Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.

Март 1998


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru

  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 24 марта 1998

    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Talk with NASA scientists Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Interested in any of the following? * live webchats about Mars with NASA experts: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/events/interact.html * an email service in which NASA experts answer your individual questions: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/ask/question.html * archives of answers to previously asked questions about Mars: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/ask/ * biographies of NASA experts and stories about their work days: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/team/ * background sections and Mars mission information: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/background/ * a Mars photo gallery: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/photos/ These resources are open to anyone without cost. To get involved, visit the Mars Team Online web site at http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/ and jump in. This popular Sharing NASA project involves NASA's current and future missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft took off in November and reached the orbit of Mars on September 11, 1997 to begin an orbital mission that will provide detailed mapping and weather information. The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft blasted away in December and landed on the Red Planet on July 4, 1997. The micro-rover Sojourner has wandered its way around the Martian terrain, returning a wealth of new science data. By participating in the Mars Team Online project, you can join the Mars team in their exploration of the Red Planet! The project was originally designed for students and teachers, but we've found that adults are also particularly interested, especially in the email question and answer service. Our other Sharing NASA projects also allow anyone from the general public to share in the excitement of NASA's authentic scientific and engineering pursuits, like flying the shuttle, spacecraft explorations of distant planets, and space-based life sciences research. The focus of these projects is the enthusiastic people of NASA. For these other projects, see http://quest.arc.nasa.gov [If you would like more information about Sharing NASA or Mars Team Online, please remove "DESPAM" from the email address when you reply to this post. I'll be happy to field any questions. Or just email me to let me know that you found this information useful.] Dan Helfman Mars Team Online http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12924: UFO F/O F8 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12924 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT UFO F/O F8 1998-016A 25258 16 MARCH 1998 ..JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 17 MARCH 1998, 14:50 UT] Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov NSSDC home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Spacecraft Carrying Human Hair and DNA Planned For Interstellar Flight Subject: Spacecraft Carrying Human Hair and DNA Planned For Interstellar Flight Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE National Contact: Charles Chafer Tel: 1 (800) 522-3217 E-mail: Celests@iah.com Local Contact: Jim Spellman Tel/Fax: (760) 379-2503 E-mail: WSpaceport @aol.com SPACECRAFT WITH HUMAN HAIR AND DNA PLANNED FOR INTERSTELLAR FLIGHT Companies expect to reap $225 million in privately financed venture (Houston, TX) -- March 17 -- A new U.S. commercial space project is planning to launch samples of human hair from as many as 4.5 million people worldwide on a trajectory to Jupiter and beyond. The project's backers hope to make up to $225 million from people who will pay $50 each to have their DNA-laden hair launched on a spacecraft to be flung by Jupiter's gravity out of the solar system into interstellar space. Called "Encounter 2001," the spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2001 as a payload on a Ariane 5 rocket launched from Kourou Space Center in French Guiana. The lower "blub" portion of each hair, which contains the most DNA, will be processed by a laboratory in California already gearing up to preserve the DNA in millions of hair samples. "Individuals will be charged $50 to submit hair samples along with their pictures and small messages for launch," said Charles Chafer, president of Encounter 2001. Mr. Chafer is also president of the Celestis Foundation affliiated with Celestis, Inc., the same company that has made a business of launching symbolic portions of cremated remains of humans into orbit as a "space burial." The other partner in the Encounter 2001 venture is AeroAstro, a company experienced in building small innovative spacecraft. Participants will be able to launch up to six strands of hair along with digitized pictures and short messages. Hair from people's pets will not be allowed. "This is for humans only," Chafer stated. "The mission would be preceded by radio telescope transmissions beamed from Earth -- radioing, in effect, 'Here we come, ready or not' -- to any intelligent lifeform in deep space that might take an interest in the hair/DNA mission," Chafer said. Those transmissions are to start as early as Dec. 31 and will include the names of those who have paid to participate. The Encounter 2001 limited-liability corporation formed by Celestis and AeroAstro hopes to realize $75-225 million. Initial maket studies by the project indicate 1.5-4.5 million people worldwide could pay to participate in the flight. The group last week signed a contract with a major international advertising firm to run a series of ads across the U.S. starting in April to obtain more precise market data. "Spacecraft development and launch costs are extimated at $10-12 million and the Encounter 2001 project has already secured the $500,000 in financing," said Jim Spellman, one of the West Coast representatives for the Houston-based Celestis, Inc. "No additional financing will be required if public response equals our expectations. A final decision to proceed with the project is set for later this year, and spacecraft fabrication is expected to begin the first part of 1999." The French space agency (CNES), and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Arianespace consortium will use an Ariane 5, Europe's new heavy-lift space booster to launch the Encounter 2001 spacecraft into an elliptical geosynchronous transfer orbit along with one or two communications satellites unrelated to the deep space mission. Following launch, the Encounter spacecraft would orbit the Earth for weeks or months waiting for an optimum trajectory to Jupiter. The spacecraft's escape engine would be fired when the Earth and Jupiter come into proper alignment, requiring two years to reach Jupiter where the planet's gravity would fling it on a trajectory out of the solar system. "Encounter 2001 is the first opportunity for all of us to reach out beyond our solar system with our dreams, thoughts, and essence," said Mr. Chafer, who is also the president of Encounter 2001. "It's only appropriate that as new and innovative ways for public participation in spaceflight are developed, Celestis offers them." In April 1997, Celestis launched the cremated remains of Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry, 1960's pop icon Timothy Leary and 22 other individuals into Earth orbit using a Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) "Pegasus XL" rocket. It was released over the Canary Islands from a converted L-1011 jumbo jet that is based at Meadows Field/Kern County Airport in Bakersfield, California. On February 10, an OSC "Taurus" rocket rocket lifted off from Vandenberg Air Force base in Santa Barbara County, Calif. placing the remains of 30 more individuals aboard the Celestis-02 spacecraft into Earth orbit. Another mission, Celestis-03, is planned for late July from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida aboard another OSC "Pegasus XL" rocket. Once in space, the same stage that carries the Celestis spacecraft and the rocket's primary payloads separate and enter Earth orbit. Neither the capsules nor the ashes ever escape into space; the capsules remain attached to the final stage. The cremated remains launched on Celestis flights will stay on orbit between 18 months and 10 years before they re-enter the atmosphere and harmlessly vaporize. At a cost of $4,800 per person, Celestis services are comparable to most conventional funeral services. "With the 'Earthview Commemorative Spaceflight,' our Celestis mission is a secondary payload on a typical commercial space flight. Therefore, we will not contribute to orbital pollution," Chan Tysor, president of Celestis, Inc. said. "Eventually, those satellites will re-enter the atmosphere. . .blazing like a shooting star in final tribute." A portion of the proceeds -- including the Encounter 2001 project -- goes to the Celestis Foundation which contributes to entrepreneurial space enterprises, educational organizations, and other charities which promote a positive future on Earth. For a video replay of the previous Celestis "Founders' Flight" and "Celestis-02" launches, point your Internet web browser to: http://www.celestis/com/ More information on Celestis and Encounter 2001 is available from Celestis, Inc. at 1 (800) ORBIT-11. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: STARDUST Update - March 13, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... STARDUST Status Report March 13, 1998 Ken Atkins STARDUST Project Manager The live video feed from the high bay assembly area at Lockheed Martin Astronautics is now on the Stardust website (http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/construction.html) for public viewing. The images are currently being updated every 2 minutes. For orientation, the scene shows the gray propellant tank sitting in front of the three (vertical) black side-panels. These side panels are mounted on the ground handling "strongback" supports. The strongback provides a foundation for handling and moving the spacecraft during assembly. There are two electronic boxes visible above and slightly left of the tank. These boxes are the power control assembly (PCA) and the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) unit. These are the central "heart" of the spacecraft that power and communicate with the other units that will be appearing in the scene as time goes on. We welcome you to the Assembly, Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) activities. Hope you enjoy watching hardware that will actually fly to the comet come together as a spacecraft. [Editor's note: the camera used for the live video feed is used in the ATLO testing and is often moved around within the assembly area. The view may not always be on the spacecraft. ] The ATLO activities continued to make excellent progress this week. The Telecom subsystem testing of compatibility with the Deep Space Network (DSN) was completed very successfully. This success demonstrates the ability of the flight spacecraft to communicate from space through the worldwide system of antennas comprising the DSN. The flight pyro initiation unit (PIU) was delivered and has been installed on the spacecraft. This element of the electric power subsystem triggers the various releases and deployments during the mission (e.g. Sample Return Capsule (SRC) separation from the spacecraft.) The assembly of the flight Sample Return Capsule (SRC) was completed! It was placed in its "clean tent" or "glove box" environment and run through functional testing of the capsule and deployment of the aerogel collector. This was successful and the SRC has now been moved to the acoustics facility for testing today against environmental frequencies representative of the launch vehicle. For more information on the STARDUST mission - the first ever comet sample return mission - please visit the STARDUST home page: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SJI's Sky And Space Update - March 15, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SAN JUAN INSTITUTE'S SKY AND SPACE UPDATE Summary information about the night sky and recent findings and events in solar system exploration and science. Updated every 2 weeks. LAST UPDATED: SUN. MAR. 15, 1998 Prepared by: Dr. Bruce Betts and Andre Bormanis OBJECTS TO LOOK FOR IN THE NIGHT SKY (MID-NORTHERN LATITUDES) MERCURY rises to greatest elongation -- some 19 degrees from the Sun -- on Mar. 16. Look for it in the west shortly after sunset. By the end of the month, Mercury will have faded in brightness to the point that it is not readily viewable. VENUS is visible in the low east-southeast in the pre-dawn sky, looking like an extremely bright star. It reaches greatest elongation (47 degrees from the Sun) on Mar. 27. MARS is very low in the southwest in the early evening. It looks like a dim yellowish-orange star. JUPITER reappears from its conjunction with the Sun low in the east just before dawn. Look for it to the lower left of Venus about half an hour before dawn. Just before dawn on the morning of Mar. 26, observers on the East coast of the U.S. may be able to glimpse Jupiter emerging from behind the dark limb of the Moon. SATURN is low in the west shortly after sunset. It looks like a yellowish star. SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OBSERVERS: Planets located in the southern part of the sky for northern hemisphere observers will appear higher in southern hemisphere skies; those in the north will appear lower. THE MOON Last Quarter Moon occurs Mar. 20 at 11:38 p.m. PST (UT - 8 hours). New Moon occurs Mar. 27 at 7:14 p.m. PST. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE REPORT SJI Program Development Assistant Andre Bormanis, and long-time SJI volunteer Dick Kenealy traveled to Aruba to witness the total eclipse of the Sun that occurred on Feb. 26. Both report spectacular views. At the southern tip of Aruba, totality lasted 3 minutes and 32 seconds. All five naked-eye planets were visible during the eclipse! Mercury and Jupiter were just a few degrees away from the Sun. Photos and a more detailed account of the eclipse will eventually be posted on the SJI web site. Other accounts of the eclipse can be found on the Sky & Telescope website, http://www.skypub.com, along with links to other eclipse-related websites. PLANETARY SPACECRAFT UPDATE LUNAR PROSPECTOR: Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft strongly suggest that water ice is abundant at both the north and south poles of Earth's Moon. Prospector's neutron spectrometer detected low concentrations of water ice across a significant number of polar craters. Due to the low angle of the Sun at the poles, parts of the floors of these craters are permanently in shadow. The ice crystals appear to be mixed into grains of lunar soil (regolith) that cover the crater floors. Mission scientists estimate that the total amount of ice detected ranges from 10 billion to 300 billion metric tons. The north pole contains twice as much ice as the south. The scientists theorize that ice has been deposited on the Moon over the last several billion years by comets crashing into the lunar surface. Just 30 billion tons of lunar ice would be able to support the water needs for a colony of 2000 people for 100 years, even without recycling. In addition to providing drinking and bathing water, the water could be broken down into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The oxygen could be used for breathing, and the hydrogen could be used for rocket fuel. Lunar Prospector has also mapped the gravitational field of the Moon to great accuracy. This "gravity map" will be extremely useful for plotting the orbits of future lunar spacecraft, as well as for determining the structure of the Moon's interior. Lunar Prospector will continue to conduct its primary mission for the next ten months. Prospector's orbit will then be lowered to an altitude of just ten kilometers, allowing the spacecraft's instruments to gather even higher resolution data on the Moon's composition and gravity. More information about this mission can be found at the NASA website http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov. GALILEO: Analysis of images from the Dec. 16, 1997 Europa fly-by bolsters the theory that liquid water exists beneath the moon's icy surface. Galileo made its closest pass ever (200 kilometers) over Europa during this encounter. The images it obtained show evidence of slush on the Europan surface, along with ice cliffs as tall as America's Mount Rushmore, and plates of ice that have broken apart and moved around. The presence of slush and moving ice plates implies a warmer, possibly fluid layer of water recently existed, and may still exist, beneath the moon's surface. For more information on the Galileo mission, see http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo. THESE WEEKS IN SPACE HISTORY MAR. 18, 1965: Soviet Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov becomes the first man to "walk" in space. MAR. 25, 1655: Saturn's giant moon Titan was discovered by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens. Titan features an atmosphere thicker than Earth's, comprised primarily of nitrogen. In the year 2004, the Cassini spacecraft will release a probe named in Huygen's honor to study the atmosphere and surface of Titan. MAR. 29, 1974: The U.S. Mariner 10 spacecraft becomes the first, and so far the only spacecraft to fly-by Mercury, closest planet to the Sun. Mariner 10 passed by Mercury three times, photographing a total of 54 percent of the planet's surface. RANDOM SPACE FACT The first experimental confirmation of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity was made during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. During an eclipse, bright stars become visible. Einstein had predicted that gravity from the Sun would slightly bend the path of starlight passing close to the Sun. Astronomers tested this assertion by measuring the positions of several stars that appeared close to the Sun during the 1919 eclipse. The deviations in the observed positions of these stars due to the Sun's gravity matched Einstein's predictions. ********************************************************************** The San Juan Institute (SJI) is a non-profit corporation headquartered in San Juan Capistrano, CA with divisions there and in Tucson, AZ. SJI carries out research and education in planetary and Earth sciences and astronomy, with funding provided by government grants and private donations, which are always needed. Partial funding for the SSU has been provided by NASA's Solar System Exploration Division. San Juan Capistrano Research Institute Ph: 714-240-2010, Fax: 714-240-0482 31882 Camino Capistrano, Suite 107 Email: educate@sji.org San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 Web site: http://www.sji.org Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Two Studies Will Refine and Expand Solar Monitoring Task Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Douglas Isbell Headquarters, Washington, DC March 19, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1753) RELEASE: 98-47 TWO STUDIES WILL REFINE AND EXPAND SOLAR MONITORING TASK The Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder have been selected by NASA's Office of Earth Science to conduct parallel six-month definition studies of a new small satellite to monitor variations in the amount of radiant solar energy that reaches Earth. The precise measurements to be obtained by the Total Solar Irradiance Mission (TSIM) will help scientists better understand the relationship between the Sun's variable energy output and its effects on Earth's climate. The six-month feasibility studies will focus on the development of a preliminary system design and operations concept for the cost- capped $23 million mission. NASA has been measuring the total radiative output of the Sun from the unique perspective of space since the late 1970s. The current sensor being used is called the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM). NASA has flown two ACRIM instruments, including the ACRIM-II instrument onboard NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. A third ACRIM instrument is scheduled for launch aboard a dedicated small satellite in October 1999. TSIM will extend the broad data set gathered by the ACRIM series while exploring a new capability to measure solar irradiance in two discreet spectral bands. Once proven, this operationally oriented capability is a candidate for flight aboard future National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System missions being planned by a tri-agency partnership among NASA, the Department of Defense and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "TSIM will be developed in 36 months or less using the same key principles of 'faster, better, cheaper' spacecraft demonstrated by the agency's Discovery Program," said Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator for Earth Science. "We hope to obtain an instrument payload that is lighter and more technologically advanced, yet provides an exciting additional capability that will give us new knowledge about our climate and why it varies." TSIM is part of NASA's Earth Observing System, a series of advanced remote-sensing satellites designed to provide simultaneous measurements of a broad range of physical, chemical and biological processes to enable researchers to study the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice and life as a total system. TSIM also will serve as NASAХs contribution to the joint small Science Satellite (SciSat) program with the Canadian Space Agency. NASA and Canada have committed to developing independent science research missions to be launched on a NASA-funded launch vehicle in December 2001, with shared data after launch. The two selected teams will document their analyses for NASA review by the end of 1998, with one team being selected to proceed with development. TSIM program management will be provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. -end- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: NASA's TRACE Mission Set To Study The Sun's Turbulent Upper Atmosphere Subject: NASA's TRACE Mission Set To Study The Sun's Turbulent Upper Atmosphere Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Donald Savage Headquarters, Washington, DC March 19, 1998 (Phone: 202/358-1547) Donna Drelick/Jim Sahli Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (Phone: 301/286-8955) RELEASE: 98-48 NASA'S TRANSITION REGION AND CORONAL EXPLORER MISSION SET TO STUDY THE SUN'S TURBULENT UPPER ATMOSPHERE NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) mission, scheduled for launch at 9:40 p.m. EST (6:40 p.m. PST) March 30, 1998, will greatly improve understanding of events in the Sun's atmosphere, including intense storms and flares, which can have an impact on power and communications systems on Earth. The TRACE mission will join a fleet of spacecraft studying the Sun during a critical period when solar activity is beginning its rise to a peak early in the new millennium. The Sun goes through an 11-year cycle from a period of numerous intense storms and sunspots to a period of relative calm and then back again. The coming months in the Sun's cycle will provide solar scientists with periods of strong solar activity interspersed with periods when the Sun is relatively passive and quiet. This will give TRACE the chance to study the full range of solar conditions, even in its relatively short planned lifetime. TRACE will train its powerful telescope on the dynamic so- called 'transition region' of the Sun's atmosphere, between the relatively cool surface and lower atmosphere of the Sun where temperatures are about 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and the extremely hot upper atmosphere called the corona, where temperatures are up to 16 million degrees Fahrenheit. Using instruments sensitive to extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet wavelengths of light, TRACE will study the detailed connections between the fine-scale surface features and the overlying, changing atmospheric structures of hot, ionized gas, called plasma. The surface features and atmospheric structures are linked by fine-scale solar magnetic fields. The power of the TRACE telescope to do detailed studies of the solar atmosphere makes this observatory unique among the current group of spacecraft studying the Sun. "The spacecraft has roughly ten times the temporal resolution and five times the spatial resolution of previously launched solar spacecraft. Its findings are eagerly awaited by the solar science community," said Dr. Alan Title, TRACE principal investigator from the Stanford Lockheed Institute for Scientific Research in Palo Alto, CA. "We can expect to resolve some present mysteries of the Sun's atmospheric dynamics as well as discover new and exciting phenomena." TRACE will be launched into a polar orbit to enable virtually continuous observations of the Sun, uninterrupted by the Earth's shadow for months at a time. This orbit will give the mission the greatest chance of observing the random processes which lead to flares and massive eruptions in the Sun's atmosphere. The TRACE telescope is really four telescopes in one. Its 30-centimeter (12-inch) primary and six-centimeter (2-inch) secondary super-polished mirrors are individually coated in four distinct quadrants to allow light from different bandwidths (colors) to be reflected and analyzed. An electronic detector collects images over a 231,000-by-231,000- mile field of view, nearly 25 percent of the Sun's disk. A powerful data handling computer enables very flexible use of the detector array including adaptive target selection, data compression and image stabilization. "TRACE was completed on time, under budget, and met all performance goals," said Jim Watzin, Small Explorer project manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. "I'm really proud of this team. They have produced a magnificent observatory in a manner that saved NASA nearly $9.7 million over the initial cost estimate." TRACE, which costs $49 million, is the third launch in the Small Explorer series of small, quickly developed, relatively low-cost missions. TRACE will be launched on an Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, VA, Pegasus-XL rocket released from an L-1011 jet aircraft at the Western Range, Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. The launch window is open for 10 minutes. TRACE will be the first space science mission with an open data policy. All data obtained by TRACE will be available to other scientists, students and the general public shortly after the information becomes available to the primary science team. The TRACE telescope was designed and developed in cooperation between Lockheed Martin Corp. and Stanford University. The spacecraft was designed and tested at Goddard, which manages the mission for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Further information about the TRACE mission can be found on the Internet at: http://sunland.gsfc.nasa.gov/smex/trace TRACE science information can be found at: http://www.space.lockheed.com/TRACE/welcome.html - end - Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Global Surveyor Update - March 13, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Mars Global Surveyor Flight Status Report Friday, 13 March 1998 Aerobraking operations continue to proceed smoothly for the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Since arrival at Mars last September, Surveyor has completed 174 orbits, and aerobraking has reduced the period of revolution around the planet from its initial high of 45 hours down to its current value of 13.2 hours. The flight team anticipates that aerobraking will continue to proceed unimpeded due to the low probability of another major dust storm at Mars. The flight team is currently preparing for the temporary suspension of aerobraking and the reactivation of the science payload. This transition will occur about two weeks from now when the orbit period has been reduced to 11.6 hours. At that time, Surveyor will fire its thrusters to raise the low point of its orbit out of the atmosphere. This temporary aerobraking hiatus will allow the science teams to collect data during the spring and summer months of this year. In addition, the hiatus is also necessary so that Mars will be in the proper position in its orbit around the Sun when aerobraking finishes and mapping commences next spring. After a mission elapsed time of 491 days from launch, Surveyor is 218.63 million miles (351.85 million kilometers) from the Earth and in an orbit around Mars with a high point of 12,453 miles (20,041 km), a low point of 72.8 miles (117.2 km), and a period of 13.2 hours. The spacecraft is currently executing the P175 command sequence, and all systems continue to perform as expected. The next status report will be released between March 25th and April 1st. Status report prepared by: Office of the Flight Operations Manager Mars Surveyor Operations Project NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Mars Surveyor 98 Update - March 20, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... 1998 MARS SURVEYOR PROJECT STATUS REPORT March 20, 1998 John McNamee Mars Surveyor 98 Project Manager Orbiter and lander integration and test activities are proceeding on schedule with no significant problems. The orbiter spacecraft is being prepared for thermal vacuum testing scheduled to begin on April 8. The lander/backshell combination was mated with the cruise stage on March 16 and the heat shield was installed on March 20. The lander spacecraft in full cruise configuration will be transported to the acoustics lab at Lockheed Martin on March 21. Modal testing of the lander is scheduled to begin on March 30 and acoustic testing on April 3. The Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) element of the flight Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument suffered a failure during testing at the University of Arizona. Extensive functional testing of the TEGA following the pyroshock and vibration tests detected a near zero water spectrum output. Troubleshooting of the instrument discovered a break in the thermoelectric cooler on the water laser assembly in the TDL. The cooler is being repaired and will be retested. This failure is not expected to impact the TEGA integration on the lander in June. For more information on the Mars Surveyor 98 mission, please visit this website: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mars98/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: New El Nino Image Shows Warm Water Pool Near Normal Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Contact: Mary Hardin (818) 354-0344 INTERNET ADVISORY March 20, 1998 NEW EL NINO IMAGE SHOWS WARM WATER POOL NEAR NORMAL The most recent image from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite shows the sea surface height along the central equatorial Pacific has returned to a near normal state and remnants of the warm water pool, commonly referred to as El Nino, are now situated to the north and south of the equator. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Mar.14, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition that they would expect to see during the ocean's gradual transition back to normal sea level. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. Sea surface temperatures, as measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), are still well above normal throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean and are expected to remain that way into April and May. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, NOAA has extended an advisory indicating that the so-called El Nino weather conditions that have impacted much of the United States and the world are expected to continue through the spring. The Mar. 14 image is now available online at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino The U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: * SpaceNews 23-Mar-98 * Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... SB NEWS @ AMSAT $SPC0323 * SpaceNews 23-Mar-98 * BID: $SPC0323 ========= SpaceNews ========= MONDAY MARCH 23, 1998 SpaceNews originates at KD2BD in Wall Township, New Jersey, USA. It is published every week and is made available for non-commercial use. * UoSAT-OSCAR-11 NEWS * OSCAR-11 celebrated its 14th birthday on 01-Mar-98. It is a wonderful achievement by the UoSAT team who designed, built, and launched the satellite in a period of only six months. Although there have been various component failures during its long time in orbit, OSCAR-11 does have the habit of bouncing back! Great credit to its design philosophy. During the last week there have been some problems with OSCAR-11 and the 145 MHz beacon has been OFF. The beacon was heard on Monday 09-Mar-98 at which time its telemetry was nominal. Nothing was heard on Saturday and Sunday 14/15 March on 145 or 435 MHz. On Tuesday 17Mar-98 it was heard on the 14:44 and 16:22 passes. On both passes, the 435 MHz beacon was switched on after AOS. During the early part of the pass, binary data was transmitted and then switched over to the 145 MHz beacon, indicating ground control activities. During the latter pass, some binary telemetry was received which showed the battery voltage rather low at 13.3 volts. Nothing was heard on Wednesday pass at 05:46 UTC. The shut down may be a recurrence of the watchdog timer problem, which was prevalent about two years ago. During the remainder of the reporting period (ie. 16-Feb-98 to 09-Mar-98), good signals were received from the 145 MHz beacon. The battery voltage has been slightly depressed at around 13.5 volts, but otherwise, telemetry is nominal. A single WOD survey has been transmitted, dated 06 January 1998. This contains channels 10, 20, 30 ,40 (+Y, -X, +X array currents, and array voltage). The array voltage is a very good indication of the solar eclipses, changing rapidly as the satellite goes in and out of darkness. Reception reports of the Mode-S beacon have been received from VK3BNC, N0ZHE, and N5JDB. All are using the Drake MMDS downconverter. Clive Wallis, G3CWV, has created an OSCAR-11 Web site that contains information regarding the UoSAT-OSCAR-1 spacecraft. Clive recently added some audio files including a 20-second recording of the Mode-S beacon as received by KC6SZY. The other audio files are examples of each type of data transmitted by OSCAR-11, and each plays for about ten seconds. All the audio files are zipped so that they can be played off-line. They should help listeners identify the various types of data transmitted by the satellite, and give an indication of the signal quality required for successful decoding. The web site also contains some software useful for capturing data, and decoding ASCII telemetry and WOD. There is an archive of raw data (mainly WOD) for analysis, which is continually being expanded, as new data is captured. The URL for Clive's OSCAR-11 Web site is: http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/clivew/ UoSAT-OSCAR-11's operating schedule remains unchanged: ASCII status (210 seconds) ASCII bulletin (60 seconds) BINARY SEU (30 seconds) ASCII TLM (90 seconds) ASCII WOD (120 seconds) ASCII bulletin (60 seconds) BINARY ENG (30 seconds) There are also some additional status blocks transmitted after each bulletin between the ASCII TLM and WOD transmissions. The Mode-S beacon is ON transmitting an unmodulated carrier, but telemetry indicates that it has partially failed, and delivering half power. This beacon is a useful test source for those testing Mode-S converters, prior to the launch of P3-D. It is considerably weaker than DOVE, which should be used for initial testing due to its stronger signal. Any reports of reception of the 2401 MHz Mode-S beacon should be directed to Clive Wallis at: g3cwv@amsat.org. The 435.025 MHz beacon is normally OFF, but can sometimes be heard when the satellite is being commanded by ground control (ie. within range of Guildford, UK). When the 435 MHz beacon is transmitting, the 145 MHz beacon is normally OFF. The data transmitted is mainly binary. [Info via Clive Wallis, G3CWV] * ITAMSAT-OSCAR-26 NEWS * On 16-Mar-98, ITAMSAT Command Stations IK2XRO and IW2EGC succesfully switched the ITAMSAT-OSCAR-26 satellite ON from the safe MBL mode and reloaded the high level IHT97 code. The spacecraft is now sending the full set of 64 telemetry channels and is collecting Whole Orbit Data surveys. After the full check is completed, the digipeater will be turned ON, and the file system code reload will begin. The satellite appears to be in an healthy state, with all the subsystems working nominally. Telemetry can be copied on 435.822 MHz at 1200 baud PSK. [Info via Alberto E. Zagni, I2KBD - ITAMSAT (IO-26) Mission Director] * FUJI-OSCAR-29 NEWS * The JARL has announced that the Fuji-OSCAR-29 communications satellite was switched into Mode JA (analog transponder mode) on the pass of 16-Mar-98 at 0800 UTC. The satellite is expected to remain in Mode JA until 23-Mar-98, after which a new operating schedule is expected to be announced. [Info via Kazu Sakamoto, JJ1WTK] * KITSAT-OSCAR-23 NEWS * Richard, G3RWL, has reported that the KITSAT-OSCAR-23 satellite is currently experiencing a lack of solar eclipses that are causing the internal temperature of the spacecraft to increase, resulting in a distorted downlink signal. KO-23 goes through a period of where it experiences no eclipses about every five months. Eclipses are expected to begin again around the end of March or beginning of April. [Info via Richard W L Limebear, G3RWL] * CORRECTION TO REPORT ON JOHN GLENN * Gordon West has confirmed that US Senator John Glenn did NOT attend his Amateur Radio licensing course at Fry's Electronics in Southern California earlier this month. A message was left for Glenn's press aide last week asking if Glenn has intentions of talking on ham radio while in orbit, either with a license or as a third party, and no response has so far been received. [Info via Rich Moseson, W2VU] * FEEDBACK/INPUT WELCOMED * Comments and input for SpaceNews should be directed to the editor (John, KD2BD) via any of the paths listed below: WWW : http://www.njin.net/~magliaco/ PACKET : KD2BD @ KS4HR.NJ.USA.NA INTERNET : kd2bd@amsat.org, magliaco@email.njin.net SATELLITE : AMSAT-OSCAR-16, LUSAT-OSCAR-19, KITSAT-OSCAR-25 <<=- SpaceNews: The first amateur newsletter read in space! -=>> <<=- Serving the planet for 10 years -=>> /EX -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- John A. Magliacane, KD2BD -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- Internet : kd2bd@amsat.org | Voice : +1.732.224.2948 Satellite : AO-16, LO-19, KO-25 | Morse : -.- -.. ..--- -... -.. Packet : KD2BD @ KS4HR.NJ.USA.NA | WWW : http://www.njin.net/~magliaco/ Video : 426.250 MHz/439.250 MHz | FAX : +1.732.224.2060 -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= Linux: An OS That Doesn't Break Like Glass -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 24 марта 1998 (1998-03-24) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Economics of Interstellar Colonization Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... The folowing paper is at: http://hanson.berkeley.edu/filluniv.pdf Burning the Cosmic Commons: Evolutionary Strategies for Interstellar Colonization by Robin Hanson Abstract: Consider an expanding wave of interstellar colonization, where "seeds" grow "colonies" at the "oases" surrounding stars, and then launch a new generation of seeds toward more distant oases. Without enforceable property rights in virgin oases, frontier colonization behavior should eventually be given by a selection effect: only leading edge colonists whose strategies implemented the maximum sustainable average speed would tend to stay near the leading edge. Even with such maximal strategies, however, random factors would cause some seeds to fall behind the leading edge. Since eventually most of the colonized universe would be far behind the leading edge, the strategies and values of such fallen-behind colonists are of interest. We assume that oases are uniformly-distributed, that risk-neutral colonists with identical values and constant technology travel much farther than the oasis spacing, and that seeds receive noisy signals about which oases ahead are already occupied. We then treat colonization as a game played out along a traveling wave of colonization, and consider how colonists choices change as they fall further behind. At the very leading edge, great growth at oases is matched by great death between them, and an incredible premium is placed on seed hardness. As congestion increases behind the leading edge, colonists stay longer at oases, grow more slowly there, launch and deliver more slower-traveling seeds, land at a wider range of oasis types, and spend more to see which oases are occupied. There are limits, however, to how slow seeds fly, to how slow colonies grow, and to the fraction of good oases that get colonized. And any colonists left behind after a seed launching try to leave as soon as possible. Thus this model allows for lone oases like ours among large almost lifeless regions, though it also predicts large numbers of used-up oases and crashed seeds nearby. Robin Hanson hanson@econ.berkeley.edu http://hanson.berkeley.edu/ RWJF Health Policy Scholar, Sch. of Public Health 510-643-1884 140 Warren Hall, UC Berkeley, CA 94720-7360 FAX: 510-643-8614 Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года