Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.


Ru.Space.News:
Январь 1999
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    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 14 января 1999


    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Старт ракеты-носителя Delta II с тремя спутниками на борту отложен Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Старт ракеты-носителя Delta II с тремя спутниками на борту отложен [PRNewswire] Запуск ракеты Delta II со спутниками ARGOS, Orsted и SUNSAT на борту, который был намечен на 14 января, отложен на 24 часа для завершения тестирования системы связи между ARGOS и наземной телеметрической станцией. Запуск теперь назначен на пятницу 15 января. Исследовательский спутник ARGOS принадлежит ВВС США. Это самый крупный спутник такого рода, его вес - более 2700 кг. Одновременно Delta II выведет в космос датский научный спутник Orsted и небольшой южно-африканский телекоммуникационный спутник SUNSAT. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космический телескоп Hubble, возможно, обнаружил неизвестную планету Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Космический телескоп Hubble, возможно, обнаружил неизвестную планету [NASA ] С помощью космического телескопа Hubble получено инфракрасное изображение диска вокруг звезды HD 141569, расположенной в созвездии Весы на расстоянии 320 световых лет от Земли. Hа фотографии видно, что диск размером 120 млрд км разбит как бы на две части: темная полоса разделяет яркую внутреннюю область от более тусклой внешней области. Такая структура выглядит аналогично большой щели в кольцах Сатурна, но гораздо больших размеров. Возможно, такое изображение дает планета, вращающаяся вокруг HD 141569. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космический телескоп Hubble... (картинка) [1/2] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Космический телескоп Hubble... (картинка) [2/2] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Планируется запуск ракеты для исследования ионных фонтанов в верхних Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Планируется запуск ракеты для исследования ионных фонтанов в верхних слоях атмосферы [NASA] Три месяца прошло с тех пор как солнечный шторм "снес" часть верхней атмосферы Земли. И сейчас группа американских исследователей планирует запуск экспериментальной ракеты CAPER (Cleft Accelerated Plasma Experimental Rocket) для исследования в фонтана ионов, улетающих из атмосферы в космос (на рисунке). Hа ракете будет установлено оборудование, которое впервые проведет измерения в верхних слоях атмосферы, а именно в магнитосфере. Hа CAPER установлены спектрометры для исследовани тепловых электронов и ионов. Ракета CAPER будет запущена с космодрома Андоя в Hорвегии, который находится за полярным кругом. Старт должен состояться в период между 11 и 25 января. Сам полет продлится около получаса. Точная дата запуска должна быть назначена после того, как исследовательский космический спутник Polar сообщит о подходящих условиях в магнитосфере. Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Планируется запуск ракеты... (картинка) [1/3] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... section 1 of 3 of file n-010811.jpg < uuencode 5.32 by R.E.M. > begin 644 n-010811.jpg M_]C_X``02D9)1@`!`0$!+`$L``#_VP!#``4#!`0$`P4$!`0%!04&!PP(!P<' M!P\+"PD,$0\2$A$/$1$3%AP7$Q0:%1$1&"$8&AT='Q\?$Q<B)"(>)!P>'Q[_ MVP!#`04%!0<&!PX("`X>%!$4'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX> M'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'AX>'A[_P``1"`&``74#`2(``A$!`Q$!_\0` M'P```04!`0$!`0$```````````$"`P0%!@<("0H+_\0`M1```@$#`P($`P4% M!`0```%]`0(#``01!1(A,4$&$U%A!R)Q%#*!D:$((T*QP152T?`D,V)R@@D* M%A<8&1HE)B<H*2HT-38W.#DZ0T1%1D=(24I35%565UA96F-D969G:&EJ<W1U M=G=X>7J#A(6&AXB)BI*3E)66EYB9FJ*CI*6FIZBIJK*SM+6VM[BYNL+#Q,7& MQ\C)RM+3U-76U]C9VN'BX^3EYN?HZ>KQ\O/T]?;W^/GZ_\0`'P$``P$!`0$! 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    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Планируется запуск ракеты... (картинка) [2/3] Привет всем! 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    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NEAR Update - January 8, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... NEAR Mission Status Reports - http://near.jhuapl.edu NEAR WEEKLY REPORT January 8, 1999 MISSION OPERATIONS: The NEAR spacecraft state/configuration has Flight Computer #1 as prime and Attitude Interface Unit (AIU) 2 active. All instruments are off with exception of MSI (for OpNavs). All subsystems are operating nominally. Rendezvous Burn 1 was attempted on 12/20/98 at 5:00 p.m. EST. The burn aborted prematurely with the spacecraft first entering Earth Safe (as expected for an abort condition) with all instruments turned off. The spacecraft later experienced a low voltage condition and demoted to Sun Safe Mode. The low voltage condition triggered load shedding that turned off both onboard flight recorders and both transponders. Hence all communications with the spacecraft was suspended until the transponders were powered on by onboard autonomy the following day. It has been determined rendezvous Burn 1 aborted due to the LVA lateral acceleration threshold exceeding limits. The cause of the low voltage condition and Sun Safe Mode is under analysis. The analysis is somewhat hampered due to the onboard flight recorders being turned off to conserve power. The NEAR spacecraft carrier was acquired on 12/21/98 at 8pm after the transponders were powered by onboard autonomy. A recovery to normal S/C operations mode ensued and was completed by 2:19pm on 12/22/98. An intensive preparation for a Flyby of Eros then began on 12/22/98 and resulted in the design of an Eros Flyby sequence using 3 of NEAR's instruments including MSI, MAG, and NIS. The sequence was uploaded after thorough testing and executed flawlessly during the Eros Flyby. Closest approach to Eros occurred at 1:42pm EST on 12/23. The flyby Science gathering sequence ran for approximately 6.5 hours. Its important to note the reusable command sequences developed for Eros orbital operations were used and proved out techniques (including simultaneous tracking and instrument observations) planned for Eros orbital operations. Deep Space Maneuver 2 or DSM 2 was executed on 1/3/99 at 12:00 noon EST. This burn included the velocity change originally planned for Rendezvous Burns 1 and 2 into a single burn approximately 23.6 mins long. DSM 2 executed flawlessly after limits for lateral accelerations were widened based on lessons learned from the aborted Rendezvous Burn 1. Twenty-four-hour continuous DSN coverage of the spacecraft continued throughout this period. The operations team wishes to express a special thank you to all members of the NEAR team for supporting a very challenging operation during the past two weeks: * The Deep Space Network personnel for the special support they provided day and night to "keep the data flowing" * The JPL Navigation team for assisting in the anomaly investigation and recovery operation * All elements of APL's very talented engineering staff with special thanks to Guidance & Control, Communications, and Power engineers. * Instrument team representatives for helping Mission Operations construct a Flyby sequences in short order (and provided us with some good food). * To the APL management or giving us the support we needed, and giving us the time and space when we needed it. * Mission Design for being prepared with wide selection of rendezvous contingencies plans. Upcoming Spacecraft Activities: January 20: DSM-2 Cleanup burn TBD: AIU 2 to 1 switch The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Bldg.-Rm.: 2-155 11100 Johns Hopkins Road Laurel, MD 20723-6099 240-228-8274/Washington 443-778-8274/Baltimore Fax: 240-228-3237 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star , (Forwa Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O Socorro, New Mexico 87801 http://www.nrao.edu Contact: Dave Finley, Public Information Officer (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu FOR RELEASE: 9:20 a.m., CST, January 8, 1999 Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star Astronomers using radio telescopes in New Mexico and California have discovered a giant, rotating disk of material around a young, massive star, indicating that very massive stars as well as those closer to the size of the Sun may be circled by disks from which planets are thought to form. This is the most massive young star for which such a disk has yet been found. Debra Shepherd of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Stan Kurtz of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope and telescopes of Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) to make a detailed study of an object called G192.16-3.82, in the constellation Orion. They announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. What astronomers call Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) -- stars still in the process of formation -- are enigmatic objects, both drawing in material from their surroundings and expelling material outward at the same time. "The details of the interaction between these two processes are poorly understood," Shepherd said. "In addition, most theories are based on observing low-mass stars, and we don't know if things work the same way with higher-mass stars." "We now have the first unambiguous evidence for a rotating disk around a high-mass star that also is powering an outflow," Shepherd said. "We need to make more observations to confirm the finding, but this information will help test theories of how such young stellar objects operate." It has been difficult to study massive star formation, because massive stars are rarer than smaller ones, they tend to form in clusters, making observations more difficult, and there are few of them forming relatively nearby. The object that Shepherd and Kurtz chose is reasonably isolated. "We think it provides us with a good laboratory for studying the process," Kurtz said. The young star at the core of G192.16-3.82 is about six to 10 times more massive than the sun. The rotating disk and an "envelope" of material surrounding the star contain about 20 times the mass of the sun. VLA observations revealed the speed of material in the disk, indicating that the disk is rotating around the central star according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, just as the planets of our Solar System do. The disk extends outward from the star more than 500 times the Earth-Sun distance. "This is comparable in size to the largest disks seen around smaller stars, but this one is at least four times more massive than those disks," Shepherd said. During star formation, the material in such disks is thought to be drawn into the new star by its gravitational pull, while other processes power an outflow of material into the surrounding space. The outflow in the region of G192.16-3.82 is one of the largest such outflows in our Milky Way Galaxy. The velocity measurements were possible because the disk contains water molecules that amplify microwave radio emissions in a manner similar to that in which a laser amplifies light. The water molecules that act as amplifiers -- masers -- both appear as bright spots on radio telescope images and are emitted at a specific, known radio frequency. The molecules' motion causes that frequency to be changed by the Doppler effect. The amount of change allows scientists to calculate the velocity. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: "Movie Star" Acting Strangely, Radio Astronomers Find (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O Socorro, New Mexico 87801 http://www.nrao.edu Contact: Dave Finley, Public Information Officer (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu FOR RELEASE: 9:20 a.m., CST, 8 January 1999 "Movie Star" Acting Strangely, Radio Astronomers Find Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the first-ever time-lapse "movie" showing details of gas motions around a star other than our Sun. The study, the largest observational project yet undertaken using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, has produced surprising results that indicate scientists do not fully understand stellar atmospheres. The "movie" shows that the atmosphere of a pulsating star more than 1,000 light-years away continues to expand during a part of the star's pulsation period in which astronomers expected it to start contracting. Philip Diamond and Athol Kemball, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. "The continued expansion we're seeing contradicts current theoretical models for how these stars work," Diamond said. "The models have assumed spherical symmetry in the star's atmosphere, and our movie shows that this is not the case. Such models suggest that a shock wave passes outward from the star. Once it's passed, then the atmosphere should begin to contract because of the star's gravity. We've long passed that point and the contraction has not begun." The time-lapse images show that the gas motions are not uniform around the star. Most of the motion is that of gas moving directly outward from the star's surface. However, in about one-fourth of the ring, there are peculiar motions that do not fit this pattern. The scientists speculate that the rate of mass loss may not be the same from all parts of the star's surface. "A similar star behaved as predicted when studied a few years ago, so we're left to wonder what's different about this one," Diamond said. "Right now, we think that different rates of mass loss in the two stars may be the cause of the difference. This star is losing mass at 100 times the rate of the star in the earlier study." "This is the first time anyone has been able to follow the motions of gas in the atmosphere of any star other than the sun. Our results raise a lot of questions that we can't answer yet, but this will give the theorists new information to work with," said Diamond. The star, called TX Cam, in the constellation Camelopardalis, is a variable star whose brightness changes regularly over a period of 557 days. In 1997, the NRAO astronomers began a series of observations aimed at tracking gas motions in the star's outer atmosphere through a full pulsation cycle. Observing with the VLBA every two weeks, they now have accumulated 37 separate images, which they combined to make the "movie." They were able to measure the gas motions because one of the gases in the star's atmosphere, Silicon Monoxide (SiO), can act as a natural amplifier of radio signals. Such cosmic masers amplify radio emission similar to the way that a laser amplifies light emission. Regions where this maser activity occurs appear as bright spots on radio telescope images when the telescope's receivers are tuned to the specific frequency emitted by the masers. With the extremely high resolving power, or ability to see detail, of the VLBA, the astronomers were able to follow the motions of individual maser regions within the star's atmosphere. These served as tracers of overall gas motions. "Such a study only became possible when the VLBA became operational, and with the availability of computers able to handle the quantity of data produced," Kemball said. The SiO maser regions appear to form a ring around the star. The ring's diameter is greater than the distance from the Sun to Saturn, and has expanded from 10 to 20 percent over the course of the VLBA observations. "The continued expansion was our first surprise, but we've only scratched the surface of the immense amount of data our observations have produced," Diamond said. "Since we think that magnetic fields are playing a large role in how this gas behaves, we're going to do further analysis of the data to try to confirm this." Other studies using the VLBA data will seek to learn additional details about the structure, motions, time evolution, mass-loss process, magnetic field structure and physical conditions in the inner regions of the envelope of gas surrounding TX Cam. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of ten radio telescope antennas, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter and weighing 240 tons. They are distributed across the continental U.S., Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Operated from a control center in Socorro, New Mexico, all ten antennas work together as if they were a single telescope more than 5,000 miles in diameter. This allows the VLBA to produce radio images hundreds of times more detailed than the Hubble Space Telescope produces using visible light. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. ### [NOTE: The time-lapse "movie" is available at http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/~pdiamond/txcam.a-ak.gif] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Superfast Cosmic Jet "Hits the Wall" (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O Socorro, New Mexico 87801 http://www.nrao.edu Contact: Dave Finley, Public Information Officer (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu FOR RELEASE: 9:20 a.m., CST, January 9, 1999 Superfast Cosmic Jet "Hits the Wall" A superfast jet of subatomic particles presumably powered by the gravitational energy of a black hole has collided with nearby material, been slowed dramatically and released much of its energy in the collision, radio astronomers report. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to observe the jet's motion. This is the first time such a collision has been seen within our own Milky Way Galaxy, and the collision may shed new light on the physics of cosmic jets. Robert Hjellming, Michael Rupen and Frank Ghigo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); Amy Mioduszewski of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe; Don Smith of MIT's Space Research Lab; Alan Harmon of Marshall Space Flight Center, and Elizabeth Waltman of the Naval Research Laboratory reported their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX. The cosmic jet comes from an object called XTE J1748-288, at least 30,000 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius, near the center of the Milky Way. XTE J1748-288, discovered on June 4, 1998, by Don Smith, using the RXTE satellite, is a "black hole candidate," probably consisting of a black hole drawing material from a companion star and accelerating jets of material outward in the process. A series of VLA images showed a "blob" of material in the jet moving at an apparent speed at least 50 percent greater than that of light. This is only the third such "superluminal" jet seen in our own Galaxy. The apparent faster-than-light motion is an illusion created by geometric effects when jets move at nearly the speed of light and are aligned so that their motion is somewhat toward Earth. The two other Milky Way objects whose jets show such rapid motion are dubbed "microquasars," because their behavior mimics that of quasars -- much larger objects seen at the cores of very distant galaxies. A series of VLA images showed material ejected as a jet from the core of XTE J1748-288. The jet travelled quickly until its advance suddenly was stopped and the endpoint of the jet became brighter than the core. "This fast-moving material obviously hit something," Hjellming said. What did it it hit? "Probably a mixture of external material plus material from a previous jet ejection." Further studies of the collision could yield new information about the physics of cosmic jets. Such jets are believed to be powered by black holes into which material is being drawn. The exact mechanism by which the black hole's gravitational energy accelerates particles to nearly the speed of light is not well understood. There is even dispute about the types of particles ejected. Competing models call for either a mixture of electrons and protons or a mixture of electrons and positrons. Because protons are more than 1,800 times more massive than electrons or positrons (the positively-charged antiparticle of the electron), the electron-proton mixture would be much more massive than the electron-positron pair. Thus, an electron-proton jet is called a heavy jet and an electron-positron jet is called a light jet. A light jet would be much more easily slowed or stopped by tenuous interstellar material than a heavy jet, so the collision of XTE J1748-288's jet may indicate that it is a light jet. "There's still a lot more work to do before anyone can conclude that, but the collision offers the possibility of answering the light-heavy jet question," Hjellming said. A 1998 VLA study by John Wardle of Brandeis University and his colleagues indicated that the jet of a distant quasar is a light, electron-positron jet. Though the black holes in quasars are supermassive, usually millions of times more massive than the Sun, the physics of jet production in them is thought to be similar to the physics of jet production by smaller black holes, only a few times more massive than the sun, such as the one possibly in XTE J1748-288. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. ### [NOTE: Images supporting this release are available at http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/~rhjellmi/x1748.html] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Internet turns 30 (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... University of California-Los Angeles Contact: David Brown, dbrown@ea.ucla.edu (310) 206-0540 January 7, 1999 Internet turns 30 This year marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of the Internet at UCLA It was on the UCLA campus in 1969 that the first Internet connection was established, ushering in a new method of communication that today spans the globe and touches the lives of millions worldwide. The federal government chose UCLA to become the first node of what was then known as the ARPANET because the faculty included Professor Leonard Kleinrock, whose research into "packet switching" provided the technological foundation upon which the network was to be built. The ARPANET -- which later became the Internet -- was funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), created in 1958 to support scientific research in the United States. Its creation was prompted by the Soviet Union's success in placing the "Sputnik" satellite in space. ARPA had been supporting a number of computer scientists around the country in the 1960s. As each new researcher was added, ARPA had to provide him with a computer, and each researcher asked for all the special capabilities that existed in the many unique computers that ARPA was supporting. By connecting the existing computers together via a data network, ARPA officials reasoned, the community of scientists would be able to gain access to the special features of all those specialized computers. The first network switch, known as an Interface Message Processor (IMP), arrived at UCLA on the Labor Day weekend 1969. The UCLA team led by Kleinrock had to connect the first host computer to the IMP. This was a challenging task since no such connection had ever been attempted before. However, by the end of that first day, bits began moving between the UCLA computer and the IMP. By the next day, researchers had messages moving between the machines. "Little did those pioneers realize what they had created," Kleinrock said, reflecting upon history. "In fact, most of the ARPA-supported researchers were opposed to joining the network for fear that it would enable outsiders to load down their 'private' computers," he added. By December 1969, four sites were connected: UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. UCLA was in charge of conducting a series of extensive tests to debug the network. Under Kleinrock's supervision, UCLA served for many years as the ARPANET Network Measurement Center. In one ambitious experiment during the mid-1970s, researchers at UCLA were able to control a geosynchronous satellite hovering over the Atlantic Ocean by sending messages through the network from California to an East Coast satellite dish. Ten nodes spanning the United States had been connected by the summer of 1970. Kleinrock noted that the Cambridge-based computer company which designed the original IMP -- Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) -- never imagined there would be a need for more than 64 host computers in the network and provided only that number of connections. Today, of course, there are over 50 million computers attached to the Internet -- and that number is expanding at a phenomenal rate; moreover, traffic on the Internet doubles every 100 days. Curiously enough, electronic mail (e-mail), which today is a major component of the network traffic, was an ad-hoc, add-on to the network in those early days, Kleinrock said. The ARPANET evolved into the Internet in the 1980s and was discovered by the commercial world toward the end of that decade. Originally conceived and built by -- and for -- the scientific research community, it is dominated today by the commercial sector. "Indeed, no one in those early days predicted how enormously successful and pervasive data networking would become," Kleinrock said. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: TRW, Ball Aerospace Team Up To Compete For Next Generation Space , Tel Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TRW Inc. CONTACT: TRW Inc. Brooks McKinney, 310/814-8177 brooks.mckinney@trw.com or Ball Aerospace, Boulder Janet Braccio, 303/939-6647 jbraccio@ball.com TRW, Ball Aerospace Team Up To Compete For Next Generation Space Telescope REDONDO BEACH, Calif., Jan. 12, 1999 -- In a move that capitalizes on a track record of successfully integrating major space observatories, TRW (NYSE:TRW) and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo., have signed a teaming agreement to compete for NASA's Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program, the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Under terms of the agreement signed in early January, TRW will serve as the team's prime contractor while Ball Aerospace will be the principal subcontractor. Ball Aerospace will play a major role in developing the NGST payload, with special emphasis on the optical elements and the program's science objectives. Until now, TRW and Ball Aerospace have been working under separate, competing NGST architecture study contracts with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "TRW and Ball Aerospace have each played significant roles in all four of NASA's Great Observatories," said Joanne Maguire, vice president and general manager of TRW's Space & Laser Programs Division. "By combining TRW's systems capabilities, demonstrated as prime contractor for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, with Ball Aerospace's experience developing payloads for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Infrared Telescope, we have defined for NASA the team best suited to achieve the goals of the NGST science community," Maguire added. "This is a very complementary team," said Jerry Chodil, vice president of Ball Aerospace's Civil Space Systems organization. "Our arrangement will leverage Ball Aerospace's expertise in science payloads and optical systems with TRW's strength in precision deployable space structures." The TRW/Ball Aerospace team plans to compete for the next phase of the NGST program, a Phase-A architecture study. Requests for proposals for that procurement are expected during the first quarter of 1999. Ball Aerospace is currently a key member of the TRW-led team producing the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. Chandra, formerly known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is scheduled for delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Fla., later this month. Launch aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia is expected in spring 1999. NGST, part of NASA's Origins program, is scheduled for launch in 2007. Operating in the far visible to mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, it is expected to have about 10 times the light-gathering capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope. As part of a separate contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., TRW is an industry partner in the development of the spacecraft for another Origins program, the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). NASA's Origins program is a series of linked science missions directed at answering fundamental questions about the origin of galaxies, stars, and planets, and the possibility of habitable, Earth-like worlds around nearby stars. In addition to NGST and SIM, it includes JPL's Deep Space-3 (DS-3) mission, which will demonstrate the capability for long baseline interferometry using formation-flying spacecraft. Technology from all three missions will enable two additional Origins missions, Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and Terrestrial Planet Imager, which will detect and image terrestrial-sized planets around nearby stars. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. provides systems engineering services, and designs and manufactures complete spacecraft, space systems, space and scientific sensors, cryogenic subsystems, and antenna systems and video products for commercial and government customers. The company is a subsidiary of Ball Corp. (NYSE:BLL) which had $2.4 billion in sales in 1997. (http:www.ballaerospace.com) TRW has been developing scientific, communications and environmental satellite systems for NASA since 1958. In addition to its work on NGST and SIM, the company is currently studying architectures and technologies needed to implement several of NASA's future space science missions, including DS-3, TPF and Constellation-X, the next major NASA X-ray mission after Chandra. Based in Cleveland, TRW provides advanced technology products and services for automotive, space and defense, and information technology markets worldwide. The company's 1997 sales totaled nearly $12 billion. TRW news releases are available on the corporate Web site: http://www.trw.com . Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Public Lectures Explore NASA Search For 'Cosmic Roots' Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Jane Platt FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE January 11, 1999 PUBLIC LECTURES EXPLORE NASA SEARCH FOR 'COSMIC ROOTS' The search for life beyond the solar system will be the topic of a pair of free public lectures Thursday, January 21, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Friday, January 22, at Pasadena City College. "NASA's Origins Program -- The Search for Our Cosmic Roots and ... Galactic Cousins?" will be the topic of the lectures by Dr. Firouz Naderi, manager of the Origins Program at JPL. The JPL lecture will be held in the Laboratory's von Karman Auditorium, while the Pasadena City College lecture will be in the campus' Forum. Both are at 7 p.m., with limited seating available on a first-come, first-served basis. Naderi will explain NASA's series of planned missions to trace our existence to the formation of galaxies, stars, planets and early life on Earth. Origins missions will also hunt for Earth-like planets around stars in our "galactic neighborhood." The lectures are part of the monthly von Karman Lecture Series sponsored by JPL's Public Affairs Office. During his 19 years at JPL, Naderi has also served as program manager for the Space Science Flight Experiments Program, project manager for the Scatterometer and SeaWinds projects, and project manager for mobile satellite experiments. Naderi was also the program manager at NASA Headquarters for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites Program. More information about JPL's von Karman Lecture Series is available on the Internet at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/lecture/, or by calling (818) 354-5011. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Deep Space 1 Update - January 12, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Deep Space 1 Mission Status January 12, 1999 During the past three weeks, Deep Space 1 has exercised its autonomous navigation system, an advanced science instrument that studies space plasma and a radio system that transmits at an unusually high frequency. In addition, the spacecraft has continued to its ion propulsion system and advanced solar array. The operations team turned the ion propulsion system off December 18 to turn the spacecraft's helm over to the autonomous navigation system, known as AutoNav. This system, one of the 12 technologies that Deep Space 1 is validating, is designed to find the spacecraft's location in the solar system by taking images of known asteroids and comparing their positions to background stars. Because the autonomous navigation system knows where the asteroids are and where the more distant stars are, it can determine where it is in the solar system when the picture is taken. AutoNav transitioned into spacecraft control by directing the ion propulsion system to pressurize its xenon tanks for thrusting, commanding the spacecraft's attitude control system to turn the spacecraft to thrust in the direction that AutoNav desired and, finally, starting the thruster. AutoNav determines how much power to devote to the ion propulsion system, which uses electricity to ionize and accelerate xenon. To do this, AutoNav has knowledge of how much power the advanced solar arrays can produce and how much power the spacecraft consumes apart from the ion propulsion system. The spacecraft will consume more power as it ventures farther from the Sun because it will need to operate its heaters more. When the ion propulsion system is thrusting, AutoNav updates both the direction and the throttle level for the thrusting every 12 hours in order to follow the flight profile stored on board. So far the AutoNav system has operated flawlessly. On December 21, thrusting was suspended for a few hours, during which AutoNav commanded the spacecraft to turn to point its camera at asteroids and stars and take images of them. The images taken are allowing AutoNav's designers to improve onboard computer routines for processing such pictures. Previously, all they had was prelaunch predictions of the camera's performance; now, with actual images, the routines can be updated. The successful demonstrations of AutoNav's control over the ion propulsion and attitude control systems and the camera are another step in transferring many of the responsibilities normally fulfilled by human controllers to intelligent spacecraft of the future. A skeleton team monitored the spacecraft over the holidays, with the ion propulsion system powered on. On Tuesday, January 5, AutoNav turned off the ion engine, completing the first thrust segment of the Deep Space 1 mission. During that period, the engine accumulated over 850 operating hours and experienced 59 recycles, which are momentary automatic interruptions, or shutoffs, of the system, primarily for the system to protect itself from damage due to drifting particulates. By contrast, in the first 850 hours of ground testing of the flight-spare ion thruster ion engine, approximately 240 recycles were experienced. The lower number of recycles in flight is an indication that in-space operation of an ion thruster is more benign than operation in a vacuum chamber. During the entire thrusting period, the power processor and the xenon propellant storage/control systems have worked just as designed. On Wednesday, January 6, the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE) was turned back on, and new software for the advanced science instrument was tested. On Friday, January 8, it was turned to its highest data rate so that it and a plasma instrument on the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft could make simultaneous observations of the solar wind. Those observations continued over the weekend. On Thursday, January 7, AutoNav again commanded the spacecraft to turn to point its camera at asteroids and stars and take images of them. On Sunday night, January 10, Deep Space 1 participated with the Deep Space Network in a telecommunications experiment. Deep Space 1 transmitted to the Deep Space Network complex at Goldstone, California, using a very small, lightweight amplifier made by Lockheed-Martin for radio signals at a frequency about four times higher than the current standard frequency used for deep-space missions. This frequency band, called Ka-band, offers the possibility of sending more information with less power, important for future small but capable spacecraft. These tests are helping the Deep Space Network develop the capability to receive Ka-band routinely for future spacecraft. Deep Space 1 is almost 45 times as far away as the Moon now. At this distance of more than 17 million kilometers (more than 10 million miles), radio signals sent from Earth take nearly one minute to reach the spacecraft. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Stardust Readies For February Launch Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Stardust Readies For February Launch By MARY BETH MURRILL The Stardust Project is now buttoning up its spacecraft for a Feb. 6 launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral, Fla. "Stardusters," as the project personnel call themselves, spent the last year assembling and testing spacecraft components and materials at JPL, at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, where the spacecraft was built, and at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The project maintained its schedule and budget throughout the year. Stardust's target is Comet Wild-2 (pronounced "VILT-2") - a "fresh" comet which just 24 years ago was deflected by Jupiter's gravity from its previous home in an orbit lying much farther out in the solar system. Having spent most of the solar system's history in the coldest, most distant reaches of the solar system, Wild-2 represents a well-preserved example of the fundamental building blocks out of which formed our solar system and everything in it. To collect comet samples, Stardust will use a high-tech sieve made of a special silicon-based material called aerogel, an exotic, lightweight transparent silica gel that looks like solid smoke and holds the title of being the lowest density solid material in the world. Embedded in the aerogel, the particles will be preserved inside the cone-shaped return capsule that the Stardust spacecraft will later target and release for reentry into Earth's atmosphere. One major highlight of the past year was the successful drop test of the Stardust sample return capsule at the the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Grounds at the Utah Test and Training Range near Salt Lake City. The capsule swung gently beneath its parachute after being dropped from a balloon floating at about 3,960 meters (13,000 feet) altitude. Project engineers said the soft landing demonstrated that the return capsule can successfully deliver comet and interstellar dust samples at the mission's end in 2006. An educators conference was hosted by the project as a key element of its outreach emphasis. "Our participation in the JPL community open house, involvement with the release of the Paramount picture 'Deep Impact' and interaction through the project's education partners at Omniplex, the Jason Foundation, and the Challenger Centers got millions of students involved with Stardust," said Project Manager Dr. Kenneth Atkins. More than 1.5 million names were collected and etched onto silicon chips mounted and flown on Stardust. A milestone was reached as the mission's environmental assessment process was successfully completed. The cometary and interstellar dust analyzer instrument, provided by Germany, was delivered on time, and the flight system completed fabrication and test in Denver and was shipped on time to Kennedy Space Center. All stages of Boeing's Delta II launch vehicle arrived and began integration at KSC, said Atkins, and pre-launch operations have proceeded smoothly. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: JPL's Earth Missions Look Forward To Launches, New Beginnings Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 JPL's Earth Missions Look Forward To Launches, New Beginnings By MARY HARDIN The Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite will be stored at Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colo. while waiting for launch in April from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The launch was delayed from November 1998 due to problems with the Titan II launch vehicle. "The Air Force and its Titan contractor, Lockheed Martin, are implementing a return to a flight test program which will enable a spring launch of the QuikScat satellite with the SeaWinds instrument onboard," said Jim Graf, JPL's QuikScat project manager. "The instrument was modified and the satellite was procured and developed in record time-one year and six days from formal go-ahead to launch readiness." QuikScat will measure the speed and direction of winds over the oceans and will restart the valuable data stream that was lost with the NSCAT instrument when Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) mission ceased functioning in June 1997. The TOPEX/Poseidon team capped off 1998 by receiving the prestigious William T. Pecora Award at the American Geophysical Union fall meeting in San Francisco. In December, the satellite conducted the first-ever NASA autonomous navigational maneuver in Earth orbit, giving mission controllers confidence that satellites can operate autonomously within an acceptable level of risk and with lower costs. The TOPEX/Poseidon Autonomous Maneuver Experiment (TAME) is the first step in demonstrating a complete autonomous navigation system for Earth-orbiting satellites. The TOPEX/Poseidon science team continued to make valuable contributions to our understanding of the ocean by tracking the end of El Nino and the developing La Nina situation in the Pacific. At the same time, science team members reported that the 1997-98 El Nino event may have been a major contributor in the average global sea level rising about 2 centimeters (eight-tenths of an inch) before it returned to normal levels. In 1999, work will begin on the TOPEX/ Poseidon follow-on mission, Jason-1. Satellite assembly, test and integration will begin in February at satellite contractor Alcatel Space Industries in Cannes, France. Jason-1 will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in late 2000. September 1999 will see the launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) onboard. SRTM uses the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C (SIR-C) antenna that flew twice in 1994 and adds a second antenna at the end of a 60-meter (200-foot) mast extending from the shuttle. The two antennas allow SRTM to conduct radar interferometry, a technique that compares two radar images taken at slightly different locations to obtain elevation or surface-change information. The SRTM antennas will leave JPL in early February for the Cape, where they will be installed in the shuttle payload bay. The first radar test flights of the Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (GeoSAR) are expected to begin early this year with final delivery of the system by the end of 1999. GeoSAR is a new airborne interferometric mapping radar being designed and built by JPL for future commercial operation by Calgis Inc. under sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation. The system will map above and below vegetation canopies. The long-awaited launch of NASA's Earth Observing System satellite AM-1, now named Terra, is slated for late 1999 with two JPL-related instruments onboard. The Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer (MISR) was built by JPL and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is provided by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with scientific support provided by JPL. Terra will launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) satellite (ACRIMSat), a solar-observing mission that will study the Sun and its impact on the Earth's climate, is scheduled for launch in October 1999. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo Provides Many Discoveries In '98 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Galileo Provides Many Discoveries In '98 By JANE PLATT 1998 was a tough year for those trying to keep up with all the discoveries from the Galileo Europa Mission, which has wrapped up the first half of its two-year extended mission. Following on the heels of the primary mission, Galileo Europa has sent numerous batches of pictures and data back to Earth, helping scientists unlock the mysteries of Jupiter and its moons. A series of additional Europa flybys in 1998 has provided information bolstering the premise of a liquid ocean beneath the icy moon's surface. The science community, the media and the public were enthralled this past March when pictures were unveiled from Galileo's closest Europa flyby in December 1997. The images, taken from only 200 kilometers (124 miles) above Europa, revealed rough, broadly scalloped icy cliffs on Europa as high as Mt. Rushmore, and a large, icy fracture large enough to be spanned by the Brooklyn Bridge. Also shown were impact crater Pwyll and the Conamara Chaos region, where icy plates on the surface have broken apart and moved around. It appears Europa may not be the only Jovian moon with a possible ocean. Data from Galileo's magnetometer instrument revealed evidence supporting the premise of a liquid ocean under Callisto's surface. This data indicated that electrical currents flowing in a shell near Callisto's surface are causing changes observed in Jupiter's magnetic field during Galileo's flybys. A salty liquid layer has been suggested as a likely candidate for creating the electrically conducting shell. Scientists are re-thinking their ideas about Callisto's interior structure, based on new data from Galileo. While previous data indicated that Callisto's interior was totally undifferentiated, new information suggested Callisto has an interior that does n ot vary dramatically, but is not completely uniform. Io, Ganymede and Europa, on the other hand, have differentiated structures with separated layers. The Galileo data suggest that Callisto may have been less affected by gravitational squeezing and subseq uent heating than Io, Ganymede and Europa. New Galileo pictures showed closeup views of a fault on Europa as long as California's portion of the infamous San Andreas. Called Astypalaea Linea, it is a strike-slip fault, meaning it has two crustal blocks that move horizontally past one another, some what like two opposing lanes of traffic. The Galileo images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of movement has taken place along the fault. While the Galileo pictures captured a 290-kilometer-long (180-mile) portion of the fault, scientists calculat e its full length at about 810 kilometers (more than 500 miles). Jupiter's fiery moon Io turned out to be even hotter than scientists had known. Galileo's camera captured images of dozens of volcanic vents on Io, where lava is hotter than any known surface temperatures on any planetary body in the solar system. At one of these volcanic vents, called Pillan Patera, the lava temperature may be 2,000 Kelvin (3,140 degrees Fahrenheit). Such high temperatures are not known to have occurred on Earth for billions of years. Galileo Project Scientist Dr. Torrence Johnson said t his data indicates high-temperature eruptions are a basic, common part of Io's volcanic processes. Recent images of Ganymede, the largest moon of any planet in the solar system, revealed impact craters with unusual pedestals, dark ejecta haloes, evidence of tectonic activity and possible signs of icy volcanic flows. A crater chain appeared to have been caused by impacts from a broken-up comet, similar to the 1994 Shoe-maker-Levy impact on Jupiter. Scientists now know much more about the origin of Jupiter's rings, thanks to recent Galileo images. The huge planet's swirling ring system is formed by dust kicked up as interplanetary meteroids smash into Jupiter's four small inner moons. And the outermo st ring, previously believed to be a single feature, was found to be two rings, one embedded within the other. New information gathered by Galileo, the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations revealed that two of Jupiter's giant, swirling "white oval" storms merged early in 1998 to form a larger white oval as big as Earth. A colorful image of aurora o n Io was also released. Galileo continues under the leadership of Project Manager Jim Erickson, who assumed the post after the previous project manager, Bob Mitchell, became Cassini program manager last June. In 1999, Galileo will wrap up its series of Europa flybys on Jan. 31, then it will fly by Callisto four times before lowering its orbit for two Io flybys, as long as the spacecraft remains healthy. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Zooms In On Mars Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Mars Global Surveyor Zooms In On Mars By DIANE AINSWORTH Mars Global Surveyor began the second phase of aerobraking this fall, after spending the spring and summer in an elliptical, 11.6-hour orbit to allow Mars to move into the proper position for the start of the mapping mission in March 1999. Over five months, the spacecraft reaped the benefits of an orbit that took it much closer to the planet's surface than will be possible once mapping starts. Surveyor collected an additional bounty of data at a closest approach of about 170 kilometers (106 miles) above the surface, allowing scientists to make highly detailed measurements of the Martian atmosphere and surface and magnetic measurements of near-surface fields without interference from currents generated by the interaction of the solar wind wi th the planet. The results were spectacular. Close-up views of Elysium Basin revealed the first evidence of giant plates of solidified lava, rather than lakebed sediments, that appeared to have been broken up and transported across the Martian surface millions of years ago as they floated on top of molten lava. Scientists postulated that the area in the northern lowlands was once the site of giant ponds of lava flows hundreds of kilometers across. Global Surveyor's closest passage over the planet also took it right over the north polar dune fields four times a day, revealing new evidence that sand dunes in the region had hopped or rolled across the surface in recent months. Some of the dunes appeared to be coated with thin, bright frost that was left over from the northern winter season that ended in mid-July. The frost was covered with dark streaks emanating from small dark spots that dotted the bases of many of the dunes. Dr. Michael Malin, principal investigator of the Mars Orbiter Camera, suggested that the dunes were probably altered by gusts of wind that had blown the dark sand out across the frost-covered dunes and created a streak of deposited sand over the frost. To top off a summer of bonus science, new images and temperature readings of Phobos showed that the small moon had been pummeled by eons of meteoroid impacts, pounding surface materials into a fine powder that had started some landslides along the steep s lopes of giant craters. Temperature measurements-taken from distances of 1,045 to 1,435 kilometers (648 to 890 miles), or far enough away to capture global views of the Martian moon in a single spectrum-showed that the surface must be composed largely of fine ground powder at l east 1 meter (3 feet) thick, and that day- and- night-side temperatures varied from extremes of -4 degrees Celsius (25 degrees Fahrenheit) during the day to lows of -112 Celsius (-170 degrees Fahrenheit) at night. Dr. Philip Christensen of Arizona State University, principal investigator of the thermal emission spectrometer, explained that the temperature drops are the result of the absence of an atmosphere around the moon and a thick carpet of fine, powdery granul es that have a low heat capacity and lose heat quickly once the Sun sets. Extensive laser altimeter measurements were made of the north polar region, including scans that crossed very near to the geographic pole. These measurements allow scientists to make an accurate determination of the volume of the ice cap. In addition, dat a from the magnetic investigation revealed peculiar magnetic anomalies as the precession of the low point of the orbit, or the periapsis, moved across new latitudes. Mars Global Surveyor will continue aerobraking operations until early February 1999. The spacecraft recorded its 1,000th orbit around Mars on Jan. 5 and will will descend to a three-hour orbital period by Jan. 15. After reaching a two-hour orbit, the "wal k-out" phase of aerobraking, which will begin to raise the spacecraft's periapsis in preparation for the start of the mapping mission, will be initiated on Feb. 4, followed by termination of aerobraking on Feb. 9. The flight operations team will deploy Surveyor''s high-gain antenna on March 30, 1999, approximately three weeks after the start of mapping on March 8. The antenna deployment is being delayed to ensure that a minimum set of science data is acquired and t he minimum mission success criteria are met in case there is any problem resulting from the antenna deployment. There has been some concern about the performance of a damper device in the antenna's deployment mechanism. A problem with a similar damper on Global Surveyor's solar panel caused damage to the panel's supporting structure just after the spacecraft was launched. Surveyor's science mapping mission, which will last one full Martian year or the equivalent of two Earth years, will be complemented by additional imaging and atmospheric measurements in 2000, when Mars Climate Orbiter begins its scientific mission to stu dy the Martian weather, atmosphere and climatic history. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Deep Space 1 Kicks Off New Millennium Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Deep Space 1 Kicks Off New Millennium By JOHN G. WATSON With one mission launched in 1998, another having launched on Jan. 3 and four others in the hopper, the New Millennium Program has been busy indeed over the last 12 months. The program's goal is to identify and test advanced technologies that will provide future spacecraft with capabilities needed to achieve important science goals. Through a series of deep space and Earth-orbiting flights, the New Millennium Program will "validate" these technologies in space-that is, either prove that they work or determine what problems may crop up. The testing of advanced technologies is the basic requirement for New Millennium Program missions; as a bonus, missions can also collect science data as new instrument technologies are put through their paces. The first New Millennium mission to launch was Deep Space 1, whose picture-perfect liftoff on Oct. 24 culminated many months of test and assembly. Unlike the typical mission that enters a cruise phase after launch, this mission began testing its new technologies immediately. In fact, two of them-large solar arrays and a new radio transmitter/receiver-were functionally validated within just two hours of launch. A much-watched technology on Deep Space 1 is its ion propulsion system, which combines the gas xenon with some of the technologies that make television picture tubes work. Despite an almost imperceptible level of thrust, over the long haul Deep Space 1's ion engine can deliver up to 10 times more thrust than a conventional liquid or solid fuel rocket for a given amount of fuel. It has since been turned on and off repeatedly, performing beyond expectations throughout. Deep Space 1's other new technologies, many of which have already been validated, include autonomous optical navigation, several microelectronics experiments, and software to plan and execute many onboard activities with only general direction from the ground. Two science instruments-one combining a camera, ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and infrared imaging spectrometer, the second combining several instruments that study space plasma-will be further tested during a planned flyby of asteroid 1992 KD this July. By Dec. 1, Deep Space 1 had accomplished enough testing to satisfy the technology validation aspects of the minimum mission success criteria and is now well on its way toward meeting maximum criteria as well. Following its Jan. 3 launch, Deep Space 2's two small probes will reach Mars this December and will crash into the Martian soil to test new technologies and conduct science experiments. Each probe, approximately the size of a large grapefruit inside a basketball-sized aeroshell, contains a suite of miniature electrical and mechanical systems that must withstand extreme environments, including crashing into the planet's surface at speeds of up to 500 mph and surviving extremely low temperatures. Upon impact, they will begin collecting data to verify the survival of the penetrator system, which contains 10 new technologies. Within the first six hours, they will also attempt to detect the presence of water ice. If successful, this mission will pave the way for future science projects involving scores of microinstruments sent to all regions of a solar system planet or moon. The probes' three parts-a forebody that pierces up to nine-tenths of a meter (three feet) into the ground, an aftbody that remains above the ground (tethered to the forebody for telecommunications) and the aeroshell in which they are traveling to Mars-were delivered to the Kennedy Space Center this fall and attached to the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring, on which they are piggybacking to the red planet. Launch was the crowning touch to an intensive year of test and assembly for the mission team. Deep Space 3, a proposed optical interferometry mission involving spacecraft orbiting the Sun in formation, made significant progress in 1998, as the mission was reconfigured from three spacecraft to two. Engineering design experiments determined that separated spacecraft interferometry could be accomplished using two spacecraft separated by up to one full kilometer. This change has yielded both cost and mass savings. An industry partner is scheduled to be selected and on contract by this March. Deep Space 3, which is scheduled to launch in December 2001, will undergo system requirements and architecture review in August. Deep Space 4/Champollion, a proposed mission that will send a lander to the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 in 2005 following a scheduled launch in 2003, achieved many milestones in 1998. The team continued working on the detailed design of the lander and mother ship, including the construction of a striking, full-scale mockup of the diminutive lander. An observational program on Tempel 1 has revealed the size of the nucleus to be 3.9 by 2.8 kilometers; the team is now trying to determine additional information on the nucleus' shape and its rotation period. A NASA review is scheduled for April. Earth Orbiter 1, New Millennium's first Earth orbiter flight, will validate technologies for future land-imaging missions. Over the course of this mission, launching in December 1999, three new land-imaging instruments will collect multispectral and hyperspectral scenes in coordination with the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) on Landsat-7. Managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, EO-1 will demonstrate breakthrough technologies in lightweight materials, high-performance integrated detector arrays and precision spectrometers. Detailed comparisons of the EO-1 and ETM+ images will be carried out to validate these instruments for future missions. In 1998, EO-1's advanced land imager completed environmental testing and is now in final calibration. Its Hyperion instrument was added in May and is now being fabricated; this unique instrument's capabilities provide resolution of surface properties into hundreds of spectral bands, versus the 10 multispectral bands flown on traditional Landsat imaging missions. Other instruments delivered for integration and test included EO-1's pulsed plasma thruster, carbon-carbon radiator, X-band phased array antenna, lightweight flexible solar array and enhanced formation flying software. With Earth Orbiter 2, New Millennium will fly an infrared laser in the cargo bay of the space shuttle to see if a space-based sensor can accurately measure global winds within Earth's atmosphere from just above the surface to a height of about 16 kilometers (10 miles). Successful measurements in this key region of the atmosphere could lead to improved weather forecasting and better understanding of such climate-related events as El Nino. Based on technology tested aboard research aircraft, the Space-Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (Sparcle) will detect the frequency shift of an eye-safe laser pulse as it reflects off dust and aerosol particles as they move with the winds. The resulting measurements should give researchers precise information about the speed, direction and vertical profile of tropospheric winds. Due to launch in 2001, Sparcle is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This year's milestones included a preliminary system design review in October, to be followed by a critical design review this April. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: MUSES CN Progresses Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 MUSES CN Progresses By MARY BETH MURRILL NASA and Japan's space science organization ISAS signed an interim agreement formally establishing the collaboration on the MUSES C sample return and rover mission to an asteroid. Last year, the announcement of opportunity for the MUSES CN science team was released and proposals were received. In the area of nanorover and spacecraft engineering, the project tested the ISAS-developed heat shield materials at NASA's Ames Research Center. The engineering models of the motors for the MUSES CN nanorover were delivered to JPL. The rover is about half way finished with its detailed design, said Project Manager Ross Jones. In addition, he said, the electronic boards for the software development model rover were completed. JPL and The Planetary Society signed a memorandum of understanding establishing the society as an outreach partner with MUSES CN. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Polar Lander Heads To Red Planet Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Mars Polar Lander Heads To Red Planet By DIANE AINSWORTH After a stellar launch at 3:21 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on Sunday, Jan. 3, NASA's Mars Polar Lander is now on its way to the south pole of Mars to search for water ice beneath the edge of layered terrain in this uncharted region of the planet. The spacecraft was launched atop a Delta II-class launch vehicle identical to the expendable rocket used to loft Mars Climate Orbiter into space on Dec. 11, 1998. Hitchhiking aboard the diminutive spacecraft are two grapefruit-sized microprobes designed t o crash into Mars' surface and carry out up to seven days of soil and water experiments as far as 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface. The probes will ride silently to Mars, mounted on the Polar Lander's cruise ring, before they are turned on and d eployed 10 minutes before the mothership touches down. "The launch was incredible, just amazing, because the vehicle is just sitting there one minute and then it's gone," said Kari Lewis, chief mission engineer on the New Millennium Deep Space 2 microprobe mission. "There was a low cloud cover, though, so we didn't see it for very long." Sixty-six seconds after liftoff on a cloudy, blustery day at Cape Canaveral Air Station, and the morning after a storm packing 38-mile-per-hour winds had swept through Cocoa Beach, the Delta's four solid-rocket strap-on boosters were jettisoned. At 4:03 p.m. EST, Mars Polar Lander separated from the third stage. A set of solar panels located on the spacecraft's outer cruise stage were deployed shortly thereafter and pointed at the Sun. The lander's signal was acquired at 4:19 p.m. EST over Canber ra, Australia, by a 34-meter-diameter (112-foot) Deep Space Network antenna. The spacecraft is in excellent health, the flight team reports, and continues to show normal power and temperature levels and the proper attitude control for telecommunications with Earth using its medium-gain horn antenna. Earlier in the week, the flight team was continuing to analyze data from Mars Polar Lander's star camera, which had not yet been able to lock on to the proper set of stars to establish its reference in space. The situation became evident shortly after lau nch, as the lander was beginning to try to locate stars to establish its proper orientation in space. Proper operation of the star camera was initiated on Wednesday morning. Mars Polar Lander's interplanetary cruise will take it more than 180 degrees around the Sun in a Type 2 trajectory, allowing the spacecraft to target a landing zone close to Mars' south pole at 73 degrees to 76 degrees south latitude. The precise landing zone will be pinpointed in June or July, about five months before landing, with the help of new images taken by Mars Global Surveyor. The spacecraft is scheduled to fire its thrusters in a trajectory correction maneuver Jan. 18. That maneuver, designed to remove a targeting bias intended to prevent the third stage of the Delta II rocket from following in the lander's flight path and col liding with Mars, as well as any small launch injection errors, is expected to take approximately five minutes to execute. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Performance Excellent Heading Into New Year Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Cassini Performance Excellent Heading Into New Year By MARY BETH MURRILL The Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan celebrated a year of problem-free flight as the spacecraft travels through the inner solar system. "The overall performance of the Cassini spacecraft and the operations team has been excellent," said Cassini Program Manager Bob Mitchell. Mitchell was named to his post in mid-1998 when former program manager Richard Spehalski retired. One highlight of the spacecraft's flight over the year was trajectory correction maneuver number 2, which was performed using Cassini's reaction control system on Feb. 25, 1998. The performance was excellent, and as a result, two other scheduled trajectory correction maneuvers were cancelled as they became unnecessary. The first of two Venus flybys occurred flawlessly on April 26, 1998 at 284 kilometers (175 miles) altitude. The radio plasma wave spectrometer was operated in an attempt to detect lightning in Venus' atmosphere, but none was detected. The program conducted a review of requirements in preparation for the second Venus flyby and an Earth swingby in June and August this year. A large propulsive maneuver (called the Deep Space Maneuver) was performed on Dec. 3, 1998, in order to establish the necessary gravity-assist conditions at the upcoming Venus encounter. A total of 771 kilograms (1,700 pounds) of propellant was used to change the spacecraft's speed by 450 meters per second (1,000 mph). All systems performed properly. Engineering checkouts of the Huygens probe were conducted twice last year, and periodic instrument and engineering maintenance activities on Cassini have shown the spacecraft to be running smoothly. The first in-flight use of Cassini's high-gain antenna began Dec. 28, 1998 for the start of a 25-day instrument checkout activity. Spehalski received the American Astronomical Society W. Randolf Lovelace II Award in recognition of "his outstanding contributions to space science technology." In October, NASA Honor Awards were given to Cassini and Huygens team members and contractors in recognition of their contributions to the program's successful development and launch. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Update - January 11, 1999 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Aerobraking Status Report Monday, January 11, 1999 (DOY 008/19:00:00 to DOY 011/19:00:00 UTC) Last Orbit Covered by this Report = 1045 Total Phase I Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 180 Total Phase II Aerobraking orbits accomplished = 470 Total Science Phasing orbits accomplished = 290 Apoapsis altitude = 3323.0 km Apoapsis altitude decrease since start of aerobraking = 50703 km Periapsis altitude = 108.9 km Current Orbit Period = 03:04:14 Orbit Period decrease since start of aerobraking = 41:55:19 Starting Phase II orbit period = 11:38:02 RECENT EVENTS: The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft continues excellent aerobraking performance. Eight and one half minutes have been removed from the orbit period in the past 21 drag passes. Period reduction progress continues as planned. The dynamic pressure 8-orbit running mean is now 0.168 N/m2 which is just inside the desired corridor, 0.11 N/m2 to 0.17 N/m2. There were no corridor control maneuvers ordered. Predictions show very slight increase in atmospheric density for the coming 2 weeks, even though the periapsis altitude continues to cycle lower. A `flare' maneuver is being planned for execution that will accommodate the earlier arrival at the desired orbit period. This will be a corridor control maneuver with a custom delta V magnitude that is intended to accommodate the 2 am Local Solar Time (LST) simultaneous with the 112 minutes desired orbit period. Currently, sequence P1039 is controlling the S/C activities. It will be replaced later this afternoon with P1047 which will control activities starting with orbit 1047 through orbit 1054. No backup orbits were executed this period. All sequences built this period had 8 primary orbits and 4 backups to maintain a primary shift build schedule. All periapsis timing predictions have been outstanding therefore no special, non-scheduled sequences were required. Subsystems continue to report excellent S/C health and performance. The -Y solar array yoke has shown no change in structural performance. Because of the reduced drag force through this period of aerobraking concern has lessened over the overall panel structural health, however, there are still 280 orbits left and the team continues to monitor the panel strength closely. Attitude knowledge has been maintained throughout the period with excellent star processing. The power subsystem reports strong performance with battery discharge depths now about 31% each drag pass. The primary chargers at V/T level 7 are able to fully recharge the batteries with 10 minutes to spare. As the orbit period continues to shrink, the V/T level will be reduced to provide a faster charge. The solar eclipse period continues to grow longer each orbit, now at 34 minutes. The minimum MOLA laser temperature observed this period was 10.9°C, down slightly due to the increasing eclipse period. The minimum solar array temperatures are now reaching -134°C and the HGA gimbal is a warm 25° with it's heater on full time. The telecommunications subsystem continues solid performance. UPCOMING EVENTS: Periapsis for Orbit 1046 DOY011/19:39:47 Through Periapsis for Orbit 1061 DOY013/16:56:14 UTC (Note: MST = UTC-7 hours DOY008=1/8) SPACECRAFT COMMANDING: There were 9 command files radiated to the S/C during this period. The total files radiated since launch is now 3154. These commands were sent in support of the following activities: Nominal drag pass sequences (P1024, P1031, P1039) Nominal corridor control maneuver sequences (none) Command loss timer resets Star catalog and ephemeris file loads Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: ARGOS Satellite Serves as Platform for Leading-Edge Technology and Res Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... The Boeing Company CONTACT: Erik Simonsen, (562) 797-5473 ARGOS Satellite Serves as Platform for Leading-Edge Technology and Research SEAL BEACH, Calif., Jan. 6, 1999 -- A Boeing-built satellite that will serve as an on-orbit platform for leading-edge technology is set for a January launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The 6,000 pound P91-1 Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) was built and integrated at the Boeing facility in Seal Beach, and is the largest and most sophisticated research and development satellite that Boeing has ever developed for the U.S. Air Force. "The ARGOS satellite symbolizes the broad nature and sophistication of our integration capabilities at Boeing," said Jim Albaugh, president of Boeing Space and Communications. "We have successfully assembled, integrated and tested a very complex experimental satellite -- and we will launch it aboard one of our Delta II rockets. The ARGOS could be referred to as the "Swiss army knife" of spacecraft, with an array of nine high technology experiments, that will demonstrate next-generation satellite technology and conduct exploration across a wide spectrum. I am extremely proud of our teams that worked together so skillfully to bring all the integration elements together." The ARGOS satellite will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit of 450 nautical miles at 98.7 degrees inclination. Its on-board system is capable of generating 2,200 watts of electrical power from solar panels and can downlink up to five megabits of data per second -- more than twice the capacity of current satellite systems. "Our team did a magnificent job in the assembly, integration and testing phases of the vehicle, and in the final preparation for flight," said Bob Glaysher, vice president and general manager, Boeing Satellites and Ground Control Systems. "I would like to emphasize that the integration of the nine on-board experiment payloads on the satellite bus exemplifies a real satellite turnkey system that we have at Boeing. The ARGOS on-board experiments represent a potential for significant scientific advances in autonomous satellite navigation, superconductivity devices and future propulsion systems." The ARGOS satellite bus was designed to carry heavy, high-power space experiments to conduct upper atmospheric observations and technology demonstrations. The nine payload experiments will address more than 30 research objectives, including sensor technology for the International Space Station, as well as three high priority ultraviolet imaging experiments and an X-ray sensor. The High Temperature Super Conducting Experiment II (HTSSE II) payload developed by the Naval Research Laboratory will space qualify superconducting digital subsystems that could offer factors of 100 to 1000 in power reduction -- more than ten times higher speed and similar weight reduction, than today's silicon or gallium arsenide (GaAs) based electronics. Spacecraft designers will evaluate the benefits for future systems. The feasibility of autonomous satellite navigation using X-ray pulsars in place of Global Positioning System (GPS) timing and navigation signals will be demonstrated by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division. This experiment will allow ARGOS to be one of the first research satellites to fly an embedded GPS receiver, while determining if distant astronomical X-ray sources could be used as autonomous position, attitude and time- keeping references for military space systems. An important aspect of current and future spacecraft operations is the ability to achieve orbit transfer, circularization and altitude variations cost-effectively. The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX), managed by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, will demonstrate reliable arc-jet thruster operation in space. Electric propulsion is expected to double the payload-to-orbit capability of current space propulsion systems. The Naval Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, and Air Force Research Laboratory -- Phillips Research Site all provided payloads for Boeing to integrate on ARGOS. This unique multi-agency mission is being managed by the Tri-Service Spacecraft Division, Space Test Program, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Boeing will continue to work with the Air Force and the various research facilities to assist with the vast amount of experiment payload data expected during the three-year design life of ARGOS. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Performance Excellent Heading Into New Year Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... >From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Cassini Performance Excellent Heading Into New Year By MARY BETH MURRILL The Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan celebrated a year of problem-free flight as the spacecraft travels through the inner solar system. "The overall performance of the Cassini spacecraft and the operations team has been excellent," said Cassini Program Manager Bob Mitchell. Mitchell was named to his post in mid-1998 when former program manager Richard Spehalski retired. One highlight of the spacecraft's flight over the year was trajectory correction maneuver number 2, which was performed using Cassini's reaction control system on Feb. 25, 1998. The performance was excellent, and as a result, two other scheduled trajectory correction maneuvers were cancelled as they became unnecessary. The first of two Venus flybys occurred flawlessly on April 26, 1998 at 284 kilometers (175 miles) altitude. The radio plasma wave spectrometer was operated in an attempt to detect lightning in Venus' atmosphere, but none was detected. The program conducted a review of requirements in preparation for the second Venus flyby and an Earth swingby in June and August this year. A large propulsive maneuver (called the Deep Space Maneuver) was performed on Dec. 3, 1998, in order to establish the necessary gravity-assist conditions at the upcoming Venus encounter. A total of 771 kilograms (1,700 pounds) of propellant was used to change the spacecraft's speed by 450 meters per second (1,000 mph). All systems performed properly. Engineering checkouts of the Huygens probe were conducted twice last year, and periodic instrument and engineering maintenance activities on Cassini have shown the spacecraft to be running smoothly. The first in-flight use of Cassini's high-gain antenna began Dec. 28, 1998 for the start of a 25-day instrument checkout activity. Spehalski received the American Astronomical Society W. Randolf Lovelace II Award in recognition of "his outstanding contributions to space science technology." In October, NASA Honor Awards were given to Cassini and Huygens team members and contractors in recognition of their contributions to the program's successful development and launch. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 14 января 1999 (1999-01-14) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Outer Planets/Solar Probe: New Name; Launch Dates Set Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... >From The "JPL Universe" January 8, 1999 Outer Planets/Solar Probe: New Name; Launch Dates Set By JANE PLATT A project encompassing three diverse missions gained a new name and a set of launch dates in 1998. Europa Orbiter, Pluto-Kuiper Express and Solar Probe, which had been grouped as the Ice and Fire Preprojects, were converted to Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project. Europa Orbiter was assigned a planned launch date of November 2003, with a December 2004 launch planned for Pluto-Kuiper Express, and February 2007 for Solar Probe. Dr. John McNamee was appointed Outer Planets/Solar Probe project manager, with Robert Staehle serving as deputy project manager. Prime science objectives were selected for all three missions, and X2000 began developing the hardware and software for the planned journeys to the Sun, Europa, Pluto and beyond. The new year will bring additional progress for the missions, with the anticipated selection by NASA of the first science payload for Europa Orbiter. A propulsion module contract will be awarded, and an industry collaborator selected for all three missions. Europa Orbiter has reaped the rewards of interest stirred up by recent findings from the Galileo Europa Mission. New pictures and data bolster the premise of a liquid ocean beneath Europa's surface. Pluto will make history on Feb. 11, 1999, when its orbit crosses over Neptune's, reclaiming Pluto's title as "most distant planet" in our solar system. And our celestial life source, the Sun, will be scrutinized by Solar Probe, which is to fly 20 times closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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