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Январь 1999
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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 28 января 1999


    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ракете Delta с тремя спутниками на борту не дает взлететь ветер Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ракете Delta с тремя спутниками на борту не дает взлететь ветер [SpaceViews] Hачиная с 15 января уже 6 раз назначалось время старта для ракеты-носителя Boeing Delta 2 с тремя спутниками на борту. И уже шесть раз старт с космодрома на базе ВВС США Ванденберг откладывался из-за сильного ветра в верхних слоях атмосферы. Очередная шестая попытка старта была намечена на 26 января в 13 ч 35 мин по московскому времени и опять из-за ветра запуск отложен, на этот раз на сутки. Основным грузом ракеты Delta 2 является исследовательский спутник ВВС США ARGOS весом 2700 кг. Кроме него Delta должна вывести на орбиту датский научный спутник Orsted, который будет заниматься исследованием электро-магнитных полей Земли, и южно-африканский спутник Sunsat, который будет использоваться в экспериментах радиолюбителей. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceDev будет разрабатывать небольшой космический корабль для Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SpaceDev будет разрабатывать небольшой космический корабль для исследования Марса [SpaceViews] Компания SpaceDev получила контракт от Лаборатории реактивного движения (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL) по разработке возможных конструкций небольшого универсального космического корабля для исследования Марса. Контракт рассчитан на два месяца, в течение которых SpaceDev должна представить возможную конструкцию миниатюрного космического корабля, который можно было бы использовать в качестве научного зонда, коммуникационного орбитального ретранслятора или носителя для спускаемых аппаратов в возможных будущих марсианских миссиях. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Плутон собираются вычеркнуть из списка планет Солнечной системы Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Плутон собираются вычеркнуть из списка планет Солнечной системы Hазревает беспрецедентное событие - Плутон собираются вычеркнуть из списка планет Солнечной системы. Эта самая маленькая и самая удаленная от Солнца планета была открыта совсем недавно - в 1930 г. Теперь же некоторые астрономы считают, что Плутон никогда не был достоин называться планетой наравне с Юпитером, Сатурном или Землей. Плутон по своим характеристикам выбивается из ряда планет Солнечной системы. По размерам он в полтора раза меньше Луны. Кроме того он меньше еще шести спутников планет Солнечной системы. Его диаметр составляет всего 2200 км. Орбиты всех планет почти круговые, и только у Плутона орбита явно эллиптическая. По вопросу "разжалования" Плутона Международный астрономический союз собирается провести голосование, результатом которого может стать перевод Плутона в разряд "малых планет", коих насчитывается около 10 тысяч, или переименование его в "транс-нептунный объект", или TN-1, то есть Плутон перейдет в разряд ледяных астероидов из пояса Куипера и Солнечная система лишится одной из своих планет. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Плутон собираются вычеркнуть... (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file pluton.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 pluton.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$!+`$L``#_VP!#``4#!`0$`P4$!`0%!04&!PP(!P<' M!P\+"PD,$0\2$A$/$1$3%AP7$Q0:%1$1&"$8&AT='Q\?$Q<B)"(>)!P>'Q[_ MVP!#`04%!0<&!PX("`X>%!$4'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX> M'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'A[_P``1"`#N`.D#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Rosetta - самый амбициозный проект Европейского космического агентства Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Rosetta - самый амбициозный проект Европейского космического агентства [SpaceViews] Европейское космическое агентство приняло решение о продолжении работ над двумя крупными научными проектами, несмотря на то, что для одного из них источники финансирования пока не определены. Заметный прогресс имеется в реализации наиболее амбициозного проекта Rosetta, предусматривающего запуск космического зонда к комете Виртанена. Зонд Rosetta (на рисунке) должен будет выйти на орбиту вокруг кометы и отправить на поверхность ее ядра спускаемый аппарат. В ходе этой миссии должны быть получены данные о составе, структуре и других физических свойствах ядра кометы и ее хвоста из газа и пыли. Ученые надеются, что полученная информация поможет понять процесс образования солнечной системы. Имя космическому зонду Rosetta было дано в честь Розетты Стоун (Rosetta Stone), которая помогла археологам расшифровать египетские иероглифы. Запуск космического зонда Rosetta запланирован на 2003 г. В космос его выведет ракета-носитель Ariane 5. Rosetta долетит до кометы Виртанена через восемь лет после старта, после того как два раза пролетит вблизи Земли, один раз вблизи Марса и мимо двух астероидов. Второй крупный проект Европейского космического агентства - отправка в 2003 г. космического зонда Mars Express для исследования Марса, который выйдя на орбиту этой планеты отправит на ее поверхность спускаемый аппарат. Пока деньги есть только на исследовательскую работу, которая будет выполнена компанией Matra Marconi Space. Источники финансирования опытно-конструкторских работ должны быть определены в мае на совещании министров стран-участниц Европейского космического агентства. Предполагается, что стоимость проекта не превысит 150 млн евро (174 млн дол.) Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Rosetta (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-01261.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-01261.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`")`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ракета Athena вывела на орбиту тайваньский спутник Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ракета Athena вывела на орбиту тайваньский спутник [SpaceViews] Во вторник 26 января (3 ч 34 мин 27 января по московскому времени) с космодрома на мысе Канаверал стартовала ракета Lockheed Martin Athena 1 с экспериментальным тайваньским спутником ROCSAT-1. Это был третий старт ракеты Athena 1, которая способна вывести на околоземную орбиту груз в 795 кг. Следующая версия этой ракеты - Athena 2 - имеет более высокую грузоподъемность - 1975 кг. ROCSAT-1 - это первый спутник, запущенный в соответствии с тайваньской программой мирного использования космоса. Этот спутник, построенный совместно с аэрокосмической компанией TRW, предназначен для проведения физических и телекоммуникационных экспериментов, а также для океанографических исследований. Это был второй запуск с новой стартовой площадки на космодроме на мысе Канаверал. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ракета Athena вывела на орбиту тайваньский спутник (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-01272.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-01272.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`"5`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Подписано соглашение по запускам телекоммуникационных спутников систем Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Подписано соглашение по запускам телекоммуникационных спутников системы Globalstar В Москве во время визита госсекретаря США Мадлен Олбрайт было подписано соглашение между США, Россией и Казахстаном о запуске низкоорбитальных спутников системы глобальной связи Globalstar. Отсутствие такого соглашение не позволяло американским компаниям запускать свои спутники на российских ракетах-носителях. Сразу же после подписания соглашения компания Globalstar объявила о том, что в период с февраля по декабрь 1999 г. она планирует запустить 44 своих телекоммуникационных спутников. Первые 4 спутника Globalstar будут запущены ракетой-носителем "Союз" с космодрома Байконур не позднее середины февраля. К апрелю планируется произвести еще 3 запуска. Затем с мая по август запуски будут производиться с помощью ракет Delta 2 по 4 спутника на каждой. Hа сентябрь и октябрь запланированы 2 запуска ракеты "Союз", и еще 2 запуска Delta 2 будут произведены в ноябре и декабре. 8 спутников Globalstar уже находятся в космосе. Если все пойдет по плану, то к лету на орбите будут находиться 36 спутников, и можно будет начинать ограниченную коммерческую эксплуатацию системы глобальной телефонной связи. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Подписано соглашение по запускам (картинка) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 1 of file sv-01273.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 sv-01273.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0```0`!``#_VP!#``<%!@8&!0<&!@8("`<)"Q(,"PH* M"Q<0$0T2&Q<<'!H7&AD=(2HD'1\H(!D:)3(E*"PM+S`O'2,T.#0N-RHN+R[_ MVP!#`0@("`L*"Q8,#!8N'AH>+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN M+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+BXN+B[_P``1"`#(`,@#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Update - January 22, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... STARDUST Status Report January 22, 1999 Ken Atkins STARDUST Project Manager Launch Operations this week: Close out activities in preparation for launch continued on the spacecraft. Specifically, solar array fold and close-out and finishing of Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) thermal protection. The final cleaning of the navigation camera periscope system was completed. The final mechanism walkdown was also completed and spacecraft observed to be very clean. The propellant loading operation went exactly as planned and thruster latch valves were closed completing readiness for mating with the Star 37 upper stage. On Wednesday, the Flight Operations Team completed another rehearsal of the launch and initial acquisition of telemetry from the spacecraft. This test used software running in the spacecraft test lab in Denver to simulate the flying spacecraft. It provided telemetry from "scripts" to give the team the full exercise of its monitoring ground system. The team got an excellent workout and gained confidence on exactly what to expect on launch day. Just prior to this event the Star 37 upper stage arrived at the high bay in preparation for next week's lifting, final weighing of the spacecraft and mating. Once the spacecraft is mounted on its upper stage, the assembly will be placed in its transport cannister for moving STARDUST to Space Launch Complex 17A (SLC-17A). We are two weeks from Launch!! I am looking forward to seeing many of you here in Florida for that event. And for those not able to be here, I hope you'll be able to view the real time action on NASA TV. Contact your cable operator to be sure you get the NASA channel. I expect we will also be available here on the web site. It's time to "Go Boeing Delta! Go STARDUST!" For more information on the STARDUST mission - the first ever comet sample return mission - please visit the STARDUST home page: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: UK Looks Forward to Next Generation Space Telescope (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Royal Astronomical Society Press Notice Date: 25 January 1999 Ref. PN 99/03 Issued by: Peter Bond Space Science Advisor 10 Harrier Close, Cranleigh, Surrey, GU6 7BS, United Kingdom Phone: (0)1483-268672 Fax: (0)1483-274047 E-mail: 100604.1111@compuserve.com Contacts for Further Information Professor Martin Ward. Tel: +44 (0)116-252-3494/3540. E-mail: mjw@star.le.ac.uk Dr. Roger Davies. Tel: +44 (0)191-374-2163 E-mail: roger.davies@durham.ac.uk Dr. Gillian Wright. Tel: +44 (0)131-668-8248. E-mail: gsw@roe.ac.uk Illustrations are available from: http://ngst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Hardware/designs.html UK Looks Forward to Next Generation Space Telescope As the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to return a succession of staggering new images and data, astronomers on both sides of the Atlantic are preparing the next giant leap for orbital observatories. Three groups in the UK are playing a leading role in studies to decide which scientific instruments Europe will provide for HST's successor, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The three studies involving UK groups are: * The Multi-Object/Integral Field Spectrograph which includes the University of Durham. * The Visible Wavelength Camera/Spectrograph which is led by the University of Leicester. * The Telescope & Complete Payload Suite which includes the Astronomy Technology Centre (Edinburgh), Durham University, Leicester University, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the University of Cambridge. Hubble and NGST Despite Hubble's success, a larger, more capable instrument is required to answer some of the questions raised by its discoveries. The NGST will be equipped with a much larger mirror than the HST -- probably 8 metres across compared to 2.4 metres. It will also operate for much of the time at infrared wavelengths (0.6-10+ microns). This will enable it to study the most remote galaxies whose light largely reaches us at infrared wavelengths. The NGST has been chosen by NASA as an essential element of its Origins programme. NASA is currently undertaking definition and feasibility studies before deciding how best to proceed. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) are also keen to be involved. However, the telescope's final design and scientific payload have yet to be decided. Although the HST was largely built and paid for by NASA, the European Space Agency has provided one science instrument (the Faint Object Camera) and various other pieces of hardware, such as solar panels, for the observatory. In return, European scientists have gained access to 15% of the available observing time on HST. ESA member states hope to continue this highly successful collaboration into the NGST programme. Why do we need NGST? Astronomers believe they have a good understanding of how the Universe has evolved in the last few billion years and what it was like when it was quite young (less than about 1 million years old). However, almost nothing is known about the events which took place between 1 million and a few billion years after the Big Bang. It is during this 'Dark Age' that the first stars and galaxies began to form. 'At the moment we can only see the tip of the iceberg. NGST will allow us to see the dwarf galaxies which we believe are the building blocks for the big ones, and the way they interact and grow into the giant galaxies we see today,' said Professor Martin Ward of Leicester University. NGST is being designed with a number of fundamental questions about the age and nature of the Universe in mind: 1. What is the shape of the Universe? 2. How do galaxies evolve? 3. How do stars and planetary systems form and interact? 4. What are the life cycles of matter in the Universe? 5. What is dark matter? Answers to most of these questions involve objects which formed extremely early in the history of the Universe. However, since such objects are moving away from us at tremendous speeds, the radiation we receive from them is stretched or redshifted. The best way to look at them is in the infrared portion of the spectrum. Not only will the NGST be able to detect this infrared radiation, but it will also be able to see objects 400 times fainter than those currently studied with large ground-based infrared telescopes. At the same time, its spatial resolution (image sharpness) will be comparable to that of HST. The UK and NGST NGST is expected to operate along similar lines to Hubble, with NASA as the prime contributor and ESA as a major partner. ESA has accordingly assigned a number of technical assessments to groups throughout Europe in an effort to narrow down the options for its hardware contributions to NGST. Roger Davies and his colleagues at Durham University are working with teams in France and Germany on a design study for a MULTI-OBJECT INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH. Since light from most distant galaxies is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum, this instrument is seen as an essential part of NGST's scientific payload. The intention is to simultaneously study starlight from large numbers of distant galaxies. The spectrograph would be able to split and analyse light from numerous objects, much as a prism splits sunlight into different colours. This would enable astronomers to learn much more about the composition, distance, and speed of retreat of distant galaxies and quasars. Astronomers would then be able to 'map' the thousands of faint galaxies which lie in the depths of the Universe. 'At present we use spectrographs to analyse light from only a tiny area of sky ' said Dr. Davies. 'Telescopes have to be pointed very accurately to make sure the right object is in view, which is not so easy in space.' 'The new design developed at Durham allows the light from a much larger area of sky to analysed with the spectrograph. This means that we can study more objects at once and we don't have to point the telescope so accurately,' he explained. Meanwhile, scientists at the University of Leicester heard in December 1998 that they had been chosen to study the implications of installing an OPTICAL CAMERA / SPECTROGRAPH on NGST. Other institutions taking part in the study come from France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Although this new instrument would be similar to the Wide Field and Planetary Cameras which have been so successful on HST, the added spectrograph would give it the extra capability of dissecting and analysing starlight at optical wavelengths over a large area of sky. Since NGST will use a mirror 10 times bigger in area than HST's (equivalent to the size of a large living room), the camera would provide even more detailed pictures than Hubble. In particular, it would reveal galaxies as they were when the Universe was young, and perhaps give us clues on how solar systems and planets are formed. 'NGST will be able to see galaxies which are only about 10% the age of the Universe -- they were born around 1 billion years after the Big Bang,' said Martin Ward, Scientific Principal Investigator for the ESA Visible Camera study. 'We will also be able to see dusty disks around other stars, and, perhaps, the gaps in these disks which astronomers predict are signatures of the formation of planetary systems,' he added. In a third ESA study, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (ATC) in Edinburgh leads a British team which is helping to define the most suitable telescope and instrument payload for NGST. Other participants include industry and astronomical institutes from Germany, France, Spain and the Netherlands. 'We are taking a broad perspective on the overall science case for the NGST and what Europe would like to see on NGST,' said the co-chair of the study science team, Gillian Wright. 'The study is concentrating on the telescope design, how to include all of the instruments astronomers would like, and the design of instruments not covered by the other studies. At the ATC we are particularly responsible for leading the study of an imaging spectrograph operating at mid-infrared wavelengths (5-30 microns).' The results of these three studies are expected to be published June - September 1999. Notes The Hubble Space Telescope was launched from the Space Shuttle on 25 April 1990. A number of new instruments were added during the 1993 and 1997 Space Shuttle servicing missions. Although the HST has been in orbit for almost nine years, the science community hopes that it will continue to operate until 2010. This means that it will be able to operate in parallel with the NGST, which is planned for launch in 2007. One unusual aspect of the NGST mission will be its stable orbital location about 1.5 million km from Earth in the opposite direction from the Sun. Far from any heat radiated by the Earth and Moon, and protected by a sunshade, NGST will be able to remain very cool. This means that the faint infrared (heat) signatures of remote galaxies will not be swamped by the glow from the telescope itself. The total cost for the mission including launch and ten years of operation is expected to be approximately $1.2 billion. ESA funding has yet to decided, but is likely to be approximately 15% of the total. Further Information and Photos of the proposed NGST designs are available on the Web at: * http://ngst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Hardware/designs.html ESA's NGST page is: * http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Projects/NGST/ Contacts Professor Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy Group, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH. Tel: +44 (0)116-252-3494/3540. Fax: +44 (0)116-252-3311 E-mail: mjw@star.le.ac.uk Dr. Roger Davies, Physics Dept, Rochester Laboratory, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE. Tel: +44 (0)191-374-2163 Fax: +44 (0)191-374-7465 or 3749) E-mail: roger.davies@durham.ac.uk Dr. Gillian Wright, UK Astronomy Technology Centre, The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ. Tel: +44 (0)131-668-8248. Fax: +44 (0)131-662-1668. E-mail: gsw@roe.ac.uk Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Five Explorer Mission Proposals Picked For Feasibility Studies Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Don Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC January 26, 1999 (Phone: 202/358-1727) RELEASE: 99-7 FIVE EXPLORER MISSION PROPOSALS PICKED FOR FEASIBILITY STUDIES Spacecraft that will help answer some of the biggest questions in space science have been chosen as candidates for NASA's medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) program. The spacecraft will observe the largest explosions and brightest galaxies in the Universe; study the link between the Earth's aurora and the solar wind; search for planetary systems around 40 million stars; and investigate magnetic eruptions in the Sun's corona. The five proposals will undergo detailed study over the next five months in the first step of a two-step process. NASA will select two of the missions for flight under the MIDEX program, designed to foster lower-cost, highly focused, rapidly developed scientific spacecraft. "Once launched, these missions will provide insights into some of the biggest questions in space science," said Dr. Ed Weiler, Associate Administrator for Space Science at NASA Headquarters. "However, MIDEX missions not only return impressive science results, they continue NASA's trend toward greatly lowering mission costs with innovative mission planning and operations." Following detailed mission concept studies, which are due for submission by June18, 1999, NASA intends to select two of the mission proposals in September 1999 for full development as the third and fourth MIDEX flights. The two missions developed for flight will be launched in 2003 and 2004. The selected proposals were judged to have the best science value among 35 proposals submitted to NASA in August 1998 in response to an Explorer Program Announcement of Opportunity. Each will now receive $350,000 to conduct a four month implementation feasibility study focused on cost, management, and technical plans, including educational outreach and small business involvement. The selected MIDEX proposals are: * The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer, a three-telescope space observatory for studying the position, brightness, and physical properties of gamma ray bursts. Although gamma ray bursts are the largest known explosions in the Universe, outshining the rest of the Universe when they explode unpredictably in distant galaxies, their underlying nature and the cause of the explosion are true mysteries of astrophysics. Swift would use its gamma ray telescope, X-ray telescope, and ultraviolet/optical telescope to determine the nature of gamma ray bursts by probing distant regions of the Universe. Swift would be led by Dr. Neil Gehrels of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, at a total mission cost to NASA of $135 million. * The Next Generation Sky Survey (NGSS), a four-channel, supercooled infrared telescope designed to survey the entire sky with 1,000 times more sensitivity than previous missions. This infrared survey should discover millions of new cosmic sources of infrared radiation including the brightest galaxy in the Universe, the closest star to the Sun, every asteroid between Mars and Jupiter that is larger than two miles across, and protoplanetary discs in the process of forming planetary systems around nearby stars. NGSS would be led by Dr. Edward L. Wright of the University of California, Los Angeles, at a total mission cost to NASA of $139 million. * The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME), a space telescope designed to obtain highly precise position and brightness measurements of 40 million stars. This rich database would enable numerous science investigations, including accurately determining the distance to all of the stars on this side of the Milky Way galaxy, detecting large planets and planetary systems around stars within 1,000 light years of the Sun, and measuring the amount of dark matter in the galaxy from its influence on stellar motion. FAME would be led by Dr. Kenneth J. Johnston of the U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, at a total mission cost to NASA of $138 million. * The Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission (AMM), a formation of four identically instrumented small satellites in a near-polar, highly elliptical orbit. AMM would study the electrical connection between Earth's ionosphere and the distant magnetosphere and how that connection gives rise to the occurrence, structure, and rapid variations of the northern and southern lights. The four-satellite constellation will, for the first time, permit observations to be interpreted unambiguously in terms of variations in space or time. AMM would be led by Dr. Barry H. Mauk of the Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, at a total mission cost to NASA of $130 million. * The Advanced Solar Coronal Explorer (ASCE), a powerful solar telescope which would reveal the physical processes in the Sun that lead to the solar wind and explosive coronal mass ejections. ASCE would carry two solar instruments that are 100 times better than previous solar coronographs. It would be deployed on a recoverable satellite from the Space Shuttle and retrieved two years later. ASCE would be led by Dr. John L. Kohl of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, at a total mission cost to NASA of $131 million. NASA has also selected instruments from two proposed MIDEX missions for technology development funding. Dr. Richard Rothschild of the University of California at San Diego will develop an X-ray detector for studying black holes of all sizes. Dr. Gary Swenson of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will develop detectors for studying waves in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Both researchers will receive $700,000 over the next two years for their work. The Explorer Program is designed to provide frequent, low- cost access to space for physics and astronomy missions with small to mid-sized spacecraft. Explorer missions are required to advance the goals and objectives of the Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, and Astronomical Search for Origins science themes within the Office of Space Science. The selected MIDEX science missions must be ready for launch before June 30, 2004, within the Explorer Program's NASA cost cap of $140 million. The Explorer Program is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, for the Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) Bilateral Ag Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... European Space agency Press Release Nr. 04-99 Paris, France 21 January 1999 European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) Bilateral Agreements signed On Thursday 21 January 1999, ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodota, has signed eight Bilateral Agreements with Air Traffic Service Providers, Air Traffic Management Service Providers and other Agencies representing Users (AENA of Spain, ANA, EP of Portugal, CNES & DNA of France, DFS of Germany, ENAV of Italy, NATS of the United Kingdom, NMA of Norway and SWISSCONTROL of Switzerland). These Agreements establish the terms of the co-operation between the parties in support of the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), a system intended to provide GPS/GLONASS[1] satellite based augmentation services to aviation, maritime and land users, thereby significantly enhancing the use of GPS/GLONASS for safety critical applications. EGNOS is being designed to serve the needs of all modes of transport in the European Region (ECAC)[2]; its built-in expansion capabilities allow the propagation of the EGNOS technology and expertise to the other regions of the world (Africa, South America, Pacific, East, etc). EGNOS is being implemented by ESA, in the context of a more global European effort in the field of satellite navigation, in co-operation with the European Commission and EUROCONTROL and will be interoperable with similar systems under development in USA (WAAS)[3] and Japan (MSAS)[4]. ESA has taken a leading role to prepare the future European contribution to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS 1&2), capable of meeting the strategic, industrial and technical objectives layed down by European states. The direct involvement and contributions of these Users in this ESA programme is of great importance in that they introduce an important operational/commercial thrust and open new avenues and opportunities for ESA's Application Programmes. EGNOS, planned to be operational in early 2002, will have installations of varying degrees of complexity in the eight countries involved in the Bilateral Agreements, as well as outside Europe. The implementation is entrusted to an industrial team led by Alcatel. For further information, please contact: ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 [1] GPS: Global Positioning System, GLONASS: Global Navigation Satellite System [2] ECAC: European Civil Aviation Conference [3] WAAS: Wide Area Augmentation System [4] MSAS: Multi Transport Satellite Augmentation System Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA FY 2000 Budget Briefing Scheduled Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Beth Schmid Headquarters, Washington, DC January 26, 1999 (Phone: 202/358-1760) NOTE TO EDITORS: N99-5 NASA FY 2000 BUDGET BRIEFING SCHEDULED A briefing on NASA's fiscal year 2000 budget request will be held on Monday, Feb. 1, 1999, at 2 p.m. EST in the NASA Headquarters auditorium, 300 E St., SW, Washington, DC. NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin and NASA Comptroller Malcolm Peterson will participate in the briefing and answer questions. The briefing will be carried live on NASA TV with two- way question and answer capability for reporters covering the event from participating NASA centers. A summary of the budget request will be distributed at the beginning of the press conference. The budget request also will be available on the NASA homepage. NASA television is on GE-2, transponder 9C, located at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency will be on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: New Satellite Images Shows La Nina Weakening, Unusual Pacific Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Mary Hardin (818) 354-0344 INTERNET ADVISORY January 27, 1999 NEW SATELLITE IMAGE SHOWS LA NINA WEAKENING, UNUSUAL PACIFIC The most recent image from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite shows the area of lower sea level or cold water, commonly referred to as La Nina, is weakening along the equator and there is an unusual buildup of warm water in the Western tropical Pacific. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on January 17, 1999 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. Although weakening, the La Nina pattern continues to exert a strong influence on the worldwide climate system. According to oceanographers, the cold La Nina water acts like a boulder in a stream, steering the planet's prevailing winds and changing the course of storms that are born over the ocean. This change of direction brings a heavy dose of precipitation to the Pacific Northwest and upper Midwest of the United States. For Southern California, the general pattern should continue to be a classic La Nina dry pattern with occasional winter storms. "It might be raining this week, but we're having a very dry rainy season in Southern California," said, JPL's Dr. Bill Patzert, a research oceanographer. Equally important to North America's winter weather is the very large area of unusually warm Western Pacific ocean. Although the appearance of this feature is not fully understood or anticipated, it is adding energy to the winter storms coming out of the North Pacific which is fueling the very volatile weather over the continental U.S. The January 17 image is now available online at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino The U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Gamma Ray Burst Imaged For First Time Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Donald Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC January 27, 1999 (Phone: 202/358-1727) Tim Tyson Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (Phone: 256/544-0994) Bill Steigerwald Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-5017) RELEASE: 99-8 GAMMA RAY BURST IMAGED FOR FIRST TIME Astronomers racing the clock managed to take the first-ever optical images of one of the most powerful explosions in the Universe -- a gamma ray burst -- as it was occurring on Saturday, Jan. 23, 1999. Gamma ray bursts produce more energy in a very short period than the rest of the entire Universe combined. Because such bursts occur with no warning and typically last for just a few seconds, quick detection by orbiting spacecraft and instant notification to astronomers are critical in order to catch the bursts in the act. The gamma-ray-burst detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected the beginning of a bright gamma ray burst. As the burst was still in progress, computers determined a rough location and radioed the position to the Gamma Ray Burst Coordinates Network (GCN), based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The position was immediately forwarded via the GCN to astronomers at ground based observatories throughout the world. Just 22 seconds later the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) in Los Alamos, NM, operated by a team led by Dr. Carl Akerlof of the University of Michigan, was in position and took images of the patch of sky where the burst was reported. Their equipment is assembled from 35 mm camera lenses and parts culled from the amateur astronomy market. The first picture showed a brightening new star within the sky region where the burst was reported. Five seconds later, the burst achieved peak brightness, reaching 9th magnitude, about 16 times fainter than the human eye can see, but easily visible in an amateur telescope. Within eight minutes of the initial detection, the burst had faded by a factor of 100 below its maximum brightness. "I was amazed," Akerlov said. "At best, we expected something really dim optically, at the limit of our sensitivity. Instead we found a whopper." "If this burst had originated in the Milky Way Galaxy, it would have lit up the night sky," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the Universe science theme at NASA Headquarters. The event was also recorded by instruments aboard the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite, which obtained a much more accurate position for the burst within a few hours of its onset. It was this more precise location information that the ROTSE team used to find the burst in their images. "This is the Holy Grail for the Gamma Ray Burst Coordinates Network," said Dr. Scott Barthelmy, the astronomer at Goddard, who developed and runs the network. "Optical telescopes had seen the afterglow of a burst, but never the burst itself. This observation will help us understand the physical processes behind the bursting." Within three hours of the gamma ray burst, a team of astronomers led by Dr. Stephan Odewahn, and Profs. Shri Kulkarni and George Djorgovski of the California Institute of Technology used the 60-inch Mt. Palomar telescope to find a fading optical counterpart to this gamma ray burst, helped by the precise localization provided by BeppoSAX. The next night, a joint team led by Dr. D. Kelson of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, using the Keck II 10-meter telescope located at Mauna Kea, HI, found that the distance to the burst is about nine billion light years, more than half way to the edge of the observable Universe. Astronomers are not certain what produces gamma ray bursts, but possible causes include the mergers of two neutron stars, two black holes, or a neutron star and a black hole, or the explosion of a so-called hypernova. A hypernova is a theorized type of supernova or exploding star. "The optical emission was about 10,000 times brighter than ever observed, something you could see with a pair of good binoculars," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, Project Scientist of the Compton Observatory. "Theorists will have a field day trying to explain this phenomenon." Dr. Gehrels said the simultaneous observation of the burst in optical and gamma ray energies might open the door to a whole new generation of instruments like ROTSE, which is a fully automated telescope that can respond to information about transient celestial sources instantly. Orbiting telescopes detect several hundred gamma ray bursts each year. The ROTSE project is designed and operated by a collaboration of astrophysicists from the University of Michigan and the Department of Energy's Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The Principal Investigator for BATSE is Dr. Gerald Fishman at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. The National Science Foundation provided funding for observations at Keck II. - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo Update - January 27, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Galileo Europa Mission Status January 27, 1999 Galileo is preparing for its upcoming flyby of Jupiter's icy moon Europa, which will take place Sun., January 31, at 6:20 p.m. Pacific time, at an altitude of 1,440 kilometers (895 miles). This will be the last Europa flyby of the current Galileo Europa Mission. The spacecraft is "clearing the decks" by transmitting to Earth the final batch of science pictures and information stored previously on Galileo's onboard tape recorder. This week's transmission includes a spacecraft camera observation of Jupiter's rings, a measurement of the star Sirius by the near- infrared mapping spectrometer, and part of a recording made of Jupiter's plasma sheet by instruments that study magnetic fields and charged particles. Galileo will also perform a minor flight path correction on Thursday, January 28, and will perform regular tape recorder maintenance on Friday, January 29, both in preparation for the Europa flyby. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cornell astronomer looks at our deep hot biosphere and finds it teemin Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Service Cornell University Contact: David Brand Office: (607) 255-3651 E-Mail: deb27@cornell.edu FOR RELEASE: Jan. 26, 1999 Cornell astronomer looks at our deep hot biosphere and finds it teeming with life , and controversy ITHACA, N.Y. -- The ideas come crowding in: Deep within the Earth's crust is a vast ecosystem of primitive bacteria nurtured by a reservoir of hydrocarbons of unimaginable size, much of it untapped. Even more: The microbes predate all of the planet's other life forms, existing even before photosynthesis became the preferred life-giving form. In a new book, The Deep Hot Biosphere (Copernicus/Springer-Verlag, $27), Cornell Professor emeritus of astronomy Thomas Gold argues that subterranean bugs are us -- or at least they started the whole evolutionary process, and that there's no looming energy shortage because oil reserves are far greater than predicted. In the hands of anyone other than Gold, the reaction to all this might be a skeptical raised eyebrow. But Gold, as ever the Cornellian gadfly, makes his argument with erudition and conviction. Founder and director of Cornell's Center for Radiophysics and Space Research for two decades, Gold is hardly a stranger to sticking his neck out. He has been proven right in such diverse realms as a theory of hearing, the interpretation of pulsars and a theory of the Earth's axis of rotation. But Gold's most controversial idea, as physicist Freeman Dyson notes in the book's forward, is that of the nonbiological origin of natural gas and oil, which he first proposed more than 20 years ago. These hydrocarbons, Gold postulated, come from deep reservoirs and are composed of the material from which the Earth condensed. The idea that hydrocarbons coalesced from organic material is, he says, quite wrong. The biological molecules found in oil, he avers, show only that the oil is contaminated by microbes, not that it was produced by them. Some researchers, and in particular petroleum geologists, have taken issue with Gold's proposal. They are likely to be even more put out by his new book, which says that these microbes populate the Earth's interior down to a depth of several miles and that everything we see living on the planet's surface is only a small part of the biosphere. The greater part, and the ancient part, is very deep and very hot. Indeed, Gold shows irritation at a scientific community that "has typically sought only surface life in the heavens." Scientists, he writes, "have been hindered by a sort of 'surface chauvinism.'" The heavens? Absolutely, says Gold. "Spectroscopic evidence is very strong for many planetary bodies. The prime example is Titan [a moon of Saturn], which has clouds of ethane and methane. They interchange with the surface, so there must be lakes or oceans of liquid ethane or methane. Once you know that, it's clear they came outside from the body within." Thus, he writes, life on many other planetary bodies seems probable, even though their surfaces are either too hot or too cold to support life. "Subsurface life, however, is another matter. Mars, the satellites of the major planets, many asteroids and even our own moon should be regarded as real prospects for harboring extraterrestrial life of this kind," he writes. On Earth, says Gold, there is clear evidence that subsurface microbial life still exists; for example, in the discovery of primitive microbes in hot ocean vents. "We pulled up bugs from five kilometers down in the granite in Sweden. They were perfectly alive and probably the earliest life form on the planet," he says. The primitive microbes, he notes, are thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, heat-loving archaebacteria. Photosynthesis, his book argues, "developed in offshoots of subterranean life that had progressed toward the surface and then evolved a way to use photons to supply even more chemical energy." When surface conditions such as temperature and liquid water became favorable to life, surface life was able to blossom. In the eons since, the deep world of microbes has had to rely on chemical energy, the oxidation of hydrocarbons, ranging from methane to petroleum, as the organisms emerge upwards from deep reservoirs below. "Every oil-bearing region in the world must have large amounts of microbiology," he says. Writes Gold: "In my view, hydrocarbons are not biology reworked by geology (as the traditional view would hold) but rather geology reworked by biology. In other words, hydrocarbons are primordial, but as they upwell into Earth's outer crust microbial life invades." Reviewing the book, Publishers Weekly noted that "if Gold is right, the planet's oil reserves are far larger than policy-makers expect ... moreover, astronomers hoping for extraterrestrial contacts might want to stop seeking life on other planets and inquire about life in them." -30- Related World Wide Web sites: The following sites provide additional information on this news release. Some might not be part of the Cornell University community, and Cornell has no control over their content or availability. Thomas Gold's overview of his new book, The Deep Hot Biosphere: http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/tg21/ Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sun May Plan Unrecognized Role in Global Warming, UCLA Astronomer , Su Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... University of California-Los Angeles Contact: Stuart Wolpert, stuartw@college.ucla.edu, (310) 206-0511 January 26, 1999 Sun May Plan Unrecognized Role in Global Warming, UCLA Astronomer Suggests UCLA astronomy professor Roger Ulrich raises this question: Is the sun affecting global warming? Ulrich believes the sun could play a larger role than most scientists think. Ulrich, whose research focuses on the sun, noted that the sun's surface can be divided into three types of regions: relatively small regions that appear as sunspots and where an intense magnetic field is as much as 8,000 times stronger than the Earth's magnetic field; a larger region where the magnetic field is as much as 200 times stronger than the Earth's; and a huge region that covers some 80 percent of the sun, where he estimates the magnetic field is about 10 times stronger than the Earth's. Ulrich's research focuses on this last region, with the relatively weak magnetic field, which he believes may play a larger role in the Earth's climate than has been realized. Every 11 years the sun undergoes a cycle where the strength of its magnetic fields rises and falls. Sunspots, many of them larger than the Earth itself, appear on the surface where the magnetic field is most intense for the first three to four years of the cycle, then recede during the remainder of the cycle. At low points in the cycle, the sun only occasionally will have a spot on its surface; at peak times, the sun may have dozens visible at once, Ulrich said. Speaking at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Anaheim on Jan. 23, Ulrich proposed that the 80 percent of the sun with a relatively weak magnetic field may follow a much longer cycle that is a delayed response to the 11-year solar cycle. He further suggested that the weak field's longer cycle may help to explain the "little ice age" that occurred on Earth from approximately 1650-1710, and may affect the Earth's climate. During the "little ice age," sunspots virtually disappeared from the solar surface for six decades, Ulrich said. The sun's surface had only one sunspot every decade during this time, and none for about 20 years. If sunspots were to go away, the sun would put out less energy, which could make it colder, Ulrich said -- and it was colder during these six decades when sunspots were not present. At the AAAS meeting, Ulrich presented new evidence, collected over 11 years, from Mount Wilson's Solar 150-foot Tower Telescope. He is the first scientist to make measurements of the sun's weak magnetic field over an extended period. This research is the first step to measure the strength of the magnetic field over 80 percent of the sun's surface. As Ulrich continues the research, he seeks to learn what would happen to the sun if the weak field went away and to estimate the effect. He suspects that the field may have gone away during the 60-year period starting in 1650, and said it is possible that it will happen again. Scientists have not known much about what happens on this 80 percent of the sun's surface; no one had measured what occurs at this region before. Ulrich's observations indicate that as the sunspots go away, the rest of the magnetic field starts to go away as well; but before the magnetic field can dissipate over the 80 percent region, a new sunspot cycle begins. For 80 percent of the sun, therefore, the magnetic field does not go away completely when sunspots are at a minimum, it just drops slightly. "The weak magnetic field tries to decay at sunspot minimum, but does not have time before the sunspots return and refresh it," Ulrich said. "The weak fields may be responding to the strong fields. During the little ice age, the weak field may have gone away, affecting the Earth's climate." While scientists had dismissed the sun as a factor in global warming, Ulrich said there may be a longer-term trend that has not been factored in coming from this 80 percent region of the sun. Ulrich thinks it is "reasonably likely" that the weak field plays a larger role than has been assumed. During this century, the number of sunspots has increased, Ulrich noted. Ulrich's research is supported by NASA, the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. His colleagues are Judit Pap, UCLA research astronomer; and graduate student Daryl Parker. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 28 января 1999 (1999-01-28) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Pluto reclaims its usual spot in the solar system (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NEWS SERVICES University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 210 Pittsboro Street, Campus Box 6210 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-6210 (919) 962-2091 FAX: (919) 962-2279 News Services contact: Karen Stinneford, 919-962-8415 For immediate use: Jan. 26, 1999 No. 62 Pluto reclaims its usual spot in the solar system By DR. LEE SHAPIRO, Morehead Planetarium CHAPEL HILL -- Even as some astronomers debate whether Pluto should be called a planet, Pluto is approaching a special occasion. Most people think of Pluto as the most distant planet in our solar system. However, for the past 20 years, Neptune has served in that role. Because Pluto has a more elliptical orbit compared to the other planets, it is positioned closer to the sun than Neptune for about 20 years out of its 248-year orbital period. Pluto moved closer to the sun than Neptune in February 1979 and was closest to the sun (perihelion) in September 1989. Now headed back out, Pluto reclaims its title as the most distant planet in the solar system on Feb. 9, 1999. The next time Pluto?s orbit leads it closer to the sun than Neptune, in 228 years, the event may not seem as special. It will still occur, but if Pluto has been reclassified as a Kuiper Belt Object, then many people may not pay attention. Pluto is definitely an odd planet. The other planets tend to fall into two groups: the small, rocky, dense, terrestrial planets of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, and the giant, Jovian planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Pluto is smaller and significantly less dense than the terrestrial planets. In terms of size and density, it often is compared to some large- and medium-sized satellites of the Jovian planets. However, some astronomers believe Pluto represents a recently discovered group of objects found in orbit around the sun near and beyond Pluto?s own orbit. These objects are called Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) in honor of the astronomer who predicted their existence. To date, Pluto is considerably larger than any of the discovered KBOs. Although Pluto, especially at this place in its orbit, is close compared to the stars, it is extremely faint. Pluto is now about four light hours away while Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, is about nine light years away. Despite the fact that Pluto is 18,000 times closer to us than Sirius, Pluto appears 1.2 million times fainter than Sirius to an earthly observer. For information on Morehead Planetarium?s Star Theater presentations, call 549-6863 or visit the World Wide Web page at www.unc.edu/depts/mhplanet/ . - 30 - Note to media: Dr. Lee Shapiro is director of Morehead Planetarium. He can be reached at 919-962-1236. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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