Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.

Февраль 1998


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru

  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 17 февраля 1998

    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Galileo Update - February 17, 1998 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011 http://www.jpl.nasa.gov Galileo Europa Mission Status February 17, 1998 NASA's Galileo spacecraft successfully flew over Europa at an altitude of 3,552 kilometers (2,207 miles) on Tues., Feb. 10. Because of the approaching solar conjunction, the spacecraft gathered some radio science data, but no other science information. During solar conjunction, the Sun passes between Earth and the spacecraft, hindering communication for a period of about 2-1/2 weeks. Therefore, the spacecraft will not transmit science data to Earth until the conjunction period ends. During the Feb. 10 flyby, the spacecraft did transmit to Earth an observation taken during its closest-ever Europa flyby, which occurred on Dec. 16. During that encounter, Galileo passed above Europa's icy surface at an altitude of only 200 kilometers (124 miles). The latest observation returned to Earth was designed to help scientists learn more about the composition of an area of Europa characterized by the Pwyll crater. The Galileo flight team adjusted the spacecraft's flight path on Sat., Feb. 7, to prepare for the Feb. 10 Europa flyby. Another flight path adjustment was made on Fri., Feb. 13 to make sure Galileo is on track for its next Europa encounter, scheduled for March 29. Both maneuvers were successful, even though special measures were utilized to counteract the effects of a gyroscope anomaly which has occurred twice since the Dec. 16 Europa flyby. Engineers believe solid state switches in one of the gyro units may be reacting to the effects of radiation from Jupiter, but they continue their analysis of the situation. ##### Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [1/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... S P A C E V I E W S U P D A T E 1998 February 15 http://www.spaceviews.com/1998/0215/ *** Top Stories *** NASA Gets $13.5 Billion in 1999 Budget Rumor Watch -- Water on the Moon? U.S., Russia Differ on Cause of Station Delays Glenn's STS-95 Crewmates Announced *** Technology *** Weather Wreaks Havoc on Launch Schedules Mir Loses Attitude Control Again First X-33 Component Delivered, Extra Funding Planned First X-34 Test Flight Delayed *** Policy *** Independent Panel Lauds Shuttle Safety But Expresses Concern for the Future NRC Report Calls for More Space Technology Research Ads, TV Help Support Russian Space Program *** Science *** Scientists Get First Close-Up Look at Next Mars Landing Site Hubble Provides New View of Supernova Aftermath Cosmologist Predicts Universe Expansion to Stop *** CyberSpace *** Yohkoh Public Outreach Project STS-90 Neurolab Crew Collecting Cosmonaut Autographs A Space Library *** Space Capsules *** including SpaceViews Event Horizon *** Top Stories *** NASA Gets $13.5 Billion in 1999 Budget After worries that NASA's budget might suffer from cuts of up to $1 billion, the President's 1999 budget proposal released Monday, February 2, cuts spending for the space agency by only $200 million from 1998, and includes funds for a mission to Europa. The proposed 1999 budget gives NASA $13.465 billion in fiscal year 1999, scheduled to start October 1, 1998. NASA's estimated budget for 1998 is $13.638 billion. The space agency received $13.7 billion in 1997. Funding for human space flight projects, which includes the shuttle and International Space Station, were basically unchanged in the proposal. The station got $2.3 billion in the proposed 1999 budget. Space shuttle operations gained $140 million in 1999, from $2.92 to $3.06 billion, offsetting a similar cut between 1997 and 1998. Science, aeronautics, and technology saw a small decrease in funding, from $5.55 billion in 1998 to a proposed $5.46 billion in 1999. Most of the cuts were absorbed by aeronautics and space transportation research, particularly aeronautical research, which was cut by $170 million. Space, earth and life sciences saw small increases in their budgets from 1998. Funding for advanced space transportation, part of the aeronautics portion of the budget, was trimmed by $30 million, by cutting funds for reusable launch vehicle development from $381 to $340 million. However, funds for future launch studies were doubled to $20 million. In a press conference announcing the budget, Goldin said funding for a Europa Orbiter mission would be included in the 1999 budget proposal, for launch in 2003. "We hope this mission will help us learn more about the liquid water ocean that we think Galileo may have detected underneath Europa's thick icy crust," Goldin said. "And we hope this mission helps us develop the technology that we might need for an interstellar probe in the not too distant future. Projections for future years (or "out-years") see a cut in NASA's budget to $13.3 billion in 2000. The same amount is projected for 2001, with a slight increase to $13.4 billion in 2002 and 2003. The results are a far cry from earlier projections, which saw cuts of up to $1 billion in NASA's 1999 budget, with out-year projections below $11 billion by early next decade. A strong lobbying effort by members of Congress, including a letter signed by 200 members of the House asking for a NASA funding increase, may have shaped White House opinion on NASA's budget. The National Space Society, however, spoke out against the overall cut in NASA's budget. "The Administration has set its priorities and NASA clearly isn't among them," said Pat Dasch, NSS executive director. "We are concerned that NASA's potential to be a world leader as we move into a new millennium will be compromised by lack of Administration interest in space exploration." NSS plans to call on Congress to support a 4-percent increase in NASA's budget, as proposed in the Congressional letter. The NSS will recommend that the additional funds be directed to space transportation and to cover any future cost overruns for the International Space Station. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R-WI), chair of the House Science Committee, called NASA's budget "a mess" in a hearing February 5. Speaking out against NASA budget cuts and plans to transfer money within NASA to cover space station overruns, Sensenbrenner said, "I don't know how we can put any more faith in this budget given the administration's track record. This has got to stop." The overall federal budget projects no budget deficit, with a surplus as large as $9.5 billion. It would mark the first time that the federal government did not have a budget deficit in thirty years. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [2/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Rumor Watch -- Water on the Moon? Forget Clinton and any "improper" relationships. The hottest rumor going around space circles these days are reports that the Lunar Prospector spacecraft has discovered water ice, and possibly large amounts of it, at the south pole of the Moon. Several sources have published reports that the spacecraft, launched last month, has detected water ice in permanently-shadowed craters at the south pole. However, the project scientist for the mission has said there's no evidence yet for the discovery of ice. The online publication Spacecast reported February 5 that Lunar Prospector scientists have found evidence of water ice in data from the spacecraft's neutron spectrometer. "The consistent theme of rumors is that no Titanic icebergs have been found, as yet," according to the story by Simon Mansfield and Frank Sietzen, "but ice in observable form is present but is yet to be quantified." Spacecast reported an announcement would be made in late February or early March, but could be moved up to as early as February 20. The BBC made a similar report February 6, citing unnamed sources within the Lunar Prospector team. The BBC story said confirmation of the results is expected "within weeks." Lunar Prospector officials themselves have imposed a tight clamp of news releases on the issue. Recent status reports from the project have made no mention of possible evidence for water ice. Some have speculated the project wants to thoroughly check the data before releasing it. However, in a follow up report February 10, Spacecast spoke with Lunar Prospector scientist Alan Binder, who said there was as yet no evidence for ice in data received from the spacecraft. "We're glad people everywhere are interested in this information, but we can make no conclusive statements yet, even on a preliminary basis," Binder told Spacecast. "I know that there are all these reports and rumors going around, and that people would like to have an answer, but it's just not the way it works." Binder said plans are in the works for a preliminary press conference in late February or early March to discuss the initial findings from the mission. Not all rumors about Lunar Prospector have suggested the discovery of ice. The rumors "range from huge amounts of water being found on the Moon to next to none being found anywhere," said Keith Cowing at his NASA Watch Web site. "...The rumor set's polarity [is] flipping back and forth on a daily basis." The Clementine spacecraft, which orbited the Moon for two months in 1994, discovered evidence of water ice on the Moon, a discovery that since has been disputed by astronomers with ground-based observations. While rumors about Clementine's discovery were popular in the weeks after Clementine's observations, the discovery was not formally announced until it was published in the journal Science in late 1996. U.S., Russia Differ on Cause of Station Delays NASA Administrator Dan Goldin said February 5 that the launch of the first elements of the International Space Station may be delayed up to two months to "balance" a shifting shuttle launch schedule, while his Russian counterpart claimed U.S. lab module construction problems were behind the delays. At a House of Representatives hearing, Goldin said NASA was considering delaying the launch of STS-88, the first shuttle mission dedicated to the International Space Station, from July to September. NASA would also ask Russia to delay the launch of the Control Module, the first component of the station, from June to August. Goldin said the delays were being considered to make the time between each of the five remaining shuttle flights on the manifest more uniform. The schedule has been upset by delays assembling the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) satellite, which had been scheduled for launch in August. "Because the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility spacecraft is not going to be launched when it is supposed to, we have a big, long gap," Goldin said at the hearing. "They [shuttle managers] are looking at taking the number of flights we have and having a more uniform separation through the year." Under one proposal, the AXAF launch would be rescheduled to December. The next shuttle flight, Columbia's STS-90 Neurolab mission, would be pushed back from early to mid-April, a move NASA confirmed February 13. STS-95, the shuttle Discovery mission on which Senator John Glenn will fly, has already been pushed back three weeks to October 29. While Goldin blamed the AXAF delay on the shuttle rescheduling and space station delay, Russian Space Agency chief Yuri Koptev suggested another reason for the delay February 5. Koptev told the Russian news agency Itar-Tass that the U.S. had fallen three months behind in the construction of a laboratory module for the station. NASA officials made no comment on Koptev's remarks. There are also concerns the long-delayed Russian-built Service Module may be further delayed. Speaking in Washington last month, Koptev said engineers would not know until April, when electrical tests are completed, whether the module will be able to launch at the end of the year as currently scheduled. The remaining shuttle flights scheduled for 1998, and their estimated launch dates: * STS-90, Columbia, Neurolab life sciences mission. Was scheduled for an April 2 launch but has been delayed until April 16. * STS-91, Discovery, ninth and final Mir docking mission. Launch scheduled for May 28, no changes reported. * STS-88, Endeavour, first ISS construction mission. Originally scheduled for launch late last year, but moved back to July 9 because of delays in the Russian-build Service Module. May now be delayed until September. * STS-95, Discovery, Spacehab mission with John Glenn. Originally scheduled for launch October 8, it has since been pushed back three weeks until October 29. * STS-93, Columbia, AXAF launch. Originally scheduled for launch August 26, it may be pushed back to December due to delays assembling the AXAF satellite. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [3/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Glenn's STS-95 Crewmates Announced The crew that will accompany Senator John Glenn into orbit on the STS-95 shuttle mission this October was announced by NASA Friday afternoon, February 13, and the crew selected stirred concern in at least one member of Congress. The announcement also included the payload for the mission, including a solar satellite that failed to deploy properly from the shuttle last November and equipment to test for an upcoming servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope. The crew includes Curt Brown, who will command mission STS-95, and Steven W. Lindsey as pilot. Mission specialists will be Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque. Glenn and Japanese astronaut Chikai Mukai will be payload specialists. The announcement drew a statement of concern from Representative James Sensenbrenner (R-WI), chair of the House Science Committee. Sensenbrenner noted that since the crew included "a heart surgeon and an astronaut specially trained in emergency medical services," there was speculation that NASA was "taking extraordinary precautions to ensure the Senator's health during the stresses of spaceflight." Sensenbrenner appeared to be referring to Mukai, who was certified as a cardiovascular surgeon in Japan in the 1980s, and Parazynski, who served 22 months of a residency in emergency medicine in Denver, Colorado before being selected to the astronaut program. Requesting internal memos and transcripts from NASA meetings in which the crew was selected be sent to the Science Committee, Sensenbrenner said that "If it is determined that these astronauts were selected because NASA has concerns about the Senator's health during the mission or that NASA has concerns about his ability to complete the mission successfully, then NASA should reconsider sending the Senator into space." NASA spokeswoman Jennifer McCarter said there was no connection between the selection of the STS-95 crew and Glenn's health. "They were chosen strictly for the life science experiments that will be conducted on the mission," she said. STS-95 will carry into orbit the Spartan satellite, which will fly free from the shuttle for two days of observations of the Sun. The Spartan satellite was last flown last November, when it failed to deploy properly from the shuttle and had to be retrieved in an emergency spacewalk. The shuttle will also carry the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform (HOST), which will test components to be used on a Hubble servicing mission scheduled for 1999. The shuttle will also carry ultraviolet observation equipment. The shuttle crew will also perform microgravity experiments during the 10-day mission. These experiments are expected to focus around Glenn, who is flying to test the correlation between the aging process and the human body's adaptation to weightlessness. *** Technology *** Weather Wreaks Havoc on Launch Schedules Poor weather on both coasts of the U.S. and in French Guiana delayed many planned launches, some by two weeks or more, but some launches did manage to finally get off the ground. A Delta II launched the first four Globalstar communications satellites February 14, after several launch delays stretching back to February 5. The launch of the Delta II from Cape Canaveral, Florida, took place at 9:34am EST (1434 UT). The launch took place at the end of a 70-minute launch window, after a fog bank, which rolled in just minutes before the scheduled 8:24am launch, delayed liftoff. high winds delayed previous launch attempts. The satellites are the first in a planned 48-satellite constellation, backed by Loral and Qualcomm, that will compete with Iridium to provide global wireless communications. An Ariane 4 rocket launched two communications satellites February 4 as weather conditions finally cooperated after nearly a week of delays. High winds, which had postponed four previous launch attempts starting January 30, finally died down enough to safely launch the Ariane 44LP from Kourou, French Guiana at 6:29pm EST (2329 UT) February 4. The Ariane carried an Inmarsat-3 communications satellite for the British-based international maritime satellite communication organization, and Brasilsat B3, a communications satellite for the Brazilian communications firm Embratel. Perhaps most fortunate was a Taurus launch February 10 at 8:21am EST (1321 UT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base, which was delayed only one day because of winds. The Taurus, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, launched the Navy's GEOSAT Follow On (GFO) to measure sea levels, and two Orbcomm communications satellite. The Taurus also carried a payload for Celestis, a Houston company which provides space memorial services. The cremation ashes of 30 people were placed in orbit by the Taurus for Celestis. Less fortunate were two other launches planned from Vandenberg. A Delta II, originally scheduled for January 31, has been delayed several times by poor weather, most recently February 15. A Pegasus launch originally scheduled for February 5, has been pushed back to approximately February 20 because of the weather and conflicts with other launches. The Delta II carries five Iridium satellites, while the Pegasus has the BATSAT communications satellite for OSC and the Student Nitrous Oxide Explorer (SNOE), an atmospheric science satellite built by students at the University of Colorado. Mir Loses Attitude Control Again The Russian space station Mir temporarily lost attitude control Wednesday afternoon, February 4, but regained control quickly without a loss of power to the aging station. The attitude control system shut down at around 3:35pm EST (2035 UT) February 4, apparently when French guest cosmonaut Leopold Eyharts entered a wrong series of keystrokes into the computer. Russian officials reported the station regained control after a short time without the loss of other systems. The attitude control system on Mir has failed several times in the last six months, usually caused by some kind of computer failure. The loss of attitude control causes the station to drift, which in turn causes a loss of power as the solar panels on the station move out of alignment with the Sun. However, Wednesday's incident appears to be unrelated to past problems. A six-man crew is currently on the station, including American astronaut Andy Thomas. Four Russians and French guest cosmonaut Eyharts round out the crew. Eyharts and Russians Anatoly Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov will return to Earth next week. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [4/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... First X-33 Component Delivered, Extra Funding Planned The first major component of the X-33, a prototype of the future VentureStar reusable single-stage launcher, was delivered to a Lockheed Martin assembly facility, as NASA contemplated additional funding for the project. A 7.9-meter (26-foot) aluminum tank, designed to hold liquid oxygen, was delivered to Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works assembly facility in Palmdale, California, north of Los Angeles, on February 10. The tank was flown in from Lockheed Martin's Michoud Space Systems plant in New Orleans. The 2,500-kg (5,500-lb.) tank is the first major component of the X-33 to be completed. When used on the X-33, the two-lobed tank will hold over 82,000 kg (180,000 lbs.) of liquid oxygen, about two-thirds of the total weight of the vehicle, and also provide structural support. "The arrival of the liquid oxygen tank marks the start of an ambitious assembly schedule that will see the X-33 vehicle roll out and begin flight tests within 18 months," said Jerry Rising, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works vice president for the X-33/VentureStar project. The X-33 is scheduled for completion by spring of next year, with a first, short-range test flight planned for July 1999 from Edwards Air Force Base. Mid- and long-range test flights to landing sites in Utah and Montana, with top speeds approaching Mach 12, are planned for later in the year. In Congressional testimony the week before, NASA administrator Dan Goldin said the space agency was planning set aside up to $750 million over the next two years to provide additional funding for the project if necessary. The funds would be released to Lockheed Martin if it needed the funds to complete the X-33. NASA already plans to spend about $900 million on the development of the X-33, a subscale model of the proposed VentureStar single-stage to orbit reusable vehicle. Under NASA's agreement with Lockheed Martin, it would be the company's decision, not NASA's, to develop the VentureStar, relying on private funding. The full VentureStar program may cost up to $6 billion, according to outside analysts. First X-34 Test Flight Delayed The first flight of the X-34, a prototype for a small reusable launch vehicle, has been delayed by at least three months to March, 1999, Orbital Sciences Corporation officials said in early February. The reason for the delay was not cited. The announcement came shortly after the company announced it reached an agreement with NASA to extend OSC's contract to allow the construction of a second X-34 vehicle. The first test flights are planned to test the ability of the X-34 to separate cleanly from its L-1011 carrier aircraft and glide to a landing on a runway. The first powered flight of the vehicle is planned for August 1999. The X-34 is an unmanned test vehicle designed to study new technologies that could be used in future small reusable features. The X-34 is designed to fly at speeds up to Mach 8 and altitudes up to 75,000 meters (250,000 feet) in a variety of weather conditions, including clouds and rain. OSC was awarded a $50 million in 1996 for the construction of one X-34 and two test flights. The contract has been expanded by $7.7 million, plus $10.3 million in options, to cover the construction of the second X-34. *** Policy *** Independent Panel Lauds Shuttle Safety But Expresses Concern for the Future An independent panel issued its annual report on the status of the shuttle program, noting few problems with shuttle safety currently but noting that future cutbacks may cause problems for shuttle safety. The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel said that NASA and shuttle operations contractor United Space Alliance were committed to safety and found few problems with the shuttle program at present. "The Panel firmly believes that NASA and its contractors are presently maintaining a commitment to 'safety first,'" wrote Richard Blomberg, deputy chairman of the panel.. "Thus far, Space Shuttle operations under the SFOC [Single Flight Operations Contract, with USA] have proceeded smoothly and safely as indicated by the record of flight successes." Concerns about the future were raised by the panel's report, however. Citing the difficulty in retaining trained aerospace workers, hiring freezes, and planned layoffs, the panel feared "these staff shortfalls will inevitably hamstring NASA's ability to monitor adequately the performance of Space Shuttle operations," Blomberg wrote. The panel also agreed with NASA's decision to delay the launch of the first elements of the International Space Station. "The schedule was extremely tight and quite probably would have caused workarounds and shortcuts that could have been extremely detrimental to safety," Blomberg said. The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel was established by Congress in the aftermath of the fatal Apollo 1 fire in 1967. It publishes annual reports on the safety of NASA's programs. NRC Report Calls for More Space Technology Research A National Research Council report issued in early February calls for NASA to spend more money on research into new technologies needed for future human missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. While commending NASA for innovating developments like the Sojourner Mars rover, the NRC's Committee on Advanced Space Technology warned that the space agency was "directing too few resources toward development of additional critical systems needed for other types of future space activities, such as studying planets beyond the solar system," according to an NRC press release issued February 10. The committee cited six areas of research that NASA could pursue for as little as $3-5 million a year for five years and achieve substantial results. These areas included tools for extraterrestrial mining; high-frequency, wideband communications for interplanetary missions; "microelectromechanical" systems such as small gears and sensors; nuclear power systems; radiation-resistant electronics, and precisely-controlled antennae and mirrors. The committee recommended these areas be studies for 3-5 years then reevaluated, to see if research met expectations or if others areas of research held more promise. The committee recommended NASA study these areas since they deemed it unlikely private industry would be interested. The committee, led by MIT professor and Air Force Chief Scientist Daniel Hastings, included representatives from academia and from industry, including aerospace giants Lockheed Martin and Boeing. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [5/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ads, TV Help Support Russian Space Program Russia's cash-strapped space program is looking to unconventional funding sources, including advertisements on the Mir space station and appearances on American television shopping networks. Friday night, February 6, cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov appeared on the QVC shopping network show "First Friday Extreme Shopping" via a live linkup from Mir. The cosmonauts were on to help sell Fisher "space pens". After several minutes of communications problems, and coaxing from the QVC host, Solovyov wrote "QVC" on a pad and displayed it to viewers, to show the capability of the pen to write in extreme conditions. The cosmonauts did not seem terribly excited about their appearance on American television, though. At one point Vinogradov could be seen leaning back, twiddling his thumbs. Later, both cosmonauts were more eager to show off personalized candy bars brought to Mir from Russia than talk with the host. Later, in the QVC New York studio, cosmonaut Alexander Lazutkin appeared to describe an authentic "Sokol" space suit worn by cosmonauts as they travel from Earth to Mir and back. The suit was being sold by QVC for $25,000. Lazutkin spent six months on Mir last year, during a turbulent period in the station's history during which the station suffered from fires, life support ad cooling problems, and a collision between a Progress spacecraft and Mir's Spektr module. The QVC appearance, which gained Russian Space Agency an undisclosed portion of the sales proceeds, came just days after Russian Space Agency head Yuri Koptev announced plans to sell advertising space within Mir. The advertising banners would be seen during press conferences and other broadcasts from Mir. "We don't mind what will be advertised -- cars or food products," Koptev told the Itar-Tass news agency. "The main thing is the advertisement must not contradict legal and ethical norms." In 1996, Russian cosmonauts have filmed an ad for an Israeli milk product. Before that, cosmonauts have helped participate in advertising promotions for Pepsi. *** Science *** Scientists Get First Close-Up Look at Next Mars Landing Site Images from Mars Global Surveyor have given planetary scientists their first detailed look at the planned landing site for the next Mars lander, which, along with its orbiting counterpart, got new names earlier this month. Images from Global Surveyor of the planned landing site in Mars's south polar region show swirling bands of eroded, layered rock and mottled patterns of light and dark regions. "We can see much more surface detail than we've ever seen before [of the landing site]," said Michael Malin, who is the principal investigator for the Mars Global Surveyor cameras and the cameras on both of the 1999 missions. The new images suggest "that the 75-degree south latitude landing zone is quite a bit more rugged and geologically diverse than we had previously thought," he said. The site, some of whose features resemble the terrain along the edges of Alaskan ice sheets, is the planned landing site for the Mars Polar Lander, the new name for the Mars Global Surveyor 1998 Lander. The mission, scheduled for launch in January 1999, is scheduled to land on Mars that December. It will be joined by Mars Climate Orbiter, the new name for the Mars Global Surveyor 1998 Orbiter. The orbiter will focus on long-term observations of the climate and weather of the planet. The ruggedness of the landing site may pose a problem for the lander, as mission planners try to find an exact location that is both of scientific interest as well as safe for the lander. Project manager John McNamee said the lander team will use additional observations from Global Surveyor to plan its landing site. A final decision is not needed until June 1999. Hubble Provides New View of Supernova Aftermath The Hubble Space Telescope is giving astronomers an unprecedented view of the aftermath of a supernova explosion, as the shock wave from the explosion 11 years ago hits a ring of gas surrounding the former star, heating it up. New Hubble images show a glowing "knot" of gas in the ring around supernova 1987A, as the shock wave of debris from the explosion, traveling at 65 million kilometers an hour (40 million mph), hits the rings and heats it up to millions of degrees. "We are beginning to see the signature of the collision, the hammer hitting the bell," said Robert Kirshner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "This event will allow us to validate ideas we have built up over the past ten years of observation. By lighting up the ring, the supernova is exposing its own past." The gas rings around the supernova were first seen in Hubble images several years ago. Astronomers believe the rings were thrown off the star 20,000 years before it went supernova, but are unsure about how the rings were formed. "We have a unique opportunity to probe structure around the supernova and uncover new clues to the final years of the progenitor star before it exploded," said Richard McCray of the University of Colorado. "The light from the crash will give us a chance to see this invisible matter [in the rings] for the first time, and then perhaps we can unravel the mystery of the outer rings." Supernova 1987A was first observed on February 23, 1987. Visible in the Southern Hemisphere, the supernova was the brightest seen from Earth since 1604. The supernova is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way located 167,000 light-years from the Earth. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [6/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Cosmologist Predicts Universe Expansion to Stop A Carnegie Mellon University astrophysicists believes the universe will stop expanding, a finding that contradicts recently-announced results by other astrophysicists who have found that the universe will continue to expand forever. Robert Nichol, an assistant professor of astrophysics at Carnegie Mellon, used x-ray observations of distant galaxy clusters to determine how many clusters existed earlier in the history of the universe, and compared those values to models for different densities of the universe. Nichol and University of Chicago graduate student Daniel Reichart found that the density of the universe exactly matched the critical density of the universe, the amount of necessary to eventually bring expansion to a stop. The ratio of density to the critical density is usually referred to in cosmology as omega. "Our work does favor a high value for omega," said Nichol. "This has interesting consequences for cosmology, meaning the universe may eventually stop expanding and may even recollapse." Nichol and Reichart's work contradicts earlier findings, including those announced last month at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Several teams of cosmologists found the universe has far less mass than required to stop expansion. They found values of omega as low as 0.2 -- meaning the universe has only 20% of the density needed to bring expansion to a stop. The earlier findings were based on observations of distant supernovae, comparing their brightnesses to their redshift -- the Doppler shift of their light as they move away from us. Nichol said he expects the value of omega, with its consequences on the fate of the universe, to be pinned down by new observations planned over the next few years by ground- and spaced-based observatories. "Cosmologists are in pursuit of one of the remaining Holy Grails of physics; the exact value of omega," said Nichol. "Now, with many new measurements on the horizon, I believe we are at the beginning of the end of our pursuit of omega." *** CyberSpace *** Yohkoh Public Outreach Project Yohkoh is a Japanese spacecraft, with instruments from the U.S. and Britain, designed to study the Sun at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. The Yohkoh Public Outreach Project has succeeded in taking what otherwise might be a dry and technical subject and making it interesting for students and the general public. Through images and animations based on spacecraft data, displayed in a theater theme, this Web site explores our knowledge of the Sun and the goals of the Yohkoh mission. http://solar.physics.montana.edu/YPOP/ STS-90 Neurolab Crew It's two months until the next scheduled shuttle mission, Columbia's STS-90 Neurolab mission, but you can bide the time until then by visiting the shuttle site created by the mission's crew. At this beautifully-designed site you'll find information about the mission and its experiments, training, images, and more. You can even ask the Neurolab team questions (and get answers)! http://www.psu.edu/nasa/ Collecting Cosmonaut Autographs Many people collect autographs of astronauts, but far fewer collect autographs from Soviet and Russian cosmonauts, despite their equally-important stature. "Collecting Cosmonaut Autographs" has images of cosmonaut autographs from Yuri Gagarin to the early 1980s, as well as information on how to get autographs, dealers and known fake autographs, and other useful information. This site is a great resource for those interested in the Soviet space program and those interesting in adding to or starting autograph collections http://members.aol.com/kss71/autogs/cosmo.htm A Space Library A Space Library is a collection of multimedia tools to help visualize your place in the solar system. A solar system simulator shows the positions of the planets and their moons at specified times from a variety of different perspectives. There are maps of planets in the solar system and stars in the night sky (with up to one million stars in the most detailed images!). There are also 3-D models of spacecraft, artwork, and other great features that make this an enlightening, enjoyable Web site. http://samadhi.jpl.nasa.gov/ *** Space Capsules *** SpaceViews Event Horizon February 20 Launch of COMETS satellite on an H-II booster from Tanegashima, Japan February 20 Launch of Progress M-38 resupply mission to Mir from Baikonur, Kazakhstan February 20 Long March 3B launch of the Chinastar-1 comsat from Xichang, China February 20 Launch of the SNOE and BATSAT satellites from a Pegasus XL satellite off the coast from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California February 26 Total solar eclipse visible from portions of Central and South America and the Caribbean, with partial phases visible in other regions, including much of southern and eastern U.S. February 27 Launch of the Intelsat 806 on at Atlas booster from Cape Canaveral, Florida February 27 Launch of the Hot Bird-4 comsat on an Ariane 4 booster from Kourou, French Guiana March 1-6 March Storm 98 grassroots pro-space Congressional lobbying effort, Washington, DC April 17-19 Space Access 98 conference, Scottsdale, Arizona Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 17 февраля 1998 (1998-02-17) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: SpaceViews Update -- 1998 February 15 [7/7] Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Other News Eclipse Tow Test: Kelly Space & Technology (KST) completed earlier this month a set of test flights designed to demonstrate the feasibility of its proposed Eclipse tow-launched reusable spaceplanes. An Air Force QF-106 fighter was towed behind a C-141 cargo plane in a series of tests above Edwards Air Force Base, California. The test flights were called "100% successful" by KST president and CEO Michael Kelly. The delta-winged QF-106 represented a scaled version of KST's family of reusable space planes, while the C-141 represented a commercial jet like a 747, which KST plans to use to tow the Eclipse vehicles into the air. The Eclipse would then separate from the tow line and fire its engines to fly on a suborbital trajectory to deliver its payload. A small-scale version, the Eclipse Sprint, is planned for flight in 1999, while the full-scale Astroliner will enter service in 2001. Launch Study: The Teal Group, a Virginia-based aerospace and defense consulting firm, reported February 3 that it estimates over 2,000 payloads will be launched in the next ten years. The Teal Model identified 2,035 payloads for nearly 200 customers from 1998 through 2007. About three-quarters of the satellites are destined for low Earth orbits, mainly to serve in communications constellations, while most of the rest are geosynchronous communications satellites. While Teal Group analyst Marco Caceres noted that not all the proposed payloads will launched, the 2,035 figure may be conservative, since many newly-proposed payloads were not included in their estimates. New Archeological Findings for NASA Radar: A NASA-developed airborne radar has given archeologists new insights about a region of ancient temples in Angkor, Cambodia. The AIRSAT airborne radar, developed at JPL, uncovered new circular mounds and temples not documented by previous surveys. The new findings are leading archeologists to question the previously-accepted history of the region, which was inhabited by up to one million people during its peak between the 8th and 13th centuries. "The radar maps not only bring into question traditional concepts of the urban evolution of Angkor, but reveal evidence of temples and earlier civilization either absent or incorrect on modern topographic maps and in early twentieth century archaeological reports," said Dr. Elizabeth Moore of the University of London, one of a team of archeologists who used the radar images provided by NASA. Voyager 1 Distance: The Voyager 1 spacecraft as poised to overtake Pioneer 10 as the most distant man-made object. At about 5:10pm EST (2210 UT) February 17, Voyager 1 will surpass Pioneer 10 at a distance of 10.4 billion kilometers (6.5 billion miles) from Earth. The spacecraft, launched in September 1977, is traveling 17.4 km/second (39,000 mph) out of the place of the ecliptic. "For 25 years, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft led the way, pressing the frontiers of exploration, and now the baton is being passed from Pioneer 10 to Voyager 1 to continue exploring where no one has gone before," said Voyager project scientist and JPL director Ed Stone. This has been the February 15, 1998, issue of SpaceViews Update. SpaceViews Update is also availble on the World Wide web from the SpaceViews home page: http://www.spaceviews.com/ or via anonymous FTP from ftp.seds.org: /pub/info/newsletters/spaceviews/update/980215.txt For editorial questions and article submissions for SpaceViews or Spaceviews Update, contact the editor, Jeff Foust, at jeff@spaceviews.com. For questions about the SpaceViews mailing list, please contact spaceviews-approval@ari.net. ____ | "SpaceViews" (tm) -by Boston Chapter // \ // | of the National Space Society (NSS) // (O) // | Dedicated to the establishment // \___// | of a spacefaring civilization. Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года