Электронная библиотека астронома-любителя. Книги по астрономии, телескопостроению, оптике.


Ru.Space.News:
Сентябрь 1998
ПнВтСрЧтПтСбВс
 
123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
282930
 

год:


  • Обзоры оружия и снаряжения
  • m31.spb.ru



  • AstroTop-100

    Яндекс цитирования


    0.023


    Архив RU.SPACE.NEWS за 25 сентября 1998


    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: ВСША осуществлен запуск восьми спутников связи "Orbcomm" Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... ВСША осуществлен запуск восьми спутников связи "Orbcomm" Вчера в 5 часов 6 минут по Гринвичу осуществлен запуск восьми американских спутников связи типа "Orbcomm". Пуск ракеты-носителя "Pegasus-XL" был произведен с борта самолета L-1011 "Stargazer", за 54 минуты до этого взлетевшего с аэродрома космодрома Уоллапс (штат Вирджиния). Когда самолет находился над акваторией Атлантического океана приблизительно в 150 километрах от побережья, носитель был отделен от самолета, после чего произошло включение ракетных двигателей и ракета устремилась в космос. Отделение спутников от носителя произошло через 20 минут, когда трасса полета проходила над Западной Австралией. Этим запуском число спутников системы связи ORBCOMM, находящихся на околоземной орбите, доведено до 28. В четвертом квартале 1998 года начнется ограниченная эксплуатация системы, которая будет предоставлять телекоммуникационные услуги клиентам в 120 странах и территориях мира. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ураган Georges повредил оборудование станции слежения на острове Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ураган Georges повредил оборудование станции слежения на острове Антигуа Тропический ураган Georges, обрушившийся в минувшие двое суток на карибский остров Антигуа, нанес ущерб станции слежения, на которой осуществляется прием телеметрической информации во время стартов кораблей многоразового использования с космодрома на мысе Канаверал. Оборудование станции обслуживается 45-м космическим крылом военно-воздушных сил США. Порывы ветра, достигавшие скорости 160 километров в час, нанесли ущерб строениям станции, а также повредели радар и антенны. Когда ураган стал стихать, персонал станции приступил к немедленной ликвидации его последствий, чтобы не нарушить график пусков "шаттлов". Общая сумма ущерба пока не определена. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Система связи Globalstar начнет функционирование в третьем квартале 19 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Система связи Globalstar начнет функционирование в третьем квартале 1999 года Международный консорциум Globalstar объявил, что функционирование его системы космической мобильной связи начнется в третьем квартале 1999 года. Задержка начала функционирования связана с происшедшей 9 сентября нынешнего года аварией ракеты-носителя "Зенит-2", которой предстояло вывести на околоземную орбиту 12 спутников связи типа "Globalstar". Также сообщено об изменениях в построении космического сегмента системы и об изменении графика пусков. Теперь намечено вывести на околоземную орбиту 80 спутников, а не 56, как планировалось ранее. Тем самым будет создана избыточность системы, чтобы не допустить ее сбоев по тем или иным причинам. Минимальное количество спутников на орбите, необходимое для инициирования системы - 32. Это количество будет достигнуто к маю 1999 года после трех пусков российских ракет-носителей "Союз" и трех пусков американских ракет-носителей "Delta-2", когда в каждом на орбиту будет доставляться по 4 спутника (восемь спутников уже находятся на орбите). Hовый график пусков предусматривает шесть стартов ракет-носителей "Союз" (ноябрь и декабрь 1998 года, январь, март, апрель и май 1999 года), шесть стартов ракет-носителей "Delta-2" (весной и осенью 1999 года) и два старта ракет-носителей "Зенит-2" (конец 1999 года). Первоначальный график предусматривал основную нагрузку на "Зениты-2", которые должны были до конца нынешнего года вывести на орбиту 36 спутников. Происшедшая 9 сентября катастрофа спутала все планы консорциума Globalstar и заставила пересмотреть принятые раньше решения. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Ураган Georges приближается к космодрому на мысе Канаверал Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Ураган Georges приближается к космодрому на мысе Канаверал Тропический ураган Georges движется в сторону штата Флорида и реально угрожает космодрому на мысе Канаверал. Метеорологическая служба космодрома внимательно наблюдает за перемещениями эпицентра урагана. Если в течение ближайших 24 часов направление движения не измениться, то придется срочно перемещать установленный на стартовой площадке космический корабль "Discovery" обратно в здание вертикальной сборки. В NASA все еще надеются, что ураган изменит свое направление и не потребуется убирать со старта корабль "Discovery". Если это все-таки произойдет, то возможно придется отложить дату старта корабля, намеченную на 29 октября. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Председатель Комитета по науке Конгресса США James Sensenbrenner Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Председатель Комитета по науке Конгресса США James Sensenbrenner возражает против выделения средств российскому космическому ведомству Председатель Комитета по науке Конгресса США James Sensenbrenner выступил вчера с заявлением по поводу запроса NASA о выделении дополнительных $660 млн. для финансирования работ российского космического ведомства по созданию Международной космической станции. В заявлении говорится: "Запрос NASA - лишнее подтверждение того факта, что Россия неспособна выполнить свои обязательства как партнер по строительству и эксплуатации МКС. Включение России в состав команды было большой ошибкой. Удовлетворение запроса NASA, в результате чего за совершенную ошибку будут расплачиваться американские налогоплательщики, недопустимо. Если это произойдет, то возникнет опасный прецедент, когда США будут платить за другую страну, чтобы она могла стать партнером. Если США примут дополнительные обязательства, то соглашение с Россией должно быть пересмотрено, чтобы отразить уменьшение вклада России в МКС. Американским компаниям и американским рабочим необходимо дать возможность выполнить работу вместо простого перевода денег за границу. Я категорически против увеличения помощи России". 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Восстановлена работа бортовой аппаратуры станции "Mars Global Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Восстановлена работа бортовой аппаратуры станции "Mars Global Surveyor" Восстановлена нормальная ориентация солнечных батарей межпланетной станции "Mars Global Surveyor", вращающейся по орбите вокруг Марса. Ориентация была нарушена 17 сентября в результате посланной на борт станции ошибочной команды с Земли. В результате этого не удалось совершить маневр по переходу на орбиту аэродинамического торможения. К 21 сентября удалось нормализовать работу программного обеспечения, восстановить работу инерциальной системы управления и правильно соориентировать солнечные батареи. Тестовый контроль показал, что все системы станции функционируют нормально. В ближайшие дни будет совершен маневр по переходу на орбиту аэродинамического торможения с низким периарием, на которой станция будет находится до февраля 1999 года. В настоящее время станция находится на расстоянии 350 миллионов километров от Земли и движется по орбите с параметрами 172 х 17854 километра. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: В NASA начат обратный отсчет времени до сближения межпланетного зонда Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... В NASA начат обратный отсчет времени до сближения межпланетного зонда "Galileo" с Европой В NASA начат обратный отсчет времени до сближения межпланетного зонда "Galileo" с юпитерианским спутником Европа. Hаибольшее сближение произойдет в 3 часа 54 минуты, когда станцию и небесное тело будут разделять 3582 километра. Это рандеву будет шестым за все время миссии "Galileo" в системе Юпитера. Кроме Европы, объектами наблюдений станут кольца Юпитера и другой спутник - Ио. Специалисты Лаборатории реактивного движения ведут тщательную подготовку предстоящей встречи, так предыдущее сближение в конце июля 1998 года прошло не совсем удачно - из-за сбоя в работе бортовой аппаратуры оказалась потеряна большая часть научных данных. 24.9.98 Источник: InfoArt News Agency Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Penn State Researchers To Explore Origins of Life (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Pennsylvania State University Penn State Researchers To Explore Origins of Life Contacts: A'ndrea Elyse Messer, (814) 865-9481 (o), aem1@psu.edu Vicki Fong, (814) 865-9481 (o), vyf1@psu.edu 9-21-98 University Park, Pa. -- This summer, a Penn State researcher, three of his graduate students, a colleague from Scotland and five from Japan met in Africa to collect 2.7 billion-year-old rocks as part of their research into the origins of life on Earth and in the Universe. The researchers are investigating the evolution of atmospheric oxygen and of organisms in oceans and on land. Recently, they brought back 2.7 billion-year-old rocks from South Africa and 800 to 500 million-year-old rocks from Namibia to the United States for chemical analyses. The scientists are part of the Penn State Astrobiology Research Center, a member institution of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Penn State was one of 11 academic and research institutes selected by NASA as initial members of the Institute. "We went to Africa because that is where very old rocks can be collected from the surface," says Dr. Hiroshi Ohmoto, professor of geochemistry in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and director of the PSARC. The origins of oxygen and evolution of marine and terrestrial organisms are only some of the areas covered by a five-year, $4.5 million grant from NASA. One project at PSARC will try to characterize the environment before there was life on Earth and use a theoretical and experimental approach to understanding the origins of life. Another will work on deciphering the time scale for the early evolution of life using a molecular evolutionary approach. Still another project will try to determine the role of metals in the origin and evolution of life. Researchers at the PSARC are not just interested in the origins of life, but they also want to know what made some life forms disappear. One group will look at the diversification and extinction of early life forms including six Cambrian and Ordovician extinction events and the organisms existing 850 to 520 million years ago. The question of the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere takes on added interest because advocates of two mutually exclusive theories are both on the project. Ohmoto of Penn State believes that oxygen in the atmosphere has been at steady levels through time, while James F. Kasting, Penn State professor of geosciences and meteorology, believes that oxygen levels in the early atmosphere were very low, less than 1 millionth of the present atmospheric level, and increased rapidly to nearly present levels 2.2 billion years ago. "It will take many different lines of evidence to prove this one way or the other," says Ohmoto. This is where the African rocks come in. Chemical studies of these rocks are one part of determining if oxygen levels were continuously high or suddenly increased around 2.2 billion years ago. The PSARC is an interdisciplinary center with Penn State representatives from the Departments Of Geosciences, Meteorology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biology And Chemistry. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and the State University of New York, Stony Brook are also members of the center. Associate members come from across the U.S. and around the world. The Penn State Astrobiology Research Center will celebrate its formation on Sept. 24 from 2 to 4 p.m. in the Earth and Mineral Sciences Museum on the ground floor of the Steidle Building. **aem** EDITORS: Dr. Ohmoto may be reached at (814) 863-4074 or hqo@psu.edu by email. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: ASTEROID HUNTERS TO MEET IN LOS ANGELES, CA Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Note: Registration for the Space Frontier Foundation's Space Frontier Conference 7 in Los Angeles (Oct 9-11, 1998) is available on-line at http://www.space-frontier.org. ASTEROID HUNTERS TO MEET IN LOS ANGELES, CA Los Angeles, CA, September 21, 1998 -- Somewhere out in space, a very large rock is hurtling towards the Earth. How long till "Armageddon", and how deep will the impact be on our planet's survival? Several top experts on asteroids and comets will meet at the Space Frontier Foundation's 7th annual conference to discuss the state of our search for these potential planet killers, how they might be dealt with if one is found to be heading our way, and how we might turn their threat into a promise by mining them for precious resources. The conference will be held over Columbus Day weekend, October 9-11, 1998, at the Sheraton Gateway Hotel, Los Angeles International Airport, CA. "The effects of comet and asteroid impacts are potentially damaging to life in general, and to human civilization in particular," said Dr. John Lewis, Codirector of the NASA/University of Arizona Space Engineering Research Center, author of the books Rain of Iron and Ice and Mining the Sky, and a scheduled speaker at the conference. "But the stick that threatens Earth is also a carrot. These same objects might prove to be sources of vast mineral and energy wealth to raise the living standard of people worldwide. We only need to lift up our eyes and look at what surround us in space." Dr. Lewis will be joined by Spacewatch Project director Dr. Tom Gehrels, Dr. Eleanor Helin of NASA/JPL, Dr. David Morrison of NASA/Ames Research Center and other experts at a Friday evening reception sponsored by FINDS, the Foundation for the International Non-government Development of Space. The event will celebrate the creation of "The Watch", a non-government effort to search for asteroids and comets that began with a $50,000 challenge grant from FINDS. "The Watch" intends to raise $1 million per year using a novel approach to be revealed at the event, and will presented awards to SKG Dreamworks and Disney Studios for their awakening of the public's awareness of the dangers of asteroid impacts. The evening will start with a commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 7 mission. Attending the event will be astronauts such as Walter Cunningham, who flew on that mission, Dr. Buzz Aldrin (Apollo 11), Charles "Pete" Conrad (Apollo 12) and Dr. Harrison Schmitt (Apollo 17). The reception for conference attendees will be open to members of the press. The Space Frontier Foundation is an organization of people dedicated to opening the space frontier to human settlement as rapidly as possible. Our goals include protecting the Earth's fragile biosphere and creating a freer and more prosperous life for each generation by using the unlimited energy and material resources of space. Our purpose is to unleash the power of free enterprise and lead a united humanity permanently into the Solar System. For information on the Space Frontier Foundation or The Watch, call 1-800-78SPACE, see <http://www.space-frontier.org>, or send email to info@space-frontier.org. The Space Frontier Foundation, 16 First Avenue, Nyack NY 10960 -30- Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Health research in space for the benefit of Canadians (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Canadian Space Agency St. Hubert, Quebec HEALTH RESEARCH IN SPACE FOR THE BENEFIT OF CANADIANS Toronto, Ontario - September 23, 1998: The Canadian Space Agency announced today the launch of the Canadian experiments on board the NASA space shuttle Discovery mission STS-95 scheduled for October 29, 1998. In a mission that has been dedicated to the study of ageing, the Canadian experiments will impact health care and medical science issues such as osteoporosis, protein crystallisation and bone marrow transplant procedures. Support of these experiments illustrates the Canadian Space Agency's commitment to the development and application of space knowledge for the benefit of Canadians and humanity. The three experiments are important studies involving Canadian research and development. The first is OSTEO (Osteoporosis Experiments in Orbit). It will study the underlying processes of bone loss from osteoporosis and evaluate a treatment for the condition. Osteoporosis affects 1.4 million painful fractures, drastically impacting a person's life. The other experiments will study how microgravity can enhance biological separation techniques and protein crystallisation. The research will contribute to bone marrow transplant procedures and possibly to treatments for breast cancer, diabetes and meningitis. "We are going to be seeing more and more outcomes from research done in space," said CSA Astronaut Dr. Dave Williams. "Canadian experiments on this mission are expected to influence health care and medical science issues that affect Canadians and people around the world." The potential of the OSTEO experiment has attracted much attention from Canada's scientific, health, economic and government audiences. The Canadian Space Agency is working in a joint venture with Allelix Biopharmaceuticals, and supporting the participation of Millenium Biologix Inc., Mount Sinai Hospital, University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto to ensure the success of the scientific research. Also involved are the Ontario Science Centre and the Osteoporosis Society of Canada. These partnerships enhance the Canadian Space Agency's commitment to the development of a knowledge-based economy. This year will be Canada's most ambitious year in space in the past 15 years. Space Science '98 saw ten major missions on shuttles, Mir space station, satellites, rockets and high-altitude balloons. Canadian scientists and engineers are working on experiments that could find solutions to ozone depletion, global warming, atmospheric pollution and osteoporosis -- while also developing technical and medical innovations. The Canadian experiments, including OSTEO, will confirm Canada's leading position in international space science research and support the private sector in their pursuit of a premium competitive position in the health care markets. - 30 - For more information: Isabelle Hudon Canadian Space Agency Manager Media Relations Telephone: (450) 926-4350 Cellular: (514) 943-6808 / (514) 235-6827 We also invite the media to visit the CSA's Newsroom from our web site at: www.space.gc.ca to obtain additional information. STS-95 Time-line September 23 Media Briefing, Ontario Science Centre at 9:00 to 11:30 a.m. October 15 L-14 Press Conference, Johnson Space Center, Houston at Noon ET Link to Kennedy Space Center in Florida October 16 National Space Day Media event in Toronto with the Honourable John Manley, Minister of Industry Canada and Minister responsible for the CSA and various activities throughout Canada October 28 L-1 Press Conference, Kennedy Space Center, Florida October 29 LAUNCH, Kennedy Space Center, Florida at 2:00 p.m. ET Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: WDC-A R&S Launch Announcement 12963: ORBCOMM-FM 21-28 Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... COSPAR/ISES WORLD WARNING AGENCY FOR SATELLITES WORLD DATA CENTER-A FOR R & S, NASA/GSFC CODE 633, GREENBELT, MARYLAND, 20771. USA SPACEWARN 12963 COSPAR/WWAS USSPACECOM NUMBER SPACECRAFT INTERNATIONAL ID (CATALOG NUMBER) LAUNCH DATE,UT ORBCOMM-FM 21 1998-053A 25475 23 SEPTEMBER 1998 " 22 " 053B 25476 " " 23 " 053C 25477 " " 24 " 053D 25478 " " 25 " 053E 25479 " " 26 " 053F 25480 " " 27 " 053G 25481 " " 28 " 053H 25482 " DR. JOSEPH H. KING, DIRECTOR, WDC-A-R&S. [PH: (301) 286 7355. E-MAIL: KING@NSSDCA.GSFC.NASA.GOV 23 SEPTEMBER 1998, 18:00 UT] Further details will be in the next SPACEWARN Bulletin Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ Mail Code 633 _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ NASA Goddard Space _/ _/ _/ _/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ Flight Center _/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Greenbelt, MD 20771 _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ +1-301-286-1187 ed.bell@gsfc.nasa.gov SPACEWARN home page: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacewarn/ Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: VLA Reveals a Close Pair of Potential Planetary Systems (Forwarded) Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O Socorro, New Mexico 87801 http://www.nrao.edu Contacts: Dave Finley, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu Megan Watzke, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (617) 495-7463 mwatzke@cfa.harvard.edu EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: 2 p.m., EDT, Wednesday, Sept. 23, 1998 VLA Reveals a Close Pair of Potential Planetary Systems Planets apparently can form in many more binary-star systems than previously thought, according to astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image protoplanetary disks around a close pair of stars. "Most stars in the universe are not alone, like our Sun, but are part of double or triple systems, so this means that the number of potential planets is greater than we realized," said Luis Rodriguez, of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, who led an international observing team that made the discovery. The astronomers announced their results in the Sept. 24 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The researchers used the VLA to study a stellar nursery -- a giant cloud of gas and dust -- some 450 light-years distant in the constellation Taurus, where stars the size of the Sun or smaller are being formed. They aimed at one particular object, that, based on previous infrared and radio observations, was believed to be a very young star. The VLA observations showed that the object was not a single young star but a pair of young stars, separated only slightly more than the Sun and Pluto. The VLA images show that each star in the pair is surrounded by an orbiting disk of dust, extending out about as far as the orbit of Saturn. Such dusty disks are believed to be the material from which planets form. Similar disks are seen around single stars, but the newly-discovered disks around the stars in the binary system are about ten times smaller, their size limited by the gravitational effect of the other, nearby star. Their existence indicates, however, that such protoplanetary disks, though truncated in size, still can survive in such a close double-star system. "It was surprising to see these disks in a binary system with the stars so close together," said Rodriguez. "Each of these disks contains enough mass to form a solar system like our own," said David Wilner, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. "However, we don't think these solar systems would be able to form outer, icy planets like Uranus and Neptune, because of the small size of the dust disks." The new observations "imply that young protoplanetary disks can contain considerably more mass within (a distance equal to Saturn's orbital radius) than astronomers have been willing to contemplate," wrote Alan P. Boss of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in an accompanying Nature article analyzing the results. If the stars were a few times closer together, the researchers point out, the gravitational effects of both would disrupt the disks and prevent any planets from forming. "If these disks form planetary systems, they would be among the closest possible adjacent sets of planets in the universe," said Rodriguez. Boss suggested that a giant planet formed near the edge of one of the disks might be ejected from the system by the gravitational effect of the companion star. This, he says, might explain the possible "runaway planet" shown in a Hubble Space Telescope image released in May. In that result, a planet appears to have been ejected by a binary-star system similar in size to that seen by the VLA. Further observations are required to confirm that result. In addition to Rodriguez and Wilner, the researchers are Paola D'Alessio, Salvador Curiel, Yolanda Gomez, Susana Lizano, Jorge Canto, and Alejandro C. Raga of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City; Paul Ho of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Jose M. Torrelles of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Spain; and Alan Pedlar of the Jodrell Bank observatory in Britain. The observations of the double-star system were made at a radio wavelength of 7 millimeters, a wavelength at which emission from cosmic dust is readily detected. Astronomers long realized that the VLA had sufficient resolving power -- the ability to see fine detail -- to make images of the dust disks around young stars that form the building blocks of planets. Until 1993, however, the VLA could not do so because it had no receivers that worked at the required wavelength, 7 mm. Rodriguez, an experienced VLA observer interested in how planetary systems form, obtained a $1 million grant in 1992 from Mexico's National Science and Technology Foundation (Spanish acronym CONACyT) to allow the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to build such receivers for 13 of the VLA's 27 230-ton dish antennas. Those receivers were built and installed in 1993 and 1994, and now are used by numerous observers, including Rodriguez. With these receivers, the VLA images show 10 times more detail than any previous observations at these wavelengths. "This research proves how valuable these receivers are in increasing the scientific capability of the VLA," said Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA operations. "In fact, this type of work is one reason the U.S. National Science Foundation is providing the money to equip the rest of the VLA's antennas with the same kind of receivers." The additional receivers will greatly improve the quality of images for complex objects, including planetary systems in formation, said NRAO astronomer Rick Perley. "We plan a major upgrade to all aspects of the VLA in the next few years," Perley said. "The VLA upgrade will mean that astronomers using this wavelength can find about 60 times more objects of any particular type and make better images of them. That improves the chances of finding rare objects, which often are the signposts pointing to new insights into physics." The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. ### IMAGE CAPTION: [http://www.nrao.edu/pr/protodisks.html] This is a VLA image of two protoplanetary disks in a molecular cloud designated L1551 in the constellation Taurus. The colors represent relative intensity, or brightness, of the radio emission coming from these disks; red is strong emission and blue is weak emission. The scale bar shows a distance of 20 Astronomical Units (AU). An Astronomical Unit is the distance between Earth and the Sun. In our own Solar System, the planet Uranus is about 19 AU from the Sun. CREDIT: L.F. Rodriguez, et al., National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Associated Universities, Inc. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Arecibo Observatory survives Hurricane Georges' sweep across Puerto Ri Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... News Service Cornell University Contact: Blaine P. Friedlander, Jr. Office: (607) 255-3290 E-Mail: bpf2@cornell.edu FOR RELEASE: Sept. 23, 1998 Arecibo Observatory survives Hurricane Georges' sweep across Puerto Rico ARECIBO, Puerto Rico -- Initial information indicates that the massive reflector dish of Arecibo Observatory apparently sustained minimal damage from Hurricane Georges, which swept across Puerto Rico late Monday night, observatory officials report. In a telephone conversation early Tuesday observatory personnel also indicated that the telescope's newly completed dome apparently escaped without damage. The 15 employees and visitors using the observatory, at the time of the hurricane, are reported safe. A small number of panels on the telescope's 1,000-foot diameter reflector suffered damage from flying debris. Telephone contact with the observatory was lost late Tuesday morning, and full assessment of any damage is not yet available. As the eye of the hurricane passed just to the south of the telescope, 15 people remained at the observatory, according to Donald Campbell, associate director of the National Astronomy Ionospheric Center at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., which manages the observatory for the National Science Foundation (NSF). All were "bunkered down" and protected from the hurricane, he said. The observatory has 140 employees and visitors. There were reports of fallen trees and mud slides around the observatory. Interestingly, at the time of the hurricane, a group of researchers from Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., and from France were making radar observations of thunderstorms. Instead, they used Arecibo's dish to record observations of high-altitude wind speeds in the hurricane throughout Monday night, using electrical power from an emergency generator. Although government and communications officials say telephone lines are open to the island, the NAIC and Cornell News Service were not in contact with the observatory, as of Wednesday morning. The surface of the Arecibo reflector dish is made of 38,800 reflective aluminum panels, covering an area about the size of 26 football fields. Campbell said that only a few panels on the 16,000 square feet of the dish's surface were lost as the hurricane moved through. The dome above the telescope, which was completed last year, survived the hurricane without damage, Campbell said. The 90-ton, 86-foot diameter dome attached to the end of the 304-foot moveable azimuth arm increases the telescope's ability to observe the farthest reaches of the universe. Snuggled into a bowl-shaped area in the hills of central Puerto Rico, the radio-radar telescope received a $25 million upgrade in June 1997. It was built in 1963 by the U.S. Air Force under the initiative of Cornell Professor William Gordon and colleagues. Originally, it was intended to study Earth's ionosphere. Today it is used for radio and radar astronomy, as well as atmospheric and ionospheric studies. The Arecibo Observatory was used to discover the first planets observed outside the solar system, to establish the rotation rate of Mercury and to discover first pulsar in a binary system. The telescope also has played a starring role in two popular films: GoldenEye (1995) and Contact (1997). Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: Atlantis modifications images Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... Four images supporting the Boeing news release "New-Look ATLANTIS Ready for Date with Station", which was posted in this newsgroup yesterday, are now available at http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/1998/news_release_980920a.html Below are the image captions: MEDS Unit Installed in Space Shuttle Atlantis (#R5z A980825J-25C) Boeing employee Brian Crawford performs final analysis work on MEDS in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Boeing Palmdale, Calif., facility. MEDS Unit Installed (#R5w A980204J-14C) Boeing employees Robert Moore (left) and Lorelee Anderson (right) help install the framework to house the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Boeing facility in Palmdale, Calif. NASA Logo for Atlantis (#R5x A980813A-6c) Boeing employees make final preparations to the NASA "meatball" logo on the wing of the Shuttle Atlantis during its major modifications at the company's Palmdale, Calif., facility. MEDS Unit Installed in Atlantis (#R5y A980616J-3C) Boeing employees Robert Moore helps install the framework to house the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Boeing facility in Palmdale, Calif. Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=
    Дата: 25 сентября 1998 (1998-09-25) От: Alexander Bondugin Тема: As Space Missions Become Longer, Effects on Body and Mind Need Study , Привет всем! Вот, свалилось из Internet... National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C. Contacts: Cheryl Greenhouse, Media Relations Officer Dumi Ndlovu, Media Relations Assistant (202) 334-2138; e-mail: news@nas.edu Publication Announcement EMBARGOED: NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE 5 P.M. EDT TUESDAY, SEPT. 22 As Space Missions Become Longer, Effects on Body and Mind Need Study Construction of the International Space Station scheduled to start later this year marks another milestone in space exploration. Research missions that once lasted only a few weeks, could routinely last many months, even years. But health effects of the space environment observed during short flights raise concerns about the safety and performance of astronauts during longer missions. Because these detrimental effects could be intensified by extended missions, NASA should support additional research into the consequences of space flight on the biology and behavior of humans and other organisms, says a new report from a committee of the National Research Council. The report provides a comprehensive review of the findings to date from a wide range of life sciences research for space. It also outlines the areas of research on humans and other organisms that NASA should pursue if it is to successfully achieve such long-term goals as operating the International Space Station, colonizing the moon, and sending humans to Mars. NASA should mount at least one more Spacelab-type mission to continue the momentum of life sciences research in space and generate additional data on the biological and psychological effects of space travel, the committee said. It recommended specific research priorities to ensure the safety and optimal performance of crews on future extended missions. NASA should concentrate on fully understanding how weightlessness affects bone and muscle mass, blood pressure, sensory orientation, and movement, in order to devise effective countermeasures, the committee said. Losses in bone and muscle mass pose two of the greatest obstacles to health and safety on long missions. Crew members on the Russian space station Mir showed an average loss in bone mass density of up to 1 percent a month in weight-bearing bones, the report notes. Significant muscle atrophy has been recorded after only five days in space. In-flight exercise programs proved helpful, but did not fully prevent deterioration. Changes in cardiovascular and pulmonary function have not yet been a hindrance during space flight. However, two-thirds of the astronauts tested after flights showed an impaired ability to maintain adequate blood pressure. This condition could have more serious consequences during docking and landing maneuvers involving rapid transitions between gravitational force levels. The agency should use the latest advances in molecular and cellular biology to explore the underlying processes by which humans respond to changes in gravity, the report says. Low gravity alters the body's ability to sense direction and control motion, sometimes impairing astronauts' ability to walk when they first return to Earth. This condition could be exacerbated, the committee observed, and could undermine the crew's abilities to operate the craft or disembark rapidly in an emergency. While space-based research will be crucial for advancing knowledge in these areas, most research funding should be directed to ground-based experiments -- which are less costly to conduct -- to answer fundamental questions and frame hypotheses for testing in outer space. For example, self-supporting colonies in outer space will require the cultivation of plants in completely contained environments for food and an oxygen source. So far this has not been successfully achieved either on Earth or in space, the report notes. The report emphasizes the need for more research on the impact of the space environment's isolating and confining nature on astronauts' behavior and performance. This is one of the least-studied effects of space flight, yet the compatibility of crew members and their mental well-being can greatly influence the ultimate success of a mission. NASA also should improve its collection of data from astronauts to answer fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on the human body and mind. This process thus far has been arbitrary and often hindered by astronauts' concerns about confidentiality. The agency should revise its policies and practices to create a more systematic approach to collecting and disseminating such information, and encourage full cooperation and compliance from the astronauts. In addition, NASA should encourage more timely publication of results of experiments in peer-reviewed journals, and the agency should provide the funding necessary to analyze and archive data so that it is readily accessible to the scientific community. The study was funded by NASA. The National Research Council is the principal operating agency of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. It is a private, non-profit institution that provides science advice under a congressional charter. A committee roster follows. Copies of A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine In the New Century are available from the National Academy Press for $49.00 (prepaid) plus shipping charges of $4.00 for the first copy and $.50 for each additional copy; tel. (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Space Studies Board Committee on Space Biology and Medicine Mary J. Osborn, Ph.D.* (chair) Professor and Head Department of Microbiology University of Connecticut Health Center Farmington Norma M. Allewell, Ph.D. Professor of Biochemistry Department of Biochemistry University of Minnesota St. Paul Robert E. Cleland, Ph.D. Professor of Botany, and Director, Biology Program Department of Botany University of Washington Seattle Mary F. Dallman, Ph.D.+ Professor of Physiology Department of Physiology School of Medicine University of California San Francisco F. Andrew Gaffney, M.D. Professor of Medicine, and Director, Clinical Cardiology Division of Cardiology School of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, Tenn. James R. Lackner, Ph.D. Riklis Professor of Physiology, and Director, Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory Brandeis University Waltham, Mass. Anthony P. Mahowald, Ph.D.* Lewis Block Professor, and Chair, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, and Committee on Developmental Biology University of Chicago Elliot M. Meyerowitz, Ph.D.* Professor of Biology Division of Biology California Institute of Technology Pasadena Lawrence A. Palinkas, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, and Director of Research, Division of Family Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla Kenna D. Peusner, Ph.D. Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology Department of Anatomy George Washington University School of Medicine Washington, D.C. Steven E. Pfeiffer, Ph.D. Professor of Microbiology Department of Microbiology University of Connecticut Health Center Farmington Danny A. Riley, Ph.D. Professor of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee Gideon A. Rodan, M.D., Ph.D. Vice President Bone Biology and Osteoporosis Research Merck, Sharp, and Dohme Research Laboratories West Point, Pa. Richard B. Setlow, Ph.D.* Associate Director for Life Sciences Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N.Y. Gerald Sonnenfeld, Ph.D. Director, Research Immunology, and Senior Scientist, Department of General Surgery Research Carolinas Medical Center Charlotte, N.C. T. Peter Stein, Ph.D. Professor of Surgery and Nutrition Department of Surgery University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Stratford RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Sandra J. Graham, Ph.D. Study Director (*)Member, National Academy of Sciences (+)Former committee member [NOTE: Full report is available for online viewing at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/enter2.cgi?0309060478.html] Andrew Yee ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca Hа сегодня все, пока! =SANA=

    сайт служит астрономическому сообществу с 2005 года