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    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Cassini Update - March 27, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... CASSINI SIGNIFICANT EVENTS FOR WEEK ENDING 03/27/98 Spacecraft Status: The Cassini spacecraft is presently traveling at a speed of approximately 143,000 kilometers/hour (~89,000 mph) relative to the sun and has traveled approximately 439 million kilometers (~273 million miles) since launch on October 15, 1997. The most recent Spacecraft status is from the DSN tracking pass on Thursday,03/26, over Madrid. The Cassini spacecraft is in an excellent state of health and is executing the C7 sequence nominally, having been returned to standard sequence-based activities on Thursday, 3/26, following an occurrence of spacecraft system-safing on Tuesday, 3/24 (see below). Inertial attitude control is being maintained using the spacecraft's hydrazine thrusters (RCS system). The spacecraft continues to fly in a High Gain Antenna-to-Sun attitude. It will maintain the HGA-to-Sun attitude, except for planned trajectory correction maneuvers, for the first 14 months of flight. Communication with Earth during early cruise is via one of the spacecraft's two low-gain antennas; the antenna selected depends on the relative geometry of the Sun, Earth and the spacecraft. The downlink telemetry rate is presently 40 bps. Spacecraft Activity Summary: On Friday, 03/20, there were no changes in spacecraft configuration. On Saturday, 03/21, the Solid State Recorder (SSR) record and playback pointers were reset, according to plan. This housekeeping activity, done approximately weekly, maximizes the amount of time that recorded engineering data is available for playback to the ground should an anomaly occur on the spacecraft. On Sunday, 03/22, and Monday, 03/23, there were no changes in spacecraft configuration. On Tuesday, March 24, the Cassini spacecraft automatically entered "safing"(i.e., a pre-defined, low-activity safe operating mode of the spacecraft) while performing a planned spacecraft maintenance activity. The spacecraft executed the "safing" response exactly as designed. Tuesday's telemetry indicated that safing resulted from a small variation in information about the spacecraft's orientation (i.e., attitude), that occurred as flight controllers were switching between the spacecraft's two stellar reference units. On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday ground controllers prepared and uplinked the commands needed to return the spacecraft to its planned operating state. By Thursday afternoon, 3/26, the recovery effort had been completed, the C7 sequence had been reactivated and the planned activities were again executing on schedule. No mission impacts occurred as a result of this event. All planned activities for the Venus 1 flyby remain on schedule. On Thursday evening, 3/26, the second Probe Checkout was conducted, as planned. This activity occurs approximately every 6 months. Temperature and power telemetry from the DSN track immediately following the activity indicated that the activity executed as expected. A series of data playbacks from the SSR which begin on 3/31 will provide detailed information on the results of the checkout. Also on Thursday, the spacecraft passed through perihelion, the point in its orbit closest to the sun. Upcoming events: Activities scheduled for the week of 3/27 - 4/02 include: the first 2 (of 7) Probe Checkout data playbacks (3/31 and 4/1), an SSR pointer reset (4/1), and an SSR FSW partition maintenance activity (4/1). DSN Coverage: Over the past week Cassini had 8 scheduled DSN tracks occurring from 03/20 through 3/22 and 3/24 through 3/26. Additional DSN coverage was obtained on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. In the coming week there will be 9 DSN passes. Sequence Preparation: Preparations are continuing for the Launch-plus-14 month initial instrument checkout of the orbiter instruments. Engineering Change Requests for that important functionality test were approved on Wednesday. The approved timeline of activities for the Instrument Checkout will pass from the Mission Planning Virtual Team to the Sequence Virtual Team in the near future. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Sky & Telescope News Bulletin - March 27, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SKY & TELESCOPE'S NEWS BULLETIN MARCH 27, 1998 METEORITE FALL IN TEXAS With the recent hubbub about the dangers of large asteroid impacts, events this past week serve as a reminder about smaller pieces of cosmic debris. On Sunday, March 22nd, just before 7 p.m. local time, a fireball was seen blazing and then exploding over Texas. Shortly thereafter, a hunk of rock hit the ground in the city of Monahans, located 340 km (210 miles) east of El Paso. The fragment, first found by youths who were playing basketball about 10 meters away, measured 22-by-10-by-5 centimeters (9-by-4-by-2 inches). A second, smaller fragment was found the next day about 240 meters (800 feet) away from the first. The meteorites have been classified as chondrites, or stony meteorites. More pieces are likely in the area. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MAPPING AGAIN The hiatus of data from Mars Global Surveyor ends today as NASA halts aerobraking maneuvers to begin a five-month-long series of scientific observations. Aerobraking will resume in September and continue until March 1999, when Global Surveyor should reach its final circular orbit. Over the following few days, flight controllers will characterize the spacecraft intermediate elliptical orbit to determine what surface features the camera can view. It turns out that features on Mars can be off by 1 to 2 kilometers from accepted maps. The spacecraft now orbits the planet every 11.6 hours, with a minimum altitude of 170 kilometers. Among the possibilities for imaging is the Cydonia region of Mars, an area that includes the infamous "Face on Mars" and other topographic curiosities. SPACECRAFT NEWS In early March, the assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility. AXAF -- one of NASA's "Great Observatories" -- is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia in December 1998. On Wednesday, NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin authorized the start of work on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a project that has been in planning for more than a decade. SIRTF, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). is scheduled for launch in December 2001 aboard a Delta booster. And NASA has approved development of the third Wide Field Camera (WFC3) for the Hubble Space Telescope. This instrument is scheduled to be installed during a servicing mission by Space Shuttle astronauts in 2002. CONSUMER TELESCOPE ALLIANCE On March 25th, optics manufacturer Tasco Sales, Inc., announced that it signed a letter of intent to buy Celestron International. While this action will merge the companies, they will continue to operate independently. The acquisition of Celestron will give Tasco a complete range of low- to high- end consumer optics, and provide Celestron with larger channels for distribution. A SUPERNOVA TO SPY ON Amateurs continue to follow the supernova discovered on March 2nd in the galaxy NGC 3877 in Ursa Major. Supernova 1998S, an unusual Type IIn supernova, has been holding fairly steady at 12th magnitude for the last two weeks. The 11th-magnitude galaxy is located just 0.3 degree due south of the star Chi Ursae Majoris. Supernova 1998S is 14" west and 46" south of the elongated galaxy's center. S&T Associate Editor Alan MacRobert reports that on March 25th the supernova was easier to see than the galaxy itself in a 12-inch telescope at 110-power through some light pollution. THIS WEEK'S "SKY AT A GLANCE" Some daily events in the changing sky, from the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE. MARCH 29 -- SUNDAY * At this time of year, the brightest star shining in the southwestern sky during evening is Sirius, the Dog Star. You can't miss it! High above Sirius (by roughly three fist-widths at arm's length) is Procyon, the Little Dog Star. A similar distance to Sirius's right or upper right is the constellation Orion. MARCH 30 -- MONDAY * The brightest star fairly low in the east after dark is the "Spring Star," Arcturus. It rises higher as the night progresses. It will also get higher as seen at the same time of night as the season progresses. MARCH 31 -- TUESDAY * Look just above the waxing crescent Moon this evening for Aldebaran. * The Moon's rMDNMЇdark limb occults (covers) the 4th-magnitude star Gamma Tauri in the Hyades for much of North America this evening. This will be a beautiful event for visual observers and suitable for camcorder timings (see the March Sky & Telescope, page 98, or http://www.skypub.com/occults/occults.html). APRIL 1 -- WEDNESDAY * The Moon shines this evening to the upper left of Aldebaran and the upper right of Orion. APRIL 2 -- THURSDAY * Look below the Moon this evening for the constellation Orion. At this time of year Orion is getting lower and lower in the west after dark, and his three-star Belt is positioned nearly horizontally. Shining above the Belt, by about a fist-width at arm's length, is bright orange Betelgeuse (Orion's shoulder). The same distance below the Belt is bright Rigel (one of Orion's feet). APRIL 3 -- FRIDAY * First-quarter Moon (exact at 3:18 p.m. EST). APRIL 4 -- SATURDAY * The Moon is nearly in line with Castor and Pollux this evening. Below it is Procyon. * rMDNMЇThis evening the 12th-magnitude asteroid 23 Thalia occults a 10.4-magnitude star in Auriga for parts of the northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. The occultation, which could last for up to 4 seconds, should happen within a few minutes of 9:09 p.m. EST (convert to your time zone). For a finder chart see the April Sky & Telescope, page 94, or go to http://www.skypub.com/occults/occults.html. * Daylight saving time begins at 2 a.m. tomorrow morning in most of the United States. ============================ THIS WEEK'S PLANET ROUNDUP ============================ MERCURY, MARS, and SATURN are disappearing into the sunset. VENUS shines brightly in the east-southeast during dawn. JUPITER is nearly hidden in the glow of dawn, some 15 or 20 degrees to the lower left of Venus. URANUS and NEPTUNE, magnitudes 6 and 8, respectively, are to the upper right of Venus. PLUTO, magnitude 13.8 near the Ophiuchus-Scorpius border, is well up in the southeast by 1 or 2 a.m. (All descriptions that relate to the horizon or zenith are written for the world's midnorthern latitudes. Descriptions that also depend on longitude are for North America. Eastern Standard Time, EST, equals Universal Time minus 5 hours.) More details, sky maps, and news of other celestial events appear each month in SKY & TELESCOPE, the essential magazine of astronomy. See our Web site at http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! SKY & TELESCOPE, P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02178 * 617-864-7360 (voice) Copyright 1998 Sky Publishing Corporation. S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance stargazing calendar are provided as a service to the astronomical community by the editors of SKY & TELESCOPE magazine. Widespread electronic distribution is encouraged as long as these paragraphs are included. But the text of the bulletin and calendar may not be published in any other form without permission from Sky Publishing (contact permissions@skypub.com or phone 617-864-7360). Illustrated versions, including active links to related Internet resources, are available via SKY Online on the World Wide Web at http://www.skypub.com/. In response to numerous requests, and in cooperation with the Astronomical League (http://www.mcs.net/~bstevens/al/) and the American Association of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.corvus.com/), S&T's Weekly News Bulletin and Sky at a Glance are available via electronic mailing list too. For a free subscription, send e-mail to skyline@gs1.revnet.com and put the word "join" on the first line of the body of the message. To unsubscribe, send e-mail to skyline@gs1.revnet.com and put the word "unjoin" on the first line of the body of the message. SKY & TELESCOPE, the Essential Magazine of Astronomy, is read by more than 200,000 enthusiasts each month. It is available on newsstands worldwide. For subscription information, or for a free copy of our catalog of fine astronomy books and products, please contact Sky Publishing Corp., P.O. Box 9111, Belmont, MA 02178-9111, U.S.A. Phone: 800-253-0245 (U.S. and Canada); 617-864-7360 (International). Fax: 617-864-6117. E-mail: custserv@skypub.com. SKY Online: http://www.skypub.com/. Clear skies! Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STS-90 Press Briefings Set For April 2 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Jennifer McCarter Headquarters, Washington, DC March 27, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1639) Eileen M. Hawley Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (Phone: 281/483-5111) NOTE TO EDITORS : N98-24 STS-90 PRESS BRIEFINGS SET FOR APRIL 2 A series of background press briefings on the upcoming STS-90 mission are scheduled beginning at 9 a.m. EST April 2 on NASA TV, originating from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. The 16-day Shuttle mission is dedicated to the study of the human nervous system, the most complex and least understood part of the body. The principal objectives of the STS-90 mission are to expand our understanding of how the nervous system develops and functions in space, but the research also will provide unique contributions to the study and treatment of neurological disorders on Earth. The launch window opens at 2:19 p.m. EDT on April 16, and lasts 2 hours. Following a nominal flight duration of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes, Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled to land at the Kennedy Space Center, FL, on May 2 about 12:09 p.m. EDT. Following the STS-90 mission briefings, round-robin interviews with the crew members will be held for reporters at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, and for those reporters who make advance arrangements to conduct the interviews by phone. Media interested in the round robin interviews should fax their request to Eileen Hawley in Johnson Public Affairs by close of business March 31. The round-robin interviews will not be seen on NASA TV. NASA TV is available on GE-2, Transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, vertical polarization, with a frequency of 3880 Mhz, and audio of 6.8 Mhz. STS-90 will be Columbia's 25th mission into space and the 90th Shuttle flight in the program's history. - end - STS-90 PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFINGS Thursday, April 2, 1998 (all times shown are EST) 9 a.m. Mission Overview Al Pennington, STS-90 lead flight director 9:30 a.m. Neurolab Overview Dr. Mary Anne Frey, program scientist, NASA Headquarters James McGuire, program manager, NASA Headquarters 10:30 a.m. Neurolab science briefing Dr. Jerry Homick, Neurolab mission scientist Dr. Mel Buderer, JSC payload project scientist Dr. Louis Ostrach, ARC payload project scientist 12 p.m. NASA TV Videofile 2:30 p.m. STS-90 Crew Press Conference Rick Searfoss, Commander Scott Altman, Pilot Rick Linnehan, Payload Commander, MS1 Kay Hire, MS2 Dave Williams, MS3 Jay Buckey, PS1 Jim Pawelczyk, PS2 4 p.m. STS-90 Crew Round Robins Note: The round robin interview event with the STS-90 crew is a local JSC event only and will not be carried on NASA TV. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Earth Dragging Space And Time As It Rotates Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Douglas Isbell Headquarters, Washington, DC. March 27, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1753) Lynn Chandler Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-9016) RELEASE: 98-51 EARTH DRAGGING SPACE AND TIME AS IT ROTATES An international team of NASA and university researchers has found the first direct evidence of a phenomenon predicted 80 years ago using EinsteinХs theory of general relativity -- that the Earth is dragging space and time around itself as it rotates. Researchers believe they have detected the effect by precisely measuring shifts in the orbits of two Earth-orbiting laser-ranging satellites, the Laser Geodynamics Satellite I (LAGEOS I), a NASA spacecraft, and LAGEOS II, a joint NASA/Italian Space Agency (ASI) spacecraft. The research, which is reported in the current edition of the journal Science, is the first direct measurement of a bizarre effect called "frame dragging." The team was led by Dr. Ignazio Ciufolini of the National Research Council of Italy and the Aerospace Department of the University of Rome, and Dr. Erricos Pavlis of the Joint Center for Earth System Technology, a research collaboration between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, and the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. "General relativity predicts that massive rotating objects should drag space-time around themselves as they rotate," said Pavlis. "Frame dragging is like what happens if a bowling ball spins in a thick fluid such as molasses. As the ball spins, it pulls the molasses around itself. Anything stuck in the molasses will also move around the ball. Similarly, as the Earth rotates, it pulls space-time in its vicinity around itself. This will shift the orbits of satellites near the Earth. "We found that the plane of the orbits of LAGEOS I and II were shifted about six feet (two meters) per year in the direction of the Earth's rotation," Pavlis said. "This is about 10 percent greater than what is predicted by general relativity, which is within our margin of error of plus or minus 20 percent. Later measurements by Gravity Probe B, a NASA spacecraft scheduled to be launched in 2000, should reduce this error margin to less than one percent. This promises to tell us much more about the physics involved." Einstein's theory of general relativity has been highly successful at explaining how matter and light behave in strong gravitational fields, and has been successfully tested using a wide variety of astrophysical observations. The frame-dragging effect was first derived using general relativity by Austrian physicists Joseph Lense and Hans Thirring in 1918. Known as the Lense-Thirring effect, it was previously observed by the team of Ciufolini using the LAGEOS satellites and has recently been observed around distant celestial objects with intense gravitational fields, such as black holes and neutron stars. The new research around Earth is the first direct detection and measurement of this phenomenon. The team analyzed a four-year period of data from the LAGEOS satellites from 1993 to 1996, using a method devised by Ciufolini three years ago. The other team members are Dr. Federico Chieppa of Scuola d'Ingegneria Aerospaziale of the University of Rome, and Drs. Eduardo Fernandes and Juan Perez-Mercader of Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental (LAEFF) in Madrid. The measurements required the use of an extremely accurate model of the Earth's gravitational field, called the Earth Gravity Model 96, which became available only recently due to the collaborative work of the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (formerly the Defense Mapping Agency), Fairfax, VA, and the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. It was developed over a four-year period using tracking data from approximately 40 spacecraft. Dr. John Ries, an expert in satellite geodesy at the University of Texas at Austin, cautions that it is very challenging to remove the much larger effects of tidal changes and small zonal influences in the Earth's gravitational field, so that estimating the possible errors in the measurement of the Lense- Thirring effect is itself uncertain. ТThe relativistic effect being sought is about ten million times smaller than classical Newtonian disturbances on the plane of the LAGEOS orbits, requiring an enormously accurate treatment of background effects,У said Dr. Alan Bunner, science program director for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe in the Office of Space Science at NASA headquarters, Washington, DC. LAGEOS II, launched in 1992, and its predecessor, LAGEOS I, launched in 1976, are passive satellites dedicated exclusively to laser ranging, which involves sending laser pulses to the satellite from ranging stations on Earth and then recording the round-trip travel time. Given the well-known value for the speed of light, this measurement enables scientists to determine precisely the distances between laser ranging stations on Earth and the satellite. LAGEOS is designed primarily to provide a reference point for experiments that monitor the motion of the Earth's crust, measure and understand the "wobble" in the Earth's axis of rotation, and collect information on the Earth's size, shape, and gravitational field. Such research is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise, a coordinated research program that studies the Earth's land, oceans, ice, atmosphere and life as a total system. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Lunar Prospector Update - March 25, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Lunar Prospector Status Report #26 March 25, 1998 7:00 p.m. EST (4:00 p.m. PST) The spacecraft continues to perform very well and all instruments continue to collect good data. The Lunar Prospector orbit is evolving consistently with predictions from the latest gravity model (LP75D) supplied by Dr. Konopliv/JPL, which has been in use since March 3, 1998 for Lunar Prospector orbit determination product generation. The accuracy of orbit determination solutions has improved dramatically over pre-launch models. Figure 1 shows definitive solutions plotted against propagations of the Lunar Prospector orbit since the beginning of the mission and following the first mapping orbit maneuver on March 8. On this figure, both the apoapsis (maximum) and periapsis (minimum) altitudes of each orbit are shown. As planned before launch, definitive orbit solutions for the time span prior to March 3 are being re-computed by Goddard Space Flight Center using the updated gravity model and will be made available by mid-April. A plan for conducting Lunar Prospector orbit maneuver has been implemented which calls for maneuvers approximately every two months. These maneuvers are timed to coincide with periods when the orientation of the Lunar Prospector orbit plane is such that continuous ground station coverage is available (when orbit normal is aligned with the Earth-moon line every 14 days). This guarantees coverage of the maneuvers, which consist of two burns spaced close to 180 degrees apart to adjust orbit eccentricity and the location of periapsis. The next orbit maneuver is tentatively planned on or about May 1st. Figure 2 contains a long-term propagation of the LP orbit which shows how the orbit would evolve if no more maneuvers were conducted. Next week, a small attitude re-orientation will likely be scheduled to trim out the attitude. The current state of the vehicle ( as of 4:00 p.m. (PST) on Wed., March 25, 1998), according to Mission Operations Manager Marcie Smith, is as follows: Spacecraft Orbit Number: 895 Data Downlink Rate: 3600 bps Spin Rate: 11.96 rpm Spin Axis Attitude Longitude: 280 degrees Latitude: 86.4 degrees Trajectory Periselene: 89 km Aposelene: 109 km Period: 118 minutes Inclination: 91 degrees Occultations: 45 minutes duration Eclipses: 47 minutes duration Ken Galal Lunar Prospector Trajectory Engineer NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, Calif. 94035 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Science And Technology Center Dedication Set For April 3 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: John G. Watson NOTE TO EDITORS March 27, 1998 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER DEDICATION SET FOR APRIL 3 Media representatives are invited to cover the dedication of the newly expanded Apple Valley Science and Technology Center in Apple Valley, CA the morning of Friday, April 3. Participants include U.S. Rep. Jerry Lewis; Gale Wilson, wife of Governor Pete Wilson; NASA Administrator Dan Goldin; JPL Director Dr. Edward C. Stone; and astronaut Dick Covey. Many other local, state and national officials will join parents, teachers and students to celebrate the expansion of the center. Events include: 9:30 a.m. -- Dedication of a T-38 jet fighter honoring pilots and engineers 10:05 a.m. -- Students in Michigan and Kentucky will operate a radio telescope via the Internet 10:30 a.m. -- Dedication of the new facility begins 11:45 a.m. -- Press conference The center, located at the corner of Thunderbird and Wichita roads, was built nearly 10 years ago. It now houses an observatory, Air Force jet flight simulator, computer center, weather station and related hands-on learning tools for students. In recent years, it has drawn more than 80,000 students and teachers from all over Southern California and the United States. The center is affiliated with the Apple Valley Unified School District and has drawn the support of many business and community leaders from its inception in 1985 for its effective experiments with new, creative educational methods. In 1996, the center took over operation of a nine-story-high tracking antenna within the Goldstone site of NASA's Deep Space Network, near Barstow, CA. Instead of tearing down the decommissioned antenna, NASA/JPL entered into an agreement allowing the center and the school district to operate the antenna as a radio telescope for use via the Internet by students from around the United States. Attendees will witness the dedication of a T-38 jet fighter to the memory of all those who have "pushed the envelope of flight" in the Mojave Desert, and in particular to Bill Davis, a pilot who worked with the aeronautics department of the center to encourage and excite students about aviation. Perhaps most unique to the new facility is the Academy for Academic Excellence, a California Charter school of 400 K-12 students. Visitors will be able to see the innovative approaches to education being developed and tested in the center. A NASA video file about the center and the student operation of the radio telescope will air on NASA Television on April 3. Call JPL Media Relations for more information. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Today On Galileo - March 28, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TODAY ON GALILEO Saturday, March 28, 1998 The second science encounter of the Galileo Europa Mission, the follow on to Galileo's primary mission, started today when encounter-related computer commands began executing at 5 am, Pacific Time. For the next three days, science instruments onboard the Galileo spacecraft will gather more information on the Jupiter system and its intriguing moons. The information will be stored on the onboard tape recorder for later playback. Once again, the bulk of the science observations will focus on Jupiter's moon Europa, but Jupiter, Jupiter's magnetic and electric field environment, and each of the other three Galilean moons: Io, Ganymede and Callisto, are also observed. This encounter is being performed without the gyroscopes. That's because of the recent discovery of further degradation of the anomalous behavior of the spacecraft's attitude control subsystem. During data collection by the remote sensing instruments (camera, spectrometers and radiometer), the gyroscopes are used to improve the stability of instrument pointing. They detect small wobbling of the spacecraft and compensate to keep the instruments steady. Without the gyros, no motion compensation is available. This is expected to result in a small degradation in the quality of the data that is gathered. As the spacecraft flies through the Jupiter system, it passes points of closest approach to each of the bodies of the system. Today, the spacecraft passes within 250,000 kilometers (155,000 miles) of Io and 632,000 kilometers (393,000 miles) of Jupiter at 8:48 pm and 11:59 pm, respectively, both in Pacific Time. The fields and particles instruments kick off the science data gathering activities by initiating a low-rate survey (information is collected at a rate of only a few bits per second) of Jupiter's magnetic and electric field environment, also known as the magnetosphere. Because of the low rate, this data can be packaged and transmitted to Earth almost immediately. This type of observation is said to be performed in 'real-time'. The survey is performed continuously for the duration of the encounter and the information obtained will provide scientists with a context for data gathered at a higher time resolution (hundreds of bits per second) later in the encounter. The information will also add to the existing record of orbit-to-orbit of activity levels within the inner, most active, portions of the magnetosphere. The first remote sensing observation of the encounter is performed by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). This observation of Europa will provide data on Europa's atmosphere. Also obtained on previous orbits, this information allows scientists to monitor changes in the characteristics of the atmosphere from orbit to orbit. Large changes in these characteristics could be indicative of geologic activity on the surface of Europa. A small observation of Jupiter is performed next by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS). The information gathered by this observation is designed to study long term changes in the composition and temperature of Jupiter's atmosphere. As the spacecraft approaches its point of closest approach to Io for this orbit, the science instruments turn their attention to this fiery moon. The UVS instrument performs an atmospheric monitoring observation similar to the one performed earlier on Europa. This is followed by a series of color pictures taken by the camera of Io's north and south pole regions. These pictures will improve the detail of these regions by providing resolutions of 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) per picture element. The best color resolution obtained during Galileo's primary mission was 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) per picture element. Monochrome images as good as 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles) per picture element were obtained in the primary mission, but the color in these new images will be critical to identifying surface materials. The pictures will also be useful to scientists as they plan observations for the return to Io at the end of the Galileo Europa Mission. The photopolarimeter radiometer (PPR) contributes further to the Io data set for this orbit with an observation designed to characterize the different temperatures on Io's surface. This is followed by a joint observation of Io's surface performed by the NIMS instrument and the UVS instrument. The observation is designed to keep track of any changes due to volcanic activity. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Today On Galileo - March 29, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... TODAY ON GALILEO Sunday, March 29, 1998 The spacecraft continues to make its way through the Jupiter system for the 14th time since June 1996. Science information has been collected on 11 of the previous 13 orbits, 11 of which occurred during the Galileo primary mission. Today's observation schedule is heavily focused on Jupiter's moon Europa as the spacecraft flies within 1,645 kilometers (1022 miles) of its surface at 5:21 am, Pacific Time. Later in the day, at 4:09 pm, the spacecraft will pass the point of closest approach to Ganymede at a distance from the surface of 918,000 kilometers (571,000 miles). Many different areas of scientific interest on Europa are covered by today's observing activities. The radio science team, for 20 hours surrounding the point of closest approach, measures changes in Galileo's radio frequency due to Europa's gravitational pull on the spacecraft. By using the Doppler effect, the radio science team will be able to use these measurements to refine the map of the gravity field produced by Europa. Also tied to closest approach, the fields and particles instruments will perform a high time-resolution observation, for just under an hour, of Jupiter's magnetic and electric field environment in the region of space near Europa. This will add to the scientific knowledge of the interaction between Europa and the magnetosphere. The photopolarimeter radiometer performs three observations of Europa today. Together they are designed to determine the temperature variation across Europa's surface and how it relates to different surface ages, how the surface might have been put together, or the different materials on the surface. Two of these observations are performed at better resolutions than was possible during Galileo's primary mission. The resolution of the third is comparable. Three other global scale observations are performed during the day -- one by the spacecraft's camera, or solid-state imaging (SSI) subsystem, and two by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS). Among the specific regions of Europa that Galileo looks at today, we start with a region characterized by rifts or crevasses in Europa's surface observed by NIMS together with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). This is followed by a couple of observations of the Mannann'an crater region performed by the SSI instrument. The pair of images is designed to provide stereo coverage of this region. A region of dark spots is also observed twice by the camera. These two images will also result in stereo coverage of this region, which also lies within regional data obtained during its orbit in November 1997. In addition, a transition from a dark spot region to a region of pull-apart wedge shapes is observed by NIMS and is accompanied by the UVS instrument. Later in the day, a region of triple-bands is observed by all three instruments (SSI, NIMS, UVS). Remember that triple-bands are believed to be formed when Europa's surface cracks, material upwells from below the surface and spills to both sides of the central crack. Coverage of this region is planned to be obtained during the the Europa orbit in February 1999. A transition region between bright plains, pull-apart wedges and dark material is also observed by all three instruments. A high-resolution picture of the Tyre Macula region is obtained by the SSI instrument. This region was observed at a lower resolution in the primary mission's Ganymede orbit in April 1997, and an observation is planned at even higher resolution during the Europa encounter this coming May. The SSI instrument also performs a photometry observation of the surface of Europa. These photometric measurements will tell us how intensely light is reflected from the surface and provide more information on its makeup. Two non-Europa observations are performed today. The first is a global color image of Ganymede performed by the SSI instrument. This image will provide data on the radius, shape, color, and photometry of Ganymede as well as the mobility of frost on its surface. Also observed by SSI is Io while eclipsed from the sun by Jupiter. These eclipse images are considered one of the best ways to discover new lava flows, monitor lava temperatures, and study the interaction between volcanic plumes, Io's atmosphere and Jupiter's magnetosphere. For more information on the Galileo spacecraft and its mission to Jupiter, please visit the Galileo home page: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - March 28, 1998 [1/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Welcome to the Space Calendar! This Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries for the upcoming year. It is also available on the World Wide Web at: http://newproducts.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/ The WWW version of the Space Calendar includes over 850 links to related home pages. This calendar is compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke. Please send any updates or corrections to baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov. Note that launch dates are subject to change at any time. Also, note that anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only. The following people have contributed to this month's calendar: Andrew Yee, Joao Clerigo, Philippe Berthe, Chen Lan, F. Cerarca ========================= SPACE CALENDAR March 28, 1998 ========================= * indicates changes from last month's calendar. March 1998 Mar 29 - Galileo, Europa 14 Flyby Mar 29 - Moon Occults Saturn Mar 30 - Asteroid 1997 WT22 Near-Earth Flyby (0.277 AU) Mar 31 - Mercury Passes 3.8 Degrees From Mars Mar 31 - Asteroid 5145 Pholus at Opposition (12.128 AU - 18.2 Magnitude) Mar 31 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Cosmos 1000 Launch (Soviet Union) April 1998 * Apr 01 - TRACE Pegasus XL Launch * Apr 01 - Mir Spacewalk Apr 01 - NEAR, Thruster Calibration (CAL-2) Apr 02 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #45 (OTM-45) Apr 02 - Mars Passes 1.9 Degrees From Saturn * Apr 02 - Asteroid 1998 FX2 Near-Earth Flyby (0.097 AU) * Apr 02 - Asteroid 1993 BX3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.381 AU) Apr 04 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-6 Launch (Challenger), TDRS-1, 1st Launch of Challenger Apr 04 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 6 Launch Apr 05 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Ahead 1 Hour (North America) Apr 05 - Asteroid 23 Thalia Occults TAC +311855 (10.4 Magnitude Star) Apr 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 FW at Opposition (41.002 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Apr 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 HM5 at Opposition (31.271 AU - 23.1 Magntude) Apr 06 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Pioneer 11 Launch (Jupiter/Saturn Flyby Mission) Apr 07 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Luna 14 Launch (Soviet Moon Orbiter) * Apr 08 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #3 (TCM-3) Apr 08 - Asteroid 1995 DW2 at Opposition (17.973 AU - 21.7 Magnitude) Apr 08 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-56 Launch (Discovery), Atlas-2 Spacelab Apr 10 - Asteroid 7413 (1990 SH28) Occults Regulus (1.3 Magnitude Star) Apr 11 - Comet Harrington-Wilson Perihelion (1.889 AU) Apr 12 - Easter Sunday * Apr 12 - Asteroid 1998 EP4 Near-Earth Flyby (0.065 AU) * Apr 13 - Asteroid 1998 FF2 Near-Earth Flyby (0.396 AU) Apr 14 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 EV3 at Opposition (43.692 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Apr 14 - 10th Anniversary (1988), Foton 1 Launch (USSR - Material Processing Satellite) Apr 16 - STS-90 Launch, Columbia, Neurolab Apr 16 - Comet 1997 G2 (Montani) Perihelion (3.084 AU) * Apr 16 - Asteroid 1992 SL Closest Approach to Earth (1.033 AU) Apr 17 - Ulysses At Jupiter's Orbit Apr 17 - Comet Peters-Hartley Closest Approach to Earth (1.390 AU) Apr 19 - Comet Tsuchinshan 1 Perihelion (1.496 AU) Apr 20 - Lyrids Meteor Shower Peak Apr 20 - Asteroid 2941 Alden Closest Approach to Earth (1.276 AU) Apr 20 - Asteroid 887 Alinda Closest Approach to Earth (1.567 AU) Apr 22 - Venus Passes 0.3 Degrees From Jupiter Apr 22 - Asteroid 1991 CB1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.299 AU) Apr 23 - Moon Occults Venus Apr 23 - Moon Occults Jupiter Apr 23 - Asteroid 433 Eros Closest Approach To Earth (0.502 AU) Apr 24 - Moon Occults Mercury Apr 24 - Asteroid 25 Phocaea at Opposition (10.1 Magnitude) Apr 24 - Asteroid 5653 (1992 WD5) Closest Approach to Earth (0.682 AU) Apr 24 - Asteroid 2368 Beltrovata Closest Approach to Earth (1.372 AU) Apr 26 - Cassini, 1st Venus Flyby Apr 26 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JQ1 at Opposition (41.980 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Apr 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Discovery of Asteroid 7066 Nessus by Spacewatch Apr 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-55 Launch (Columbia), Spacelab D2 Apr 26 - 150th Anniversary (1848), Graham's Discovery of Asteroid 9 Metis Apr 27-May 03 - Astronomy Week Apr 28 - Islamic New Year * Apr 28 - Nilesat-1/BSAT-1B Ariane 4 Launch Apr 28 - Asteroid 1243 Pamela Occults SAO 162175 (8.2 Magnitude Star) Apr 28 - Eugene Shoemaker's 70th Birthday (1928) Apr 29 - Asteroid 191 Kolga Occults SAO 95322 (8.0 Magnitude Star) * Apr 30 - ORBCOMM-2 Pegasus XL Launch * Apr 30 - Iridium 3 Long March 2C/SD Launch Apr 30 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #46 (OTM-46) Apr 30 - Asteroid 32 Pomona at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Apr 30 - Asteroid 216 Kleopatra Occults GSC 56961723 (10.8 Magnitude Star) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - March 28, 1998 [2/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... May 1998 May ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Aerobraking Phase 1 Ends May ?? - Sinosat 1 Long March 3B Launch * May ?? - Ziyuan-1 Long March 4A Launch (China) May 01 - Comet Klemola Perihelion (1.755 AU) May 02 - Astronomy Day * May 02 - Chinastar-1 Long March 3B Launch (China) May 02 - Comet Denning Near-Jupiter Flyby (0.3389 AU) May 03 - 2060 Chiron at Oppositon (7.937 AU - 15.9 Magnitude) May 04 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (26.5 Degrees) May 05 - ORBCOMM-3 Pegasus XL Launch * May 05 - Globalstar-2 Delta 2 Launch May 05 - Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak May 05 - Comet Barnard 3 Perihelion (Lost Comet) May 05 - Asteroid 7088 Ishtar Closest Approach to Earth (1.349 AU) May 05 - Asteroid 8405 (1995 GO) Closest Approach to Earth (9.147 AU - 19.0 Magnitude) May 07 - Asteroid 1992 TB Near-Earth Flyby (0.384 AU) May 08 - DOD US Air Force Titan 4B Launch May 09 - Asteroid 16 Psyche at Opposition (10.4 Magnitude) * May 09 - Asteroid 4487 Pocahontas Closest Approch to Earth (1.121 AU) May 12 - Mercury Passes 0.8 Degrees From Saturn May 12 - Asteroid 3103 Eger Closest Approach to Earth (1.713 AU) May 13 - NOAA-K Titan 2 Launch May 13 - Asteroid 25 Phocaea Occults SAO 139602 (8.3 Magnitude Star) * May 13 - Asteroid 664 Judith Closest Approach to Earth (1.598 AU) May 13 - Asteroid 3758 Karttunen Closest Approach to Earth (1.624 AU) * May 14 - Cassini, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #4 (TCM-4) May 14 - Comet Howell Closest Approach to Earth (1.065 AU) May 14 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab Launch May 15 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Faith 7 Launch (Gordon Cooper) May 20 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #13 (TCM-13) * May 20 - IKONOS-1 Athena Launch May 20 - Moon Occults Jupiter May 20 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus Orbiter Launch May 21 - Space Day May 21 - Comet 1997 G2 (Montani) Closest Approach to Earth (2.870 AU) May 21 - Asteroid 1994 JF1 Closest Approach To Earth (0.581 AU) * May 21 - Asteroid 1990 VB Closest Approach to Earth (1.767 AU) May 25 - Asteroid 1997 US9 Near-Earth Flyby (0.283 AU) May 25 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab 2 Launch * May 26 - ST-1 Ariane 4 Launch May 26 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Exosat Launch (ESA X-Ray Observatory) May 27 - Asteroid 1917 Cuyo Closest Approach to Earth (1.827 AU) May 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JS at Opposition (34.301 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) May 28 - STS-91 Launch, Discovery, 9th Shuttle-Mir Docking May 28 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #47 (OTM-47) May 28 - Venus Passes 0.3 Degrees From Saturn May 28 - Asteroid 1995 UO5 Closest Approach to Earth (0.415 AU) * May 29 - Asteroid 7025 (1993 QA) Closest Approach to Earth (0.832 AU) May 29 - Asteroid 1994 VR6 Closest Approach to Earth (1.392 AU) May 29 - Asteroid 2430 Bruce Helin Closest Approach to Earth (1.455 AU) May 30 - Asteroid 1997 UF9 Near-Earth Flyby (0.385 AU) May 30-31 - Jet Propulsion Lab Open House, Pasadena, California May 31 - Galileo, Europa 15 Flyby June 1998 Jun ?? - SCD-2 Pegasus XL Launch Jun ?? - Iridium 9 Delta 2 Launch Jun 01 - Asteroid 2063 Bacchus Closest Approach to Earth (1.307 AU) Jun 02 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 JR1 at Opposition (33.748 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Jun 02 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 15 Launch (Soviet Venus Orbiter) Jun 04 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #48 (OTM-48) Jun 04 - Asteroid 5066 Garradd Closest Approach to Earth (0.839 AU) Jun 04 - Asteroid 1995 YV3 Closest Approach to Earth (2.840 AU - 19.7 Magnitude) Jun 05 - Mercury Passes 0.3 Degrees From Mars Jun 06 - Asteroid 6 Hebe at Opposition (9.4 Magnitude) * Jun 06 - Asteroid 1994 PN Closest Approach to Earth (1.194 AU) Jun 07 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 16 Launch (Soviet Venus Orbiter) * Jun 08 - Asteroid 1993 BW2 Closest Approach to Earth (0.809 AU) Jun 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 KV1 at Opposition (40.176 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) * Jun 09 - Thor 3 Delta 2 Launch Jun 09 - Asteroid 4183 Cuno Near-Earth Flyby (0.2079 AU) Jun 09 - Mercury at Perihelion Jun 10 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Explorer 49 Launch (Moon Orbiter) * Jun 11 - Asteroid 5370 Taranis Closest Approach To Earth (1.450 AU) * Jun 12 - Intelsat 805 Atlas IIAS Launch Jun 14 - Asteroid 18 Melpomene at Opposition (9.6 Magnitude) Jun 15 - Asteroid 211 Isolda Occults PPM 195267 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Jun 15 - 10th Anniversary (1988), First Flight of the Ariane-4 Rocket Jun 16 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Vostok 6 Launch (1st Woman in Space) Jun 17 - Moon Occults Jupiter Jun 17 - Asteroid 1994 AH2 Near-Earth Flyby (0.1930 AU) Jun 17 - Mercury Occults 78331 (6.5 Magnitude Star) Jun 18 - Asteroid 59 Elpis Occults PPM 203414 (9.6 Magnitude Star) Jun 18 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-7 Launch (Challenger), Anik C2, Palapa B1, 1st American Woman In Space (Sally Ride) Jun 20 - FGB (Functional Cargo Block) Proton-K Launch (Element of the International Space Station) Jun 20 - Asteroid 72 Feronia at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) Jun 21 - Summer Solstice, 14:03 UT Jun 21 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-57 Launch (Endeavour), Spacehab-1, EURECA * Jun 22 - Galaxy 10 Delta 3 Launch Jun 22 - Asteroid 1995 LG Closest Approach to Earth (0.909 AU) Jun 22 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Discovery of Charon (Pluto's Moon) * Jun 23 - Asteroid 1290 Albertine Closest Approach to Earth (1.487 AU) Jun 25 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #49 (OTM-49) Jun 25 - Asteroid 92 Undina at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Jun 26 - Mars Occults 77221 (8.0 Magnitude Star) Jun 27 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Seasat 1 Launch Jun 29 - George Hale's 130th Birthday (1868) Jun 30 - Asteroid 1990 HA Closest Approach to Earth (1.478 AU) Jun 30 - 90th Anniversary (1908), Tunguska Explosion July 1998 * Jul ?? - Celestis-03 Pegasus XL Launch Jul 04 - Earth at Aphelion (1.017 AU From Sun) Jul 04 - Henrietta Leavitt's 130th Birthday (1868) Jul 05 - Asteroid 4953 (1990 MU) Closest Approach to Earth (0.615 AU) Jul 05 - Asteroid 1992 JB Closest Approach to Earth (0.872 AU) Jul 09 - STS-88 Launch, Endeavour, 1st Space Station Assembly Flight Jul 09 - Asteroid 1862 Apollo Near-Earth Flyby (0.339 AU) Jul 10 - Asteroid 7 Iris at Opposition (8.6 Magnitude) Jul 12 - Comet Arend-Rigaux Perihelion (1.371 AU) Jul 12 - 10th Anniversary (1988), Phobos 2 Launch (Soviet Mars Orbiter) Jul 14 - Moon Occults Jupiter Jul 15 - Asteroid 1993 PB Closest Approach to Earth (0.590 AU) * Jul 15 - Asteroid 3551 Verenia Closest Approach to Earth (0.794 AU) Jul 16 - GPS IIR-3 Delta 2 Launch Jul 16 - Comet Arend-Rigaux Closest Approach to Earth (2.354 AU) Jul 17 - Mercury at Greatest Eastern Elongation (27 Degrees) Jul 17 - Asteroid 432 Pythia at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Jul 17 - Comet Russell 3 Closest Approach to Earth (1.941 AU) Jul 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #50 (OTM-50) Jul 20 - Asteroid 43 Ariadne at Opposition (9.1 Magnitude) * Jul 20 - Comet Shoemaker 1 Closest Approach to Earth (1.897 AU) Jul 21 - Galileo, Europa 16 Flyby * Jul 21 - Deep Space 1 Delta Launch (Asteroid/Mars/Comet Flyby Mission) * Jul 21 - Eutelsat W1/Sirius-3 Ariane 4 Launch Jul 21 - Asteroid 59 Elpis Occults TAC -106880 (11.1 Magnitude) Jul 21 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 4 Launch (USSR Mars Flyby Mission) Jul 25 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #51 (OTM-51) Jul 25 - DOD US Air Force Titan 4 Launch * Jul 25 - Asteroid 3553 Mera Closest Approach to Earth (1.407 AU) Jul 25 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 5 Launch (USSR Mars Orbiter Mission) Jul 26 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Syncom 2 Launch, 1st Geosynchronous Satellite Jul 28 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab-3 Launch Jul 29 - JCSat 6 Atlas IIAS Launch Jul 29 - South Delta-Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - March 28, 1998 [3/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... August 1998 Aug ?? - Iridium 10 Delta 2 Launch Aug ?? - Sky One Atlas IIAS Launch Aug 01 - Alpha Capricornids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 01 - Asteroid 980 Anacostia at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) * Aug 01 - Asteroid 1474 Beira Closest Approach to Earth (1.788 AU) Aug 01 - Maria Mitchell's 180th Birthday (1818) Aug 02 - Asteroid 29 Amphitrite at Opposition (9.2 Magnitude) Aug 02 - Asteroid 490 Veritas Occults TAC -214637 (11.2 Magnitude Star) * Aug 02 - Asteroid 1993 OZ2 Closest Approach to Earth (1.096 AU) Aug 03 - Asteroid 13 Egeria at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Aug 04 - Venus Passes 0.8 Degrees From Mars Aug 04 - Asteroid 7341 (1991 VK) Closest Approach to Earth (1.638 AU) Aug 05 - Terriers/Mublcom Pegasus XL Launch Aug 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 6 Launch (USSR) Aug 06 - Planet B Launch (Japan Mars Mission) Aug 06 - Southern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak * Aug 06 - Asteroid 1998 EC3 Closest Approach to Earth (0.455 AU) Aug 07 - Asteroid 1997 GZ3 Closest Approach to Earth (1.500 AU) Aug 08 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Launch (Venus Atmospheric Probes) Aug 09 - Asteroid 71 Niobe at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Aug 09 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mars 7 Launch (USSR) Aug 10 - Venus Occults 79782 (6.9 Magnitude Star) Aug 10 - Asteroid 4886 (1981 EZ14) Closest Approach to Earth (2.113 AU) Aug 11 - Moon Occults Jupiter Aug 11 - Comet Peters-Hartley Perihelion (1.624 AU) Aug 12 - Perseids Meteor Shower Peak Aug 12 - 20th Anniversary (1978), ISEE-3/ICE Launch (Comet Mission) Aug 14 - Asteroid 576 Emanuela Occults TAC +115897 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Aug 15 - Comet C/1997 J2 Meunier-Dupouy Closest Approach to Earth (2.494 AU) * Aug 17 - Comet Mueller 3 Closest Approach to Earth (2.209 AU) Aug 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), 1st Test Flight of the Delta Clipper (DC-X) Aug 19 - Asteroid 1987 OA Near-Earth Flyby (0.1019 AU) * Aug 19 - Asteroid 3199 Nefertiti Closest Approach to Earth (0.916 AU) Aug 19 - Asteroid 7350 (1993 VA) Closest Approach to Earth (1.414 AU) Aug 21 - Asteroid 469 Argentina Occults SAO 210535 (9.1 Magnitude Star) Aug 22 - Annular Eclipse, Visible From Indian Ocean Aug 23 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #52 (OTM-52) Aug 24 - Asteroid 354 Eleonora at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Aug 25 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Perihelion (1.697 AU) Aug 25 - Comet Russell 1 Perihelion (2.182 AU) Aug 25 - Northern Iota Aquarids Meteor Shower Peak * Aug 26 - Panamsat-7 Ariane 4 Launch Aug 27 - Mercury Passes 2.2 Degrees From Venus Aug 28 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Occults TAC +541187 (9.9 Magnitude Star) Aug 28 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Galileo Flyby of Ida Aug 30 - Venus Occults 98676 (8.0 Magnitude Star) Aug 30 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-8 Launch (Challenger), Insat 1B Aug 31 - Mercury at Greatest Western Elongation (18 Degrees) September 1998 Sep ?? - Afristar Ariane 4 Launch Sep ?? - Skynet 4E Ariane 4 Launch Sep ?? - CRSS-2 Athena 2 Launch Sep ?? - JawSat Minuteman II Launch Sep 05 - Mercury at Perihelion Sep 06 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RR20 at Opposition (42.449 AU - 23.4 Magnitude) Sep 06 - 10th Anniversary (1988), 1st Launch of the CZ-4 Launcher (China) Sep 07 - Moon Occults Jupiter Sep 07 - Venus at Perihelion Sep 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RT5 at Opposition (41.272 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) Sep 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 RX9 at Opposition (40.912 AU - 24.2 Magnitude) Sep 09 - Asteroid 45 Eugenia Occults GSC 12820410 (10.9 Magnitude Star) Sep 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Sep 10 - Asteroid 804 Hispania at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Sep 10 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Occults TAC +491415 (10. Magnitude Star) Sep 10 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QY9 at Opposition (28.506 AU - 21.6 Magnitude) * Sep 11 - ARD/Hot Bird 5 Ariane-503 Launch Sep 11 - Mercury Passes 0.3 Degrees From Venus Sep 12 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-51 Launch (Discovery), ACTS Sep 14 - GPS IIR-4 Delta 2 Launch Sep 14 - Mercury Occults 118535 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Sep 14 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Zond 5 Launch (Soviet Moon Mission) Sep 14 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Sep 16 - Jupiter at Opposition Sep 15 - Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Pegasus XL Launch * Sep 15 - EOS-1 Atlas IIAS Launch Sep 16 - Asteroid 2 Pallas at Opposition (8.2 Magnitude) Sep 18 - Asteroid 1991 RB Near-Earth Flyby (0.0401 AU) Sep 19 - Moon Occults Venus Sep 19 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QH4 at Opposition (40.320 AU - 22.6 Magnitude) Sep 19 - 10th Anniversary (1988), Offeq-1 Launch, 1st Israeli Space Launch Sep 19 - 150th Anniversary (1848), William Bond's Discovery of Saturn Moon Hyperion Sep 20 - Moon Occults Mercury * Sep 20 - Asteroid 1998 FL3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.050 AU) Sep 20 - Asteroid 5786 Talos Closest Approach to Earth (0.943 AU) Sep 20 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 QJ4 at Opposition (33.804 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 20 - 5th Anniversary (1993), 1st Launch of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV - India) Sep 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 TX8 at Opposition (31.047 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Sep 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TO66 at Opposition (44.834 AU - 20.6 Magnitude) Sep 23 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #53 (OTM-53) Sep 23 - Autumnal Equinox, 05:37 UT Sep 23 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 RO at Opposition (30.492 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Sep 25 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 TB at Opposition (29.128 AU - 21.8 Magnitude) Sep 26 - Galileo, Europa 17 Flyby Sep 26 - 5th Anniversary (1993), Posat 1 Launch, 1st Portuguese Satellite Sep 26 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Soviet Soyuz T-10A Explodes on Launch Pad, Cosmonauts Save By Launch Escape System Sep 27 - Comet Howell Perihelion (1.406 AU) Sep 29 - Asteroid 521 Brixia at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) Sep 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SC at Opposition (33.640 AU - 22.4 Magnitude) Sep 29 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TK66 at Opposition (41.873 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Sep 29 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-26 Launch (Discovery), TDRS 3, 1st Post-Challenger Shuttle Mission Sep 30 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #54 (OTM-54) Sep 30 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TR66 at Opposition (34.448 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - March 28, 1998 [4/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... October 1998 * Oct ?? - GE-5 Ariane 4 Launch Oct 01 - Orion F3 Delta 3 Launch Oct 01 - Asteroid 236 Honoria at Opposition (10.5 Magnitude) Oct 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1992 QB1 at Opposition (39.906 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) Oct 01 - NASA's 40th Birthday (1958) Oct 04 - Moon Occults Jupiter Oct 04 - Asteroid 185 Eunike at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Oct 04 - Asteroid 532 Herculina at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Oct 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1993 SB at Opposition (30.112 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 05 - Asteroid 14 Irene at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Oct 06 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 RQ20 at Opposition (38.550 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 SZ10 at Opposition (30.617 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Oct 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 QZ9 at Opposition (33.987 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) Oct 08 - Ejnar Hertzsprung's 125th Birthday (1873) Oct 09 - Draconids Meteor Shower Peak Oct 09 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 SZ4 at Opposition (29.285 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) Oct 10 - Comet McNaught-Hughes Closest Approach to Earth (1.707 AU) Oct 10 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 15 Venus Orbit Insertion Oct 11 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 7 Launch Oct 11 - Wilhelm Olbers' 240th Birthday (1758) Oct 13 - British Interplanetary Society's 65th Birthday (1933) Oct 14 - Comet Lovas 1 Perihelion (1.69 AU) Oct 14 - Asteroid 1036 Ganymed Closest Approach to Earth (0.464 AU) Oct 14 - 15th Anniversary (1983), Venera 16 Venus Orbit Insertion Oct 15 - Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Launch Oct 16 - Moon Occults Mars Oct 16 - Comet Klemola Closest Approach to Earth (1.522 AU) Oct 17 - Asteroid 44 Nysa at Opposition (9.8 Magnitude) Oct 18 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-58 Launch Oct 20 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TP66 at Opposition (25.403 AU - 20.7 Magnitude) Oct 21 - Orionid Meteor Shower Peak Oct 22 - Asteroid 409 Aspasia Occults SAO 75073 (9.9 Magnitude Star) Oct 22 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TQ66 at Opposition (33.604 AU - 21.9 Magnitude) Oct 23 - Saturn at Opposition Oct 24 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #55 (OTM-55) Oct 25 - Daylight Savings - Set Clock Back 1 Hour (USA) Oct 25 - Asteroid 106 Dione at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Oct 26 - Asteroid 20 Massalia at Opposition (8.8 Magnitude) Oct 26 - Asteroid 674 Rachele at Opposition (11.0 Magnitude) Oct 27 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Canon City Meteorite Fall (Hit Garage) Oct 28 - Asteroid 7358 (1995 YA3) Closest Approach to Earth (0.438 AU) Oct 28 - Asteroid 1508 Kemi Closest Approach to Earth (1.201 AU) Oct 29 - STS-95 Launch, Endeavour, Spacehab-SM Oct 29 - Asteroid 1994 TA Closest Approach to Earth (15.923 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Oct 30 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TL66 at Opposition (34.099 AU - 20.4 Magnitude) Oct 31 - Moon Occults Jupiter Oct 31 - Asteroid 6 Hebe Occults GSC 6255-1346 (9.2 Magnitude Star) November 1998 Nov ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Aerobraking Phase 2 Begins Nov ?? - Quickscat (Quick Scattermoter) Titan II Launch Nov 01 - TSX-5 Launch Nov 01 - Asteroid 102 Miriam Occults SAO 164159 (8.7 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Asteroid 576 Emanuela Occults TAC +096711 (10.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 01 - Kuiper Belt Object 1996 TS66 at Opposition (37.825 AU - 21.9 Mag) Nov 01 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Polyot 1 Launch (USSR), 1st Spacecraft With Extensive Maneuver Capability Nov 03 - Taurids Meteor Shower Peak Nov 03 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Mariner 10 Launch (Venus/Mercury Flyby Mission) Nov 05 - Asteroid 15 Eunomia at Opposition (7.9 Magnitude) Nov 07 - Comet Takamizawa Perihelion (1.585 AU) Nov 08 - Asteroid 51 Nemausa at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) * Nov 08 - Asteroid 4055 Magellan Closest Approach to Earth (0.983 AU) Nov 08 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Pioneer 9 Launch Nov 09 - Asteroid 69 Hesperia at Opposition (10.8 Magnitude) Nov 09 - Mercury Occults 184412 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 10 - Asteroid 46 Hestia at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 10 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Zond 6 Launch (Soviet Moon Flyby Mission) Nov 11 - Mercury Greatest Eastern Elongation (22 Degrees) * Nov 12 - Argos/Orsted/Sunsat Delta 2 Launch Nov 13 - Moon Occults Mars Nov 13 - Asteroid 145 Adeona Occults PPM 736551 (10.9 Magnitude Star) * Nov 13 - 20th Anniversary (1978), HEAO 2 Launch (Einstein X-Ray Observatory) Nov 15 - 10th Anniversary (1988), 1st & Only Buran Launch (Soviet Space Shuttle) Nov 15 - William Herschell's 260th Birthday (1738) Nov 16 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Skylab-4 Launch Nov 17 - Leonids Meteor Shower Peak (Potential Meteor Storm) Nov 18 - Asteroid 270 Anahita at Opposition (10.7 Magnitude) Nov 19 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #56 (OTM-56) Nov 19 - Bonum Delta 2 Launch Nov 19 - Comet Kowal-Vavorva Perihelion (2.575 AU) Nov 20 - Asteroid 532 Herculina Occults PPM 709785 (9.8 Magnitude Star) Nov 21 - Comet Giacobini-Zinner Perihelion (1.034 AU) Nov 21 - Asteroid 45 Eugenia Occults SAO 94447 (8.4 Magnitude Star) Nov 22 - Galileo, Europa 18 Flyby Nov 23 - Asteroid 3753 (1986 TO) Near-Earth Flyby (0.313 AU) Nov 24 - ICO Atlas 2 Launch Nov 24 - Asteroid 1865 Cerberus Near-Earth Flyby (0.1634 AU) Nov 25 - Asteroid FG3 Near-Earth Flyby (0.0384 AU) Nov 26 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #57 (OTM-57) Nov 26 - Asteroid 5 Astraea at Opposition (9.8 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Moon Occults Jupiter Nov 28 - Mercury Passes 0.25 Degrees From Venus Nov 28 - Asteroid 42 Isis at Opposition (10.6 Magnitude) Nov 28 - Asteroid 1989 UR Near-Earth Flyby (0.058 AU) Nov 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 VK8 at Opposition (42.519 AU - 22.9 Magnitude) * Nov 28 - 15th Anniversary (1983), STS-9 Launch (Columbia), 1st Flight of Spacelab (ESA) Nov 29 - Asteroid 1 Ceres at Opposition (7.0 Magnitude) December 1998 Dec ?? - ROCSAT Athena 1 Launch * Dec ?? - Landsat 7 Delta 2 Launch Dec 02 - Kuiper Belt Object YY3 at Opposition (29.786 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Dec 02 - Mercury at Perihelion * Dec 02 - 10th Anniversary (1988), STS-27 Launch (Atlantis), DOD Classified Mission * Dec 02 - 5th Anniversary (1993), STS-61 Launch (Endeavour), 1st Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Dec 03 - STS-93 Launch, Space Shuttle Columbia, AXAF-1 * Dec 03 - Cassini, Deep Space Maneuver (TCM-5) Dec 04 - Venus Occults 185332 (7.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 04 - Asteroid 1866 Sisypus Near-Earth Flyby (0.338 AU) Dec 04 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus, Venus Orbit Insertion Dec 05 - 25th Anniversary (1973), Pioneer 10, Jupiter Flyby Dec 06 - Asteroid 3362 Khufu Near-Earth Flyby (0.364 AU) Dec 06 - 40th Anniversary (1958), Pioneer 3 Launch (Moon Flyby Mission) * Dec 07 - Cassini at Aphelion (1.58 AU) Dec 09 - STS-96 Launch, Endeavour, ISS-2 (Spacehab-DM), Logistics Carrier Dec 09 - Asteroid 6524 Baalke at Opposition (1.251 AU - 15.0 Magnitude) Dec 09 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Pioneer Venus 2 Landing on Venus Dec 10 - Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter Delta 2 Launch (Mars Orbiter) Dec 11 - Asteroid 52 Europa at Opposition (10.2 Magnitude) Dec 11 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77824 (10.2 Magnitude Star) Dec 11 - Asteroid 3122 Florence Closest Approach to Earth (1.092 AU) Dec 12 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 WY2 at Opposition (46.432 AU - 23.7 Magnitude) Dec 17 - LORAL Atlas 2 Launch Dec 17 - 95th Anniversary (1903), Wright Brothers' 1st Airplane Flight Dec 20 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #14 (TCM-14) Dec 20 - Mercury At Its Greatest Western Elongation (21 Degrees) * Dec 20 - 1st Day Of Ramadan Dec 21 - DOD US Air Force Titan 4 Launch Dec 21 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 12 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 21 - 30th Anniversary (1968), Apollo 8 Launch Dec 22 - Winter Solstice, 01:55 UT * Dec 22 - Comet Shoemaker-Levy 7 Closest Approach to Earth (1.098 AU) Dec 22 - Asteroid 245 Vera Occults SAO 77608 (8.8 Magnitude Star) Dec 24 - Asteroid 49 Pales Occults PPM 206242 (9.5 Magnitude Star) Dec 25 - Moon Occults Jupiter Dec 25 - 20th Anniversary (1978), Venera 11 Venus Flyby/Landing Dec 27 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #58 (OTM-58) Dec 28 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #15 (TCM-15) Dec 29 - Asteroid 132 Aethra at Opposition (10.9 Magnitude) Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 30 марта 1998 (1998-03-30) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Space Calendar - March 28, 1998 [5/5] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... January 1999 Jan 02 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Luna 1 Launch (1st Moon Mission) Jan 03 - Mars Surveyor 98 Lander Delta 2 Launch Jan 03 - NEAR, Trajectory Correction Maneuver #16 (TCM-16) Jan 03 - Quadrantids Meteor Shower Peak Jan 04 - Earth at Perihelion (0.983 AU From Sun) Jan 05 - Venus Passes 1.7 Degrees From Neptune Jan 05 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 5 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Jan 10 - NEAR, Asteroid Eros Encounter Jan 10 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Venera 6 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander) Jan 11 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Closest Approach to Earth (0.875 AU) Jan 12 - NEAR, Asteroid Eros Orbit Insertion Jan 13 - Venus Passes 0.9 Degrees From Uranus Jan 13 - Mars Occults 139407 (7.1 Magnitude Star) Jan 13 - Olin Wilson's 90th Birthday (1909) Jan 14 - STS-92 Launch, Atlantis, ISS-3 (3-Person Permanent Habitation) Jan 15 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CU29 at Opposition (43.808 AU - 23.0 Magnitude) Jan 16 - 30th Anniversary (1969), 1st Manned Vehicle Docking & 1st Crew Exchange (Soyuz 4 & 5) Jan 17 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CS29 at Opposition (42.620 - 21.4 Magnitude) Jan 18 - Asteroid 1991 VE Near-Earth Flyby (0.1434 AU) Jan 20 - Deep Space 1, Asteroid McAuliffe Flyby Jan 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CW29 at Opposition (41.495 AU - 22.8 Magnitude) Jan 25 - SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite) Pegasus XL Launch Jan 25 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Clementine Launch (Moon Orbiter) * Jan 25 - 35th Anniversary (1963), Echo 2 Launch, 1st Joint US-USSR Program Jan 27 - Mercury Passes 2.2 Degrees From Neptune Jan 27 - Comet Harrington-Abell Perihelion (1.758 AU) Jan 29 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #59 (OTM-59) Jan 29 - 10th Anniversary (1989), Phobos 2 Mars Orbit Insertion February 1999 Feb 01 - Galileo, Europa 19 Flyby * Feb 02 - Mercury Passes 1.5 Degrees From Uranus * Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), STS-60 Launch (Discovery), 1st Russian Cosmonaut on Space Shuttle, Wake Shield Facility * Feb 03 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of NASDA H-2 Launch Vehicle (Japan) * Feb 03 - 15th Anniversary (1984), STS-41B Launch (Challenger), 1st Untethered Spacewalk (Manned Maneuvering Unit) Feb 04 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DB2 at Opposition (39.299 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #60 (OTM-60) Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DA2 at Opposition (33.070 AU - 23.3 Magnitude) Feb 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CT29 at Opposition (43.893 AU - 21.5 Magnitude) Feb 05 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10 Venus Flyby Feb 06 - STARDUST Delta 2 Launch (Comet Sample Return Mission) Feb 07 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CR29 at Opposition (41.011 AU - 22.7 Magnitude) Feb 08 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CV29 at Opposition (39.590 AU - 23.1 Magnitude) * Feb 08 - 5th Anniversary (1994), Maiden Flight of CZ-3A Launcher (China) Feb 10 - Pluto Crosses Neptune's Orbit And Becomes the Farthest Planet From the Sun Feb 10 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 4 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Feb 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 5 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) Feb 15 - Galileo Galilei's 435th Birthday (1564) Feb 16 - Annular Eclipse, Visible From Central Australia * Feb 16 - Chinese New Year * Feb 17 - Moon Occults Mercury * Feb 23 - Venus Passes 0.1 Degrees From Jupiter * Feb 25 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 6 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) Feb 25 - 50th Anniversary (1949), WAC Corporal Launch Feb 27 - Kuiper Belt Object 1997 CQ29 at Opposition (40.142 AU - 22.6 Magnitude) * Feb 28 - Mercury at Perihelion Feb 28 - Kuiper Belt Object 1995 DC2 at Opposition (40.172 AU - 23.5 Magnitude) * Feb 28 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Discoverer 1 Launch (1st Polar Orbiter) March 1999 * Mar ?? - Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Mapping Begins * Mar ?? - Lunar-A M5 Launch (Japan Moon Mission) * Mar 03 - Mercury At Its Greatest Eastern Elongation (18 Degrees) * Mar 03 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Apollo 9 Launch * Mar 03 - 40th Anniversary (1959), Pioneer 4 Launch (1st US Moon Flyby) * Mar 05 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 ES2 at Opposition (44.307 AU - 24.0 Magnitude) * Mar 05 - 20th Anniversary (1979), Voyager 1 Flyby of Jupiter * Mar 08 - Comet Tsuchinshan 2 Perihelion (1.770 AU) * Mar 09 - Comet Skiff-Kosai Perihelion (2.789 AU) * Mar 09 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 7 Mars Flyby (Soviet Union) * Mar 12 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mars 6 Mars Flyby/Landing (Soviet Union) * Mar 14 - Albert Einstein's 120th Birthday (1879) * Mar 16 - Comet Shoemaker 1 Perihelion (1.979 AU) * Mar 18 - Galileo, Orbital Trim Maneuver #61 (OTM-61) * Mar 18 - Asteroid 1991 TB1 Near-Earth Flyby (0.1632 AU) * Mar 19 - Venus Passes 2.4 Degrees From Saturn * Mar 21 - Vernal Equinox, 01:46 UT * Mar 21 - Comet Mueller 3 Perihelion (3.011 AU) * Mar 21 - Kuiper Belt Object 1994 GV9 at Opposition (41.230 AU - 23.2 Magnitude) * Mar 22 - Galileo Enters Solar Conjunction * Mar 26 - Asteroid 1992 SK Near-Earth Flyby (0.0560 AU) * Mar 27 - 30th Anniversary (1969), Mariner 7 Launch (Mars Flyby Mission) * Mar 28 - Pierre Simon Laplace's 250th Birthday (1749) * Mar 29 - 25th Anniversary (1974), Mariner 10, 1st Mercury Flyby ___ _____ ___ /_ /| /____/ \ /_ /| Ron Baalke | baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov | | | | __ \ /| | | | Jet Propulsion Lab | ___| | | | |__) |/ | | |__ Pasadena, CA | The truth always turns out /___| | | | ___/ | |/__ /| | to be simpler than you |_____|/ |_|/ |_____|/ | thought. Richard Feynman Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

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