April 10, 1998 Ken Atkins STARDUST Project Manager Activity continued to increase related to assembly of the flight system. The Flight Cometary & Interstellar Dust Analyzer (CIDA) was delivered by the team from Germany's Max Planck Institute. Initial setups and checkouts were completed demonstrating the instrument's capability to transmit examples of the kind of data it will collect in flight. Some very important progress was also made by the navigation camera team as they completed testing and calibration at JPL in preparation for next week's delivery to Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado. This camera will be used to provide pictures to the navigators as they make the final course corrections for the cometary flythrough. It will also be the instrument for taking the "up-close-and-personal" images of Comet Wild 2 as the spacecraft cruises some 150 miles (about 240 kilometers) above the now-unknown surface of the comet's nucleus. The team at Lockheed Martin Astronautics also completed some deployment testing on the spacecraft's solar array demonstrating how Stardust will "spread its wings" following launch and separation from the launch rocket. Finally, a test unit of the aerogel collector was reviewed in preparation for using it to test how we will keep it extremely clean during its installation and launch. It is partially loaded with examples of flight-quality aerogel. Photos of the collector, the dust analyzer instrument and navigation camera are available by clicking the "photogallery" button (http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/photo/spacecraft.html) on the website. For more information on the STARDUST mission - the first ever comet sample return mission - please visit the STARDUST home page: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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